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Movement of the Ten Tribes of Israel.

The Book of 1-Chronicles
Brit-Am Commentary (BAC)
Chapter One.

1-Chronicles 1:7-15 Biblical Words and English Sound- A-likes. Sons of Japhet.
1-Chronicles 1:8-16 Descendants of Ham.
1 -Chronicles 1:17-54 Descendants of Shem.
1-Chronicles 1:24-33 The Distaff Offspring of Abraham.
1-Chronicles 1:35-52 Esau and His Kin.
Essay: The Chiefs of Edom and Germany.


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1-Chronicles 1.

1-Chronicles 1

We are now beginning our BAC (Brit-Am Commentary) to the Book of Chronicles.
A general Introduction and Overview may be given later.

We use the New King James Version (NKJV)
because of its Web-Site availability most other translations having Copyright issues.
The NKJV is also probably the most popular.
It is based on the KJV which has a long history behind it.
It is also (from the little we have seen) at least as accurate as other translation may be.

1 Chronicles 1:1-7  Biblical Words and English Sound- A likes. Sons of Japhet.

 [1-Chronicles 1:1] Adam, Seth, Enosh,

Adam was the first man.
We do not believe in Evolution while acknowledging the fact that it is not necessarily contradictory to the Bible.
There are a lot of things we do not know and myriads of fascinating possibilities.

The Bible emphasizes that Seth was born in the image of Adam.
Genesis 5:3 And Adam lived one hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image, and named him Seth.

This suggests that other descendants of Adam may have been drastically different???

The name Seth is from the root SeT. It means set, put.
Genesis 4:
25 And Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son and named him Seth, 'For God has appointed another seed for me instead of Abel, whom Cain killed.'

appointed. The word translated as appointed in Hebrew is ShaT meaning set, place, put.
From this we get our English words set, settle, sit, sat.
Note also the English vowel forms:
sit Present Tense uses the sounding "i".
sat Past Tense  uses the sounding "a".
This is the same conjugation as it would be possible to formulate in Hebrew!!!

 [1-Chronicles 1:2] Cainan, Mahalalel, Jared,

Cainan is spelt Quenan (with a Kooth) i.e. differently from Canaan.
So too, the name Cain (as in Cain and Abel) is spelt with a Kooth and could be translated as Qain to distinguish it from Canaan.
The names Cain and Cainan are derived from the root KNH connoting acquire, buy, as distinct from Canaan which is based on the root CNE
implying submission.

The English word coin (piece of money) is said to be derived from the
# Old French coigne ('wedge, cornerstone, die for stamping'), from Latin cuneus ('wedge'). #
That may be.
Nevertheless, a coin is what one uses to acquire and buy things with.
This reminds us of the Hebrew KNH which could in vowel form be recast as KOIN and sound like COIN.
There are numerous possibilities in the English Language like this:
Too many to attribute them all to chance!!

 [1-Chronicles 1:3] Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech,

Enoch in Hebrew is Chanoch or Hanock.

 [1-Chronicles 1:4] Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

Shem, Ham, and Japheth were the sons of Noah.
From these three descend ALL the present human inhabitants of the earth.

 [1-Chronicles 1:5] The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.
These are mainly European and Asiatic peoples.

Gomer - Europe,
Magog- Europe and Asia. Mongolian peopels etc.
Madai- Ancient Medes, Balkans.
Javan- Greek Language speakers but also elements in the east including some of the Japanese.
Tubal - often associated with Spain.
Meshech - Europe and Asia.
Tiras - Europe, possibly part of the ancient Thracians.

 [1-Chronicles 1:6] The sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz, Diphath, and Togarmah.

Diphath, i.e. Riphath in Genesis 10:3.
Ashkenaz traditionally represented Germany. Jews probably reached Germany via Rome.
They established themselves in the country and created the Yiddish language based on German dialects mixed with Hebrew and with other additions.
The Jews of Germany were later scattered over Europe and took the Yiddish language with them.  They also brought their customs and culture that were adopted by the local Jews they settled amongst.
Consequently all European Jews nowadays are referred to as Askenazim.

The sons of Gomer gave rise to Germanic, Celtic, Turkic, and possibly Slavic peoples.
The Ten Tribes intermixed with the sons of Gomer.
Our BAC (Brit-Am Commentary) to the Book of Hosea chapters 1, 2, 3 goes into this matter and our coming book on the subject even more.

Gomer himself as well as being the father of  Ashkenaz, Diphath, and Togarmah is also accredited various other peoples as his direct descendants.
This is similar to Canaan who as well as being the forefather of 12 different peoples also had one of those peoples ascribed directly to himself.
Ashkenaz according to one source gave rise to North German and Scandinavian entities.
Gomer gave rise to Germanic peoples in general.
Edomites, Israelites, Canaanites and others also settled amongst the Germanics.
The same applies to other Europeans.

In our work "The Tribes" as well as in our other books we have shown how a good portion of the Germanic peoples who invaded Britain as well as the present inhabitants of Scandinavia along with many of the Germans who migrated to North America in the 1700s and 1800s were actually Israelites.
Most inhabitants of  Central Europe (Germany and Austria etc) today are NOT Israelites. Today most of them are pagans, hedonists, and atheists. Many (but not all) of them hate Jews and the West.

Diphath, i.e. Riphath is often ascribed to both Celts and Slavs. The Carpathean Mountains in East Europe used to be known as the Riphaean Mountains after Riphat.
Certain cultural similarities between Celts and Slavs have been noticed.

Togarmah is usually attributed the ancestry of both Germanic and Turkic peoples.
Today millions of Turks have made their homes in Germany.

 [1-Chronicles 1:7] The sons of Javan were Elishah, Tarshishah, Kittim, and Rodanim.

These are the Greek-speaking peoples and their kinfolk.
Javan is recalled in the Ancient Greeks of Ionia in Western Turkey.
Tarshish was found in southeast Turkey and in Spain.
The Rodanim are often linked with southern France.

Craig White wrote a very interesting ca. 470 A-4 size pages book on the subject of  Noah and the identities of modern peoples, which we recommend:
"In Search of ... The Origin of Nations", 2003, Australia.

Kittim settled in Italy.
In the Dead Sea Scrolls what appear to be Romans are often referred to as Kittim. So too in the letters of Bar Kockba.
Bar Kockba (Kokhba) lead a revolt of the Jews against the Romans in  132-136 CE.
Letters and words of instruction from the leader Simeon, known as Bar Kochba or Son of the Star, have been found.
He refers to the Romans as Kittim.

1-Chronicles 1:8-16 Descendants of Ham.

[1-Chronicles 1:8] The sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.

Cush is often identified with Africa in general. In colloquial Hebrew a "Cushi" is negro.
Cush however may also refer to a region of Iran, Central Asia, and to the area of Pakistan and India.

[1-Chronicles 1:9] The sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raama, and Sabtecha. The sons of Raama were Sheba and Dedan.
Seba,   Sabta,  and Sabtecha sons of Cush and Sheba son of  Raama have names that when dialectical changes are taken into consideration could easily be confused with each other.

These are all names known from  Southern Arabia, Eastern Africa, India, and the Malaysian areas.

[1-Chronicles 1:10] Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one on the earth.

Nimrod is famous in world mythology. He is often equated with King Ninus of Assyria who figures in Greek Mythology.

[1-Chronicles 1:11] Mizraim begot Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim,

Mizraim (Mitsraim) means Egypt but the term could also be applied to regions to the east and north.
There used to be serious claims that the Ancient Egyptians helped create Chinese Civilization.
There are also parallels with the cultures of South and Central America.
Early civilization either came from these peoples or at the least they gave it a serious boost along the way.

Some of those mentioned above became the Berber white peoples of North Africa.

[1-Chronicles 1:12] Pathrusim, Casluhim (from whom came the Philistines and the Caphtorim).

These included the Philistines and the Minoans of Crete who overlapped each other.

[1-Chronicles 1:13] Canaan begot Sidon, his firstborn, and Heth;

Sidon was the premier city of the Phoenicians. Tyre later became at least equally important yet still was known as a daughter of Sidon.
There was also an overlap between the area of Sidon and the Israelite Tribe of Asher.
The Phoenicians were at base a Hamitic people.
The Hamitic language (such as that of Egypt and north Africa) formed a substructure for the Language of Phoenicia which was otherwise similar to Hebrew.
The Hebrew in turn were influenced by this.
The so-called Celtic languages of Wales and Gaelic Ireland have an underlying base similar to that of the Hamites and Hebrews.
In the court of Charlemagne Irish scholars were referred to as Egyptians.

[1-Chronicles 1:14] the Jebusite, the Amorite, and the Girgashite;

Descendants of these peoples were to be found both in Europe and East Africa.
They were not the only peoples in these regions.
This obviously sounds counter-intuitive. We naturally tend to automatically reject the idea that peoples so different in coloring could have any racial linkage.

An interesting Afro-American site that is anti-white but still worth viewing is:
Welcome to Real History World Wide

This site in effect says that white coloring is a pathological state related to albinoidism. It illustrates it point with numerous photos of albinoid Africans who look like stereotypical white men.
This is obviously ridiculous.
It however illustrates the point that color changing may change under certain conditions.

The Black Woman Color Prejudice Forbidden.
Great Israelite leaders made the mistake of color prejudice. They were condemned by the Almighty.

For articles like this and other reasons Brit-Am has succeeded in arousing the ire of both White Supremacists and Black ones!
It takes talent.

Heth gave rise to the Hittites ones of whose branches spoke a Germanic type language.

[1-Chronicles 1:15] the Hivite, the Arkite, and the Sinite;

The Sinites were once a developed people. They may have formed an aboriginal precursor of the Chinese in southern China and in Japan.
Some of them moved to Australia.
Australia and New Zealand are referred to in Isaiah 49 as the Land of Sinim.

[1-Chronicles 1:16] the Arvadite, the Zemarite, and the Hamathite.

1 -Chronicles 1:17-54
Descendants of Shem.

[1-Chronicles 1:17] The sons of Shem were Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, Aram, Uz, Hul, Gether, and Meshech.

Elam was in what is now southwest Iran. It was also known as Susiana.
It was one of the places of Israelite Exile (Isaiah 11:11).
The Sacae-Scythians in southern Russia and Central Asia show archaeological similarities to Elamite civilization.
The Elamites fought against the Assyrians for centuries.
There is a school of thought (cf. Altheim) that says the Persians were basically Elamites.
The rank and file of the Persians may have spoken an Elamite tongue while only the rulers and a minority of the people used Persian and then only (at first) as a literary language.
There was a region named Elimea in the area of modern Serbia.
Both the Croats and the Serbs originated in the Iranian area.
The Croats arrived in Croatia in the 500-600s CE i.e. at a comparatively late date.
The Serbs came at about the same time.

Historical Migrations
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Slav Migrations

Western historians refer to the period of migrations that separated Antiquity from the Middle Ages in Europe as the Great Migrations or as the Migrations Period. This period is further divided into two phases.

The first phase, from 300 to 500 AD, saw the movement of Germanic, Sarmatian and Hunnic tribes and ended with the settlement of these peoples in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire, essentially causing its demise. (See also: Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Burgundians, Suebi, Alamanni Marcomanni).

The second phase, between 500 and 900 AD, saw Slavic, Turkic and other tribes on the move, re-settling in Eastern Europe and gradually making it predominantly Slavic. Moreover, more Germanic tribes migrated within Europe during this period, including the Lombards (to Italy), and the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (to the British Isles). See also: Avars, Bulgars, Huns, Arabs, Vikings, Varangians. The last phase of the migrations saw the coming of the Hungarians to the Pannonian plain.

German historians of the 19th century referred to these Germanic migrations as the Volkerwanderung, the migrations of the peoples.

The European migration period is connected with the simultaneous Turkic expansion which at first displaced other peoples towards the west, and by High Medieval times, the Seljuk Turks themselves reached the Mediterranean.

Even though the Serbs and Croats arrived late they may also have been descendants of Elam.
The name Elimea is recorded from Roman times. Nevertheless new immigrants to the area may have been following some kind of communal instinct that drove peoples from the same source to home in on the same areas. This happened often in history.
Numerous examples of this phenomenon were shown in our work The Tribes.

Asshur is the forefather of Assyria. There is a school of thought that identifies the Assyrians with the present-day Germans.
There may be something to this but in general we are more convinced by alternate identifications.

Arphaxad in Hebrew "ARPa-CSaD". Forefather of the Casdim who otherwise were known as the Chaldeans. They were one of the founding nations of Babylonian.
Later the name Casdi (Chaldean) became synonymous with a kind of philosopher-sorcerer. Much of  Greek learning may have originated in Babylon.
An inscription of Nebuchadnessar has been found in Greece.
Arphaxad has been traced to Italy.

Lud became the Lydians of what is now northern Turkey. From Lydia some of them moved to northern Italy founding Etruscan civilization. Etruscan  settlements and finds have been found in Northern Europe including Poland.

Aram became the Aramaeans. They once ruled over formidable kingdoms in Syria and Mesopotamia. Descendants of Edom set up their own power-bases amongst the Aramaeans.
The name Aram is recalled in that of Armenia.
Both Aram and Edom may have contributed to the formation of the Slavic and Germanic nations.

Uz in Hebrew OOts. This name is also associated with Edom (Lamentations 4:21).
What do You Really Want? The Book of Job
Where was Uz

Hul was said to be somewhere in Armenia or the nearby Caucasus.
Gether. Medieval Scandinavian Chronicles sometimes identified Gether as ancestor of the Goths and Swedes.
Brit-Am associates these peoples with descendants of Gad.

Meshech is spelled Mash in Genesis 10:23.
There was also a descendant of Japhet named Meshek.
We have pointed out before that it happens in Biblical Studies that peoples of the same or similar names, even though they were of different origins, tended to coalesce or even simply to neighbor each other.
The name Meshech has been found in Moscow.

[1-Chronicles 1:18]  Arphaxad begot Shelah, and Shelah begot Eber.

Eber according to some opinions gave his name to the Hebrews. Abraham at first, according to this, was known as Abram the Hebrew because he descended from Eber.

[1-Chronicles 1:19]  To Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided; and his brother's name was Joktan.

The Division of the earth mentioned here apparently means the confounding of the languages at the Tower of Babel [Babylon] (Genesis 11:9).
A modern idea (originated by ?) suggests that the separation of the Continental Masses also occurred in the time of Peleg and was therefore associated with him.
Scientists say this took place 100s of millions of years ago but obviously they are mistaken.
The idea is that they may be right about what happened but wrong about when.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Pangaea .. was a supercontinent ...forming about 300 million years ago[2] and beginning to rift around 200 million years ago, before the component continents were separated into their current configurations.[3] The single global ocean which surrounded Pangaea is accordingly named Panthalassa.

The name Pangaea is derived from Ancient Greek, pan ( ) meaning "entire," and Gaia ( ) meaning "Earth." The name was coined during a 1927 symposium discussing Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift. In his book The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane), first published in 1915, he postulated that all the continents had at one time formed a single supercontinent which he called the "Urkontinent", before later breaking up and drifting to their present locations.

The distribution of fossils across the continents is one line of evidence pointing to the existence of Pangaea.

Fossil evidence for Pangaea includes the presence of similar and identical species on continents that are now great distances apart. .. similarly, the freshwater reptile Mesosaurus has only been found in localized regions of the coasts of Brazil and West Africa.[9]

Additional evidence for Pangaea is found in the geology of adjacent continents, including matching geological trends between the eastern coast of South America and the western coast of Africa.

Paleomagnetic study of apparent polar wandering paths also support the theory of a super-continent. Geologists can determine the movement of continental plates by examining the orientation of magnetic minerals in rocks; when rocks are formed, they take on the magnetic properties of the Earth and indicate in which direction the poles lie relative to the rock. ..

The continuity of mountain chains also provide evidence for Pangea. One example of this is the Appalachian Mountains chain which extends from the northeastern United States to the Caledonides of Ireland, Britain, Greenland, and Scandinavia.[12]

...The break-up of Pangaea continues today in the Red Sea Rift and East African Rift.

[1-Chronicles 1:20]  Joktan begot Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah,

[1-Chronicles 1:21]  Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah,

[1-Chronicles 1:22] Ebal, Abimael, Sheba,

 Ebal. Spelled Obal in Genesis 10:28

[1-Chronicles 1:23] Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan.

Ophir has been identified with East Africa. In Hebrew his name has been spelt AIFIR form the root AFeR meaning ash. This has been suggested to be the root of the name Africa i.e. black as ash.
Sefer HaDorot by Rabbi Yehiel Heilprin, 1769, identified Ophir with Peru.

There are the descendants of Shem in their divisions.
The account will now turn to tracing the ancestry of Abraham and listing his offspring.
Abraham was a descendants of Shem.

Anti-Semitism means Hatred of Jews. It does not mean antipathy towards descendants of Shem in general.

Descendants of Shem (i.e. Sem), such as some of the Arabs, are often the worse anti-Semites i.e. they hate Jews.
Brit-Am Now no. 1852: Ten Tribes Studies.
#3. Use of Term Anti-Semitism instead of anti-Jewish

1 Chronicles 1:24-33 The Distaff Offspring of Abraham.

This section deals with several different issues.
Some may find it a little confusing. Nevertheless, it should be worth reading through and of interest and value.

Amos Chacham ("Daat Mikra") points out that in Genesis and 1-Chronicles there were seventy sons of Noah.
Later he will show that there were seventy descendants of Abraham
and after that seventy descendants of Israel.
By descendants we mean here those who gave their names to nations, tribes, or major clans within the Tribes.

[1-Chronicles 1:24] Shem, Arphaxad, Shelah,

[1-Chronicles 1:25] Eber, Peleg, Reu,

Reu is spelt Ragau in some European transliterations. He is listed as an ancestor of the Anglo-Saxons and Frisians by LePetit.

[1-Chronicles 1:26] Serug, Nahor, Terah,

Both Serug and Nahor were the names of important cities in northern Syria.

[1-Chronicles 1:27] and Abram, who is Abraham.

The Almighty was to change the name of Abram to Abraham (Genesis 17:5).

[1-Chronicles 1:28] The sons of Abraham were Isaac and Ishmael.

The Family of Ishmael

[1-Chronicles 1:29] These are their genealogies: The firstborn of Ishmael was Nebajoth; then Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam,

Ishmael traditionally was the ancestor of a good portion of the Arab peoples.

Nebajoth in Hebrew is pronounced as "Nab-ay-ot".

Nebajoth was the forefather of the Nabataean Arabs. These were a Christian and Pagan people who managed to developed a quite impressive culture in the desert.
Petra, the city of stone,  was a Nabataean city.
In our work, Ephraim, we suggested that the Navajo Amerindians and related groups in southeast North America also came from Nebajoth.
Kedar also gave rise to part of the other Amerindians in the same region.


[1-Chronicles 1:30] Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema,

Hadad, spelled Hadar in Genesis 25:15.

[1-Chronicles 1:31] Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These were the sons of Ishmael.

The Family of Keturah

[1-Chronicles 1:32] Now the sons born to Keturah, Abraham's concubine, were Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. The sons of Jokshan were Sheba and Dedan.

Keturah is  described as the concubine or common-law wife of Abraham. Some opinions hold Keturah is actually Hagar under a different name. Others say she was a different person and this too is our opinion.

Here (1-Chronicles 1:32) Sheba and Dedan are sons of Jokshan son of Abraham through Keturah.
In Genesis 10:7 Sheba and Dedan are sons of Raamah son of Cush son of Ham. It could be that Scripture in both cases is referring to the same nations that came out of different ancestors but intermixed with each other. They intermarried. For instance, the Brahmans of India, who may be descended from Abraham and Keturah, apparently did take some Indian women in the early days though they later strictly forbade it. India is often referred to as Cush.
As mentioned, There is  a tradition (repeated by Manasseh ben Yisrael) that the Brahmans and other groups in India were descended from Abraham and Keturah.
The Brahmans are the leading caste in India. They are very racially conscious. The racial philosophy of Germany from which Nazism emerged was influenced by Indian racial writings.
The Brahmans wrote against the lower castes. It is also been suggested that the very name Brahman is derived from Abraham.
Another Sheba is listed as a son of Joktan son of Shem (Genesis 10:28).

Sheba. Biblical tradition.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

# In Ethiopian Orthodox tradition, the third of these Shebas (Joktan's son) is considered the primary ancestor of the original Semitic component in their ethnogenesis, while Sabtah and Sabtecah, sons of Cush, are considered the ancestors of the Cushitic element. #
#Jewish-Roman historian Josephus describes a place called Saba as a walled, royal city of Ethiopia, which Cambyses afterwards named Meroe. #

Meroe actually was in what we now call Sudan and was once a powerful kingdom.
Other claims to the name Sheba include southern Arabia, Ethiopia, and Eritrea.
We also have the Queen of Sheba who brought numerous gifts of value to King Solomon (1- Kings 10:1-13  2-Chronicles 9:1-12).
According to tradition she bore him a son.

It would seem that the apparent confusion of names and peoples in the Bible reflects an historical reality.
There were different entities with identical or similar names such as Sheba, Saba, Sabtah and Sabtecah. They included descendants of Shem through Joktan, descendants of Abraham via Keturah, and descendants of Cush. They at times dwelt along side each other ands intermixed with each other. Despite their intermixing they retained their own distinctions.


We saw Tema mentioned above amongst the offspring of Ishmael (1-Chronicles 1:30).
Sheba and Tema were mentioned together in Job 6:19.
See BAC on:
Job 6:11-19: Brother, Where art Thou?

In the Book of Job,  Sheba and Tema play the role of Arabian merchants who also engaged in the slave trade.
They would apparently gather up the indigent and socially dislocated and sell them off elsewhere.

A similarly named people were the Sabaeans who were two different peoples, one in Arabia the other in Africa.
Those from Arabia also penetrated Africa.
Isaiah 43:3 concerning Israel says, "Egypt [shall be] for your atonement, CUSH and Seba underneath you."
We understood this to be a prediction that that the Lost Ten Tribes would rule over India, Egypt and much of Negro Africa.
BAC on Isaiah -Chapter 45.

Israelites from the Ten Tribes would also be responsible with the help of Sabaean (Arabicized) Africans intermediaries in enslaving many Africans and shipping them across the sea.
This is what the British and North Americans did.
Ultimately the Africans (or at least some of them) would accept the God of Israel together with them (Isaiah 45:14).
It should be remembered that at that time slavery was accepted throughout the world as the natural order of things.
In the end the British, Danish, and North Americans stopped slavery in their own lands.
They also made partially successful attempts to abolish trade in slaves throughout much of the world.

Britain abolished slave-trading in 1807.

African slave trade. Abolition
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

France was one of Europe's first country to abolish slavery, in 1794, but it was revived by Napoleon in 1802, and banned for good in 1848. Denmark-Norway was the first European country to ban the slave trade. This happened with a decree issued by the king in 1792, to become fully effective by 1803. Slavery itself was not banned until 1848 [87]. In 1807 the British Parliament passed the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act, under which captains of slave ships could be stiffly fined for each slave transported. This was later superseded by the 1833 Slavery Abolition Act, which freed all slaves in the British Empire. Abolition was then extended to the rest of Europe. The 1820 U.S. Law on Slave Trade made slave trading piracy, punishable by death.[88]
In 1827, Britain declared the slave trade to be piracy, punishable by death. The power of the Royal Navy was subsequently used to suppress the slave trade..

The British enforcement of the ban on slavery resulted in an exertion of British power and influence. It strengthened the Empire.

Slavery however still exists in Africa:
African slave trade. Abolition
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

# In Mauritania alone, up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population, are enslaved, many of them used as bonded labour. Slavery in Mauritania was finally criminalized in August 2007. It is estimated that as many as 200,000 Sudanese children and women have been taken into slavery in Sudan during the Second Sudanese Civil War [1983-2005].. ##

We noticed a similarity of names  Sheba, Saba, Sabtah and Sabtecah and an overlapping of Provence. We also saw a possible linkage amongst bearers of these names to slave trading.
These names may derive from, or be related to, the Hebrew-language root Sh-B-H. This connotes captive or taking captive. That was their profession and one of the things they were noted for.
They would take captives as slaves and sell them.

Midian, Jethro, Kenites, Rechabites, and Israel.

[1-Chronicles 1:33] The sons of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the children of Keturah.

Many of these peoples were to contribute to the Arab peoples. Midian traditionally intermixed with Cush and is considered to have been darker than was average for the region.
Some of them were also to be found elsewhere but the overall direction is eastwards of the Land of Israel.
Jethro who converted was from Midian as naturally was his daughter, Zippora, the wife of Moses. Together with Jethro there were other members of his family who attached themselves to Israel.
Together they formed a recognizable sub-grouping. They were known as the Kenites.
According to the Prophecy of Balaam the Kenites  were destined to be exiled with the Ten Tribes and return when they return.
See BAC to:
Balak-2: Blessings to Israel. Proofs concerning the Lost Ten Tribes
Numbers 24:22

Another group descended from Jethro were the Rechabites. They too were to be mostly exiled with the Israelites.  Jewish Tradition located them together with Children of Moses in the Isles of the Blessed meaning Ireland and the British Isles.
Brit-Am Now no. 1411
#7. Rechabites: A New and Unexpected Source?
Jewish Traditions Placed the Lost Ten Tribes in the British Isles!!

1-Chronicles 1:35-52: Esau and His Kin, The Family of Edom in Chronicles

[1-Chronicles 1:34] And Abraham begot Isaac. The sons of Isaac were Esau and Israel.

Esau and Jacob were twin brothers. Jacob was later re-named Israel.
Esau is pronounced Esav in Modern Hebrew. Esau is also known as Edom. The Edomites were extremely important.  Edom as a Kingdom was orginally to the southeast of Israel on the other side of the Jordan. In Second Temple times a portion of the Edomites moved in to the area of Judah in the region of Hebron in the south. Esau later became an important element amongst the Elite Rulers of Europe.
See our (uncompleted) series of articles:
Esau and the Edomites

[1-Chronicles 1:35] The sons of Esau were Eliphaz, Reuel, Jeush, Jaalam, and Korah.

The mother of Eliphaz was Adah the Hittitess. Eliphaz the Temanite (from Esau) is recalled in the Book of Job (2:11). Eliphaz probably means "God is Great".
Reuel has a name meaninjg "God is my Shepherd" or "God is my companion". His mother was a daughter of Ishmael.
Ishmael represents the Arabs.
Esau heads the Continental Europeans.
Ishmael and Esau are destined to attempt to unite against Israel in the Latter Days.

Jeush, Jaalam, and Korah were all the sons of Oholibimah the daughter of a Horites commander of Seir and considered a Hivitess.
These are considered to have been Indo-Europeans from the linguistic point of view though Scripture counts them as Canaanites.

[1-Chronicles 1:36] And the sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar,  Zephi, Gatam, and Kenaz; and by Timna, Amalek.

Zephi. Spelled Zepho in Genesis 36:11.

Kenaz is also the name of one of the ten Canaanite nations whose land was promised to Abraham (Genesis 15:19).
Kenaz was also the name of one of the Dukes (Elufim) of Teman (Genesis 15:53-54).
Kenaz was also the name of a clan of Judah to which Caleb and Othniel belonged (1-Chronicles 4:13).
In Scripture similarity or identity of names sometimes presages future union or association. This however is not an iron-clad rule. It may not hold in every case.

Amalek is the arch-enemy of Israel. He is different from the rest of the Edomites and far more virulent in his hatred of Israel (Exodus 17:8-16). There is an opinion (Iben Ezra, etc) however that there were actually two different nations named Amalek. .

[1-Chronicles 1:37] The sons of Reuel were Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.

The Family of Seir

[1-Chronicles 1:38] The sons of Seir were Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan.

In Hebrew "Seir" means hair. The name Seir suggests hairy. Esau when he was born was described as red and hairy.  The Land of Edom was also known as Seir. The word "seir" also means goat or demon. The people of Seir appear to have been Canaanites. They were subjugated by the Edomites,  partly exterminated, and partly assimilated. This is similar to what the Germans later did in East Germany and Prussia with the Slavs whom they first decimated and then Germanized.

Seir has also been equated linguistically with Scheria of Greek tradition. Scheria was also known as Scherie or Phaeacia. It was an island visited by Odysseus as described Homer. Phaeacia may be simply another form of Phoenicia and the island in question may be Cyprus or Britain. This is all conjecture that may have something to it but we do not need it.  At the most we could use these kind of ideas as footnotes or adjuncts to deductions made by other more substantial ways.

Lotan is the name of a seven-headed sea serpent or dragon in Ugaritic (Canaaanite or Northern Israelite) mythology. Lotan was also the name of the mother of the Greek god Apollo.
The cult of Lotan was to be associated with the Philistines. There may also have been an Israelite connection, and one to Stonehenge in Britain.
Robert Graves remarked on the Cult of Lotan mother of Apollo that it connected Philistia, the Nabataeans, Greece, and Britain.
See our notes:
"Brit-Am Now"-610 
#1. Summary of and Commentary on Sweeney.

The name of Phoenicia is derived from the Greek Phoin k meaning red. The explanation is that the Phoenicians traded in purple dye and therefore they were named after it. Another possibility however it that the Phoenicians included a strong Edomite element. The word Edom means red.  The chief cities of Phoenicia were Tyre and Sidon. Tyre had two sections, one part on the coast and the other on an island just off the coast. The mainland sections was known as Ushu. The Phoenician Chronicler Sanchuniathon (quoted by Philo) indicates that Ushu was founded by Esau.

Edom would serve as an agent of Assyria and facilitate the Exile the Ten Tribes (Amos 1:6,9). The Prophet Amos tells us that Philistine and Phoenician ships would cooperate with Assyria in exiling the Israelites to Edom. The Philistines may be associated archaeologically with the so-called Minoan civilization of Crete. The remains of Minoan settlement have been found in northern Germany near the border with Denmark. Curiously enough the regions of these finds is today named Edomsharde i.e. Rock of Edom. 
[1-Chronicles 1:39] And the sons of Lotan were Hori and Homam; Lotan s sister was Timna.

[1-Chronicles 1:40] The sons of Shobal were Alian, Manahath, Ebal, Shephi, and Onam. The sons of Zibeon were Ajah and Anah.

 Alian spelled Alvan in Genesis 36:2,3
Shephi spelled Shepho in Genesis 36:23,

[1-Chronicles 1:41] The son of Anah was Dishon. The sons of Dishon were Hamran, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran.

Hamran spelled Hemdan in Genesis 36:26.

[1-Chronicles 1:42] The sons of Ezer were Bilhan, Zaavan, and Jaakan. The sons of Dishan were Uz and Aran.

Jaakan spelled Akan in Genesis 36:27

The Kings of Edom

[1-Chronicles 1:43] Now these were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before a king reigned over the children of Israel: Bela the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dinhabah.

[1-Chronicles 1:44] And when Bela died, Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in his place.

[1-Chronicles 1:45] When Jobab died, Husham of the land of the Temanites reigned in his place.

[1-Chronicles 1:46] And when Husham died, Hadad the son of Bedad, who attacked Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his place. The name of his city was Avith.

[1-Chronicles 1:47] When Hadad died, Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his place.

[1-Chronicles 1:48] And when Samlah died, Saul of Rehoboth-by-the-River reigned in his place.

Rehoboth-by-the-River was located on the Euphrates.

[1-Chronicles 1:49] When Saul died, Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his place.

[1-Chronicles 1:50] And when Baal-Hanan died, Hadad reigned in his place; and the name of his city was Pai. His wife s name was Mehetabel the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.

Hadad spelled Hadar in Genesis 36:39.
Pai spelled Pau in Genesis 36:39.

[1-Chronicles 1:51] Hadad died also. And the chiefs of Edom were Chief Timnah, Chief Aliah, Chief Jetheth,

Aliah spelled Alvah in Genesis 36:40.

[1-Chronicles 1:52] Chief Aholibamah, Chief Elah, Chief Pinon, 53 Chief Kenaz, Chief Teman, Chief Mibzar, 54 Chief Magdiel, and Chief Iram. These were the chiefs of Edom.

The Chiefs of Edom and Germany

One of the characteristics of Edom is the Principle of Leadership.
In 1-Chronicles 1:52 we have an expression, "the chiefs of Edom".
So too, Genesis (36:15) speaks of the "Dukes of Esau".
The word translated as Duke or leader in Hebrew is Aluph meaning general or commander.
"Duke" derives from the Latin "Dux" meaning leader. This is a good equivalent to "Aluph".
"Aluph" is from the root "aleph" connoting train, teach, assist. The English word "help" may come from this root.
Edom is identified with Rome and Germany and other places in Europe.
The leaders of Edom are called"Aluphim" (singular: Aluph) in Hebrew. This is translated as Duke.
It is interesting that the Italian Fascist Dictator, Mussolini, was called IL DUCE or The Duke. Mussolini set the tone. He was the model for Hitler and company.
It is also interesting that Italy, Germany, and Japan, together with Hungary, Austria, and Rumania were part of the Axis forces that fought against  Judah and Israel.

The leadership or "frueher" principle was very important in fascist and Germanic-Nazi thinking and quite effective. It must have reflected some deep aspect of the peoples it was applied to and utilized by.

Compare the following notes on this matter.

Models of Leadership in the Third Reich. Brit-Am Historical Notes.

There are three models below. All of  these are historically valid. They should be viewed as overlapping rather than cancelling each other out.

1. The Autocratic Model. From Hitler down.

This understanding locates the source of Nazism in Hitler who passed on commandments to his followers.

2. Fuehrer  Anticipation.

This was known as "Anticipating Hilter" and the Fuehrer Principle. Those in charge would be allowed and even encouraged to act as they thought Hitler or those above them wanted.
We thus have subservients acting differently to, and at cross purposes with, each other until their leaders send them additional directions clarifying what is wanted.  This also explains why at the beginning of Nazi Rule there were cases of officials who expressed opinions or acted in ways contradictory to later policy.
A variant of the leadership principle was employed to great effect in the German Armed Forces. The man in the field was often allowed a great deal of autonomy to improvise and use initiative.  Due to the high standard of training and motivation this was often extremely effective.
The Allies on the other hand due to the hurried training and lower standard of their troops had to be quite constrictive in the latitude allowed their forces. This resulted in the paradox that the autocratic Axis nations often enabled individual creative expression of the military instinct in their soldiers whereas the freedom-loving Democracies were forced to strictly circumscribe it.

3. Folk Arousal. Apex Leadership Cadre Pushed from Behind.

A group of leaders exists at the top. They are in charge and they formulate policy. They owe their power however to resonance with the folk instincts of the people.
It thus may happen on occasion that the leadership will be pushed aside. Hitler and company were therefore tools whose usefulness continued as long as they gave expression to what the folk needed.
This explains such incidents as the Jew, Ernst Hess. This man had been brought up a Protestant and was married to an Aryan. He had received the Iron Cross first and second class in World War 1 during which time he had been the commander of Adolf Hitler. By profession Hess was a judge in Dusseldorf. Himmler gave Hess a letter of protection which explicitly said
"as per the Fuehrer's wishes. This letter helped Hess from 1937 to 1940 when the letter was taken from him and he was sent to a concentration camp, which he was lucky enough to survive. His sister died at Auschwitz.  Here we have a case in which the wish of Hitler extending exceptional leniency to a Jew was in fact disregarded. Hess was treated with slightly less severity because he was married to a German. We see from this incident that Hitler himself was in a de facto sense not considered as have overriding authority in racial matters.

The reality of the Third Reich appears to have been a combination of all the above three models.

Hitler (as Jung noted) managed in some way to personify the soul of Germany. He was given power to rule and ruled from the top down. Even so, there were many fields in which the wishes of Hitler at first were not clear or in which how to apply the will of Hitler was not certain. In such cases the local plenipotentiaries would second guess what the Leadership required.

So too, German society is often pictured as being terrorized by the Gestapo. In effect the Gestapo and similar agencies had very few full-time staff. Numerous German citizens regularly and officiously reported to the Gestapo and assisted in police enforcement activities. This enabled the system to work. Once the system was in operation it took on a will of its own. Even Hitler could not have changed it once its form was settled on.

This albeit partial and sketchy analysis of leadership patterns in the Third Reich is nevertheless interesting when considered in the light of the Dukes or Leaders of Edom.
Leadership is an Edomite asset.
So are martial qualities. Esau was blessed that he should live by the sword (Genesis 27:40).


1-Chronicles, Introduction 
1-Chronicles Contents

Ireland Provinces
1-Chronicles ch.2

All truth passes through three stages: First it is ridiculed.
Second, it is violently opposed.
Third, it is accepted as being self-evident.

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860).

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