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Brit-Am Now no. 1844.
14 March 2012, 20 Adar 5772
1. Brit-Am Importance: As individuals we need to all know where we stand!
2. Jonathan Caro: Scythian Finds of Importance.
3. Additional Note to An Eye for an Eye.
4. Academic Prejudice Against Brit-Am: A Recent Unfortunate Encounter on Germanic--L.
5. New Article. The Fulfillment of the Prayer of Asaph by Bruce McKerras.


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1. Brit-Am Importance: As individuals we need to all know where we stand!

Brit-Am locates Israelites in specific areas BUT we cannot say what percentage of inhabitants were Israelites. Nor can we say whether or not the population changed over the centuries.
Our impression is that in many cases the percentage of Hebrews was high BUT we cannot be sure. NO-ONE can be certain that they descended from Israel based on Brit-Am findings alone.
They may however receive confirmation or strengthening to a feeling of Israelite Identity imparted by Biblical Study, prayer, and intuition. This obviously is not enough. Uncertainty still remains.
Divine Providence intended it this way!
More research needs to be done.
Existing research findings need to be confirmed and strengthened.
Take a look at other NEW historical and scientific discoveries. The results are repeated over and over again. Different aspects of the matter are considered. It takes time and effort.
So too Brit-Am claims need to be made known to as many people as possible. The knowledge itself needs to studied, verified, and greatly increased.
As individuals we need to all know where we stand.

2. Jonathan Caro: Scythian Finds of Importance.

 RE: Brit-Am Now no. 1842

Dear Mr. Davidiy,

Just noted today's (12/03/2012) frontpage New York Times article on the emerging evidence regarding the high material culture of the Saka/Scythians throughout their wide range of distribution, in spite of their purported pre-literacy (itself attesting to their partial cultural degeneration from their Ten Tribe heydey in the Northern Kingdom/Samaria/ Israel, if indeed some of their former literacy hadn't begun to deteriorate prior to the Assyrian expulsion or due to the harshness of their adopted nomadism over the ensuing centuries). Such identifiable culture as they did attain was presumably the product of the syncretistic fusion of some residue of their past, already idolatrous, Israelite artisanship and aspects of the various post-exilic host cultures with which they came to interact as they settled into their newfound, generally non-sedentary ways of life at the periphery of empire. It seems that in their fiercely autonomous fashion they generated more than enough aesthetic sophistication to fuel the elaboration of Celtic, Eurasian horse, and other so-called Indo-European language based cultures, which proved so influential during the Sacae' later European disposition. At any rate, its a matter of frontpage archaelogical interest and only of time before Scythian links to ancient Israel begin to be better established in the popular imagination.

Jonathan Caro M.D.

3. Additional Note to An Eye for an Eye

Biblical Study:
An Eye for an Eye in the Bible?

Exodus 21:
22 'If men fight, and hurt a woman with child, so that she gives birth prematurely, yet no harm follows, he shall surely be punished accordingly as the woman's husband imposes on him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. 23 But if any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.

The expression in Hebrew for "An Eye for an Eye" is "ayin tachat ayin".

We saw the commentary of Maimonides:
# How do we know concerning the loss of limbs that the expression "an eye for an eye" involves monetary compensation?
It says [just before this verse]
"If men contend with each other, and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist,...He shall only pay for the loss of his time, and shall provide for him to be thoroughly healed (Exodus 21:18-19)". We learn for this that "tachat" (under, in place of) as recompense for wounding involves payment of money. The same applies concerning "tachat" (under, in place of) regarding the loss of an eye or any other limb #
[Rambam, Hilchot Chovel veMazik, 1;5).

An additional note is pertinent concerning the expression "tachat" meaning literally "under" but also understood in implying "in replace of".
 "An Eye for an Eye" could be translated from the Hebrew as "An eye in replace of an eye".
This is illustrated by a discussion in the Talmud (Temurah 27;a) on another matter.

The Talmud quotes from the Prophet Isaiah where the word "tachat" is used in a similar context.

Isaiah 60:
17 Instead
[tachat] of bronze I will bring gold,
[tachat] of iron I will bring silver,
[tachat] of wood, bronze,
And instead
[tachat] of stones, iron.
I will also make your officers peace,
And your magistrates righteousness.

The Talmud declares that legally the expression "tachat" means in replace of.

This is also the simple and correct meaning of the Hebrew text!!!
The expression "an eye for an eye" should therefore be rendered as:
"An eye in replace of an eye" (Exodus 21:24).
This does not mean that if one poked out the eye of another (by accident or intent) then their own eye should be poked out.
It means that (apparent from any other punishment) the guilty party should by rights provide the use of an eye in place of that which he had caused loss of. IF they cannot do that then it stands to reason that they should make an equivalent monetary compensation for the damage they had caused.
This is NOT stretching the Literal Meaning. It is the correct application of it!!!

4. Academic Prejudice Against Brit-Am: A Recent Unfortunate Encounter on Germanic--L.

Yair Davidiy subscribes to several different e-mail discussion groups. These are mainly of an academic nature.  In the past we would sometimes quite aggressively preach the Brit-Am message but found this to be often counter-productive. Nowadays, Yair usually lurks and does not try to promote Brit-Am beliefs on these forums.
Our interest is to receive information and informational leads. Occasionally we provide information of our own or raise questions.
It happens that we being who we are and the tone of our inquiries arouses a curious blend of fascination and hostility.
Perhaps we may all learn something from this.

The group Germanic-L began a thread discussing Celts in England.
The consensus seemed to be that:
# the pre roman iron age celts of Britain and Ireland have little to do with the iron age and didn't consider themselves Celtic. But, they share many of the same paternal lineages as their continental counterparts, eg the Gauls, and spoke a closely related language. # Authun.

Yair raised the question as to whether or not an important elements amongst the peoples of Celtic Civilization called themselves Iberi.

This is what we wrote:
Were the Celts Actually Iberi??
Were the so-called actually headed by elements that referred to themselves as Hiberi or Iberi?
Celtic Names from the root Iber meaning Hebrew:

Ybora: mouth of Halys River in Anatolia (Turkey), place of a Galatian colony.

Hebros River: in Thrace, scene of Celtic presence.

Iberia: in the Caucasus, north of Assyria, legendary area of exiled
Israelite Ten Tribes re settlement, cultural connections with the proto-Celts.

Ibernia: name for Spain derived from the original Iberians who accepted Celtic culture and migrated to the west and north.

Hibernia: name for Ireland.

Iberni in southwest Ireland.

Ibnerni Ocean east of Ireland.

Hebrides: islands off the northwest coast of Scotland, a Celtic region.

Eboracum: A Celtic name for the city of York in north England.

Eburodunum: also known as Embrun in the French Alps of ancient Gaul.

Evorolocum: in Auvergne, Gaul.

Eborobritum: Beira, Gaul, .

Eborovices: Evreux, in Gaul

Eborobriga: Yonne, in Gaul.

Eboromagus: (in the region of Aude, in Gaul) also known as
"Hebromagus" and close to Narbonne .

Eborodunum: Yverdon, in Switzerland, once dominated by the Celtic Tribe of Helveti.

Eboresheim, Eporestal, Eburingen: all Celtic place names in Germany.
The Galatian Celts were once based in west central Germany but were driven out. Note the Semitic interchange of "p" for "b" as in Eporestal.

Eburones: a Celtic people who once dwelt between the Main and Rhine rivers.

Numerous additional examples exist.

[The Heber root name examples above and remarks on their ethnic association with the Celts have been culled from: de Rougemont p.102,
Hubert-2 p.125, Markale p.308.]

HUBERT, HENRI. "The Greatness And Decline Of The Celts". London 1934.
HUBERT, HENRI. "The Rise Of The Celt", trans. By M.R.Dodrie, London 1934.
MARKALE, J. "Celtic Civilisation", Paris, 1970, trans.1978.
DE ROUGEMONT, FREDERIC. "L'Age de Bronze, ou Les Semites en
Occident", Paris, 1866.

Dacians also called Hiberi!
What appear to be Dacian soldiers in the service of the Emperor
Aurelian (215-275 CE) on the Danube are referred to as Hiberi.
[Footnote 88: Hist. August. p. 222. Aurelian calls these soldiers
Hiberi Riporiences Castriani, and Dacisci.]

This to our mind was a legitimate question and so too was it acceptable in the eyes of the Moderator.
Anyway it was rejected by several of the academics on the list.
They said that the word root "Iber" associated with the Celts derives from a Celtic word meaning yew tree, or a word meaning boar (pig), or it was a hydronym (proper name of a body of water).
It should be noted that yew trees in England in the Middle Ages were important because their wood made good bows for archery. It is assumed by extrapolation that in ancient times the Celts may also have valued yew trees for this reason.

One of them made the interesting point:

# Eburo in Celtic is another [Iber name], it means Yew, the yew tree, Latin: TAXUS
The Eburones may have been the Taxus-people..... actually their homeland was rich of yew forests in that time.
There's the theory, that after the Eburones were defeated by Ceasar, they formed a new people, called TEXANDRII, also TOXANDRII... which again is very near to TAXUS (yew).
Regards, Guus #

Finally they seemed to conclude that the ethnic root-word IBER had several different origins in different areas and that its widespread usage over areas of Celtic Culture was due to coincidence.

Yair replied that the name may have had several secondary connotations but that this did not explain its primary widespread usage.
We took the name of the city of York in England as an example:
Wikipedia: York

The word 'York' comes from the Latin name for the city, variously rendered as Eboracum, Eburacum or Eburaci. ... The toponymy of Eboracum is uncertain because the language of the pre-Roman indigenous population of the area was never recorded. is thought that Eboracum is derived from the Brythonic word Eborakon, that is a combination of eburos "yew-tree" ....
The name 'Eboracum' was turned into 'Eoforwic' by the Anglians in the 7th century. This was probably by conflation of 'ebor' with a Germanic root *eburaz (boar); .....

* * * *

We see here that the place was originally called something based on the root word Ebor or Ebur. Its meaning is unknown but yew tree has been suggested. Later the name was changed slightly and re-interpreted to connote "boar".
Names like this occur all over the Celtic World. Hubert pointed out that even in Spain (where the name is common) the name is found only in areas associated with the Celts. The name is also found in Ireland as Iber and Iberni and in Scotland, and Wales under the form aber.
We associated the name with the Hebrew word (Ibri or Ivri) meaning HEBREW.
At all events the known and very obvious spread of the name indicates that it was an ethnic appellation and the term that a specific ethnic group applied to themselves.
* * * *
That was about the first round. Our opinion was not accepted but rather ridiculed. We did not reply to all the counter postings being loathe to be drawn into a ruckus.
We attempted to bow out but as a parting shot mentioned the matter  of DNA and the R1b Y-haplogroup.

R1b is the most common haplogroup (DNA grouping) in Western Europe. It is believed to have originated in the Middle East area somewhere in the region of Israel, Lebanon, Turkey, Armenia, Syria.
Archaeology has found no R1b DNA in Western Europe before ca. 1000 BCE and even this is doubtful. It only appears to become prominent well after ca. 600 BCE or even later.
The logical conclusion should therefore be that it moved from its place of origin in the east only at the time of its first presence in the west.
We EMPHASIZED that we do not say that R1b is Israelite.
We do not know.
Other explanations may exist.
New archaeological findings may also change our present understanding.
Nevertheless going on what we do know at present about R1b the idea in principle of an ethnic movement from the east to the west would appear to be acceptable.
We did not intend anything racist by this. We still do not see anything racist in this point.
* * * *
Anyway after this message some of them considered it offensive. They visited our site (though we had not referred to it) and came back calling us racists, and even using scatological epithets (that the moderator has since removed).
They accused us of being guilty of doing things to the Palestinians like (they implied) all Israelis apparently are pictured by the Media in Europe as doing.
The also associated us with British Israel in Britain which they described as an anti-Jewish organization. We were accused of belonging to the BNP (British National Party).
We were compared to Nazis.
It was also suggested that the whole idea of Israelites being amongst West European peoples is connected to:

## the British Israel/Christian identity Two-seed line theology. In the US its a front for several very nasty white supremacy groups. ##

Several demands were made by leading members of the group to have Yair Davidiy removed and banned from the list.
[Note in effect we were condemned for being both pro-Jewish, living in the State of Israel, and also for allegedly holding views espoused by anti-Jews!!!].

Some of the contributors on Germanic-L made the point that the group is concerned with a sensitive subject and is under siege by Racist anti-Jewish elements.
So too several of the Major contributors who dwell in Austria and Germany, specialize  in Germanic matters yet keep themselves away from racists who often try to harness them to ideologies they do not want to be involved with.

[ To some degree we may sympathize with this stand:
Even Brit-Am has experienced pressures from others who wanted to re-interpret us or use us to forward notions we did not believe in and in some cases may have been harmful.

The Germanic specialists took the position that in the same way as Germanic Racist nationalists are kept at a distance so too should groups like Brit-Am be kept away even though Brit-Am (in its own eyes at least) is diametrically the opposite!
It should be noted however that we, at least at the beginning and for quite a while after it, did not raise any of our own Brit-Am opinions. We were interested in what we considered to be a genuine subject of historical interest. We endeavored, as is our practice, not to bring up other matters. They however searched us out and attacked us for being what we are! They used mendacity and bigotry as a weapon to besmirch us.

Regarding the group,
We had tried to explain that the reality was otherwise than as depicted but no-one appeared to be listening. Anything we said seemed to add fuel to the fire.
When we tried to defend ourselves one member accused us of whining. We replied that perhaps he was right and that when the dog bites one should not speak of it to the jackals. It merely whets their appetite.

The Moderator, to his credit, defended us, and declared his interest in an open discussion concerning possible ancient links between the Near East and Europe.
The climate that had been created however obviated this possibility.
We managed to beat a strategic retreat in what we consider to have been an elegant manner without compromising.

This incident however emphasizes the difficulty Brit-Am has and will have in bringing its academic and historically-important findings to the attention of serious scholarship.
Nevertheless experience shows that even at academic levels we do have an influence. Valid Points we have raised and findings we have merited to come across have a habit of permeating (often without acknowledgement) the works of other researchers. This is all to the good.

They who identify with Brit-Am are hereby warned:
You are liable to be deliberately Misrepresented.
You will be depicted as being the opposite of what you are.
Your enemies will balk at nothing to discredit you.
You may have very few, if any, allies.
They will be unfair to you and if you complain describe you as whining
They whom you thought would identify with you may well find it politic to keep their distance.

You will become alone -like the Jews. You may be identified with the Jews but you will not enjoy the compensatory refuge the Jews have in their own Laws and community.
In a sense you will be the Chosen.  This is the price you bear!
On the other hand you will be blessed by the Almighty.
Secrets of history and of present reality will be made know to you.
You will have friends and  Divine Providence will watch over you.
It will be worth it.

This is what Brit-Am is and for this reason amongst others Brit-Am needs your support.
If you do not support Brit-Am chances are nobody else will.
Divine Providence has chosen you for this.

5. New Article. The Fulfillment of the Prayer of Asaph
by Bruce McKerras
Events now unfolding in the Middle East are rapidly bringing closer the apocalyptic scenario as predicted in more that 100 prophetic scriptures...
There will be a terrible loss of life, as well as large numbers of refugees, who will flee from all the Mid East countries. But a holy remnant will survive in Jerusalem. After the Land is cleaned and regenerated, then all the true descendants of Jacob [Israel] will be motivated to emigrate to the New Israel. There, they will be an example to the world of how all should live and from them will some go out to all peoples and preach the coming Kingdom of the Messiah. Isaiah 66:19, Isaiah 49:6.

The Tribes - 4th Edition Full Cover Spread.

All truth passes through three stages: First it is ridiculed.
Second, it is violently opposed.
Third, it is accepted as being self-evident.

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860).

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