THE HEBREWS OF BRITAIN
The denomination "HEBREW" as applicable to ISRAELITE in distinction to
foreigners is found in the Book of Jonah: Jonah the prophet had been commanded
by God to go and call upon the inhabitants of the Assyrian capital city Nineveh
to repent. Jonah did not want to help the Assyrians so he attempted to flee the
Holy Land which place is most conducive to Prophecy, whereas outside of the Land
the Divine Presence makes Itself less palpable. He went to the port of Jaffo on
the coast and took a ship headed for Tarshish. A supernatural storm arose and
after casting lots the sailors realised that their ship was endangered due to
Jonah's presence. The men of the ship asked Jonah:
"Whence comest thou? what is thy country
and of what people art thou" (Jonah 1;8). Jonah answered:
"I AM AN HEBREW; AND I FEAR THE LORD, THE GOD OF HEAVEN, WHICH HATH MADE THE SEA
AND THE DRY LAND" (Jonah 1;9).
"Hebrew" in the Bible is synonymous with Israelite.
The Ancient Israelites were called Hebrews (e.g. Genesis 14:13 Jonah 1:9 see
also Genesis 39:14,17 41:12 Exodus 2:11,13 Deuteronomy 15:12, 1-Samuel 14:11,
Jeremiah 34:9, etc). The Celts in Western Europe also called themselves Hebrews.
Celtic Civilization stretched from Central Europe to the West reaching into the
British Isles and Scandinavia. The Ethnic Initiators of Celtic Culture moved
from the east westwards into Britain and Ireland. The term Celt is relatively
modern. The peoples who in Ancient Times were the bearers and transmitters of
Celtic Culture called themselves Iberi or Iverni. This name is reflected in the
Ibernian Peninsual (Spain and Portugal), Hibernia (Ireland), and the Hebrides
Islands off the coast of Scotland. Hundreds of Place-Names throughout what was
once Celtic Europe bear elements from this word-root. The word we transliterate
from Scripture as Hebrew is written as ABR (or IBR) and may be pronounced as
Ivri or Ibri. This is the same as the Celtic Word for themselves. That the
so-called Celts called themselves Iberi is recognized by many scholars.
Different etymological explanations have been given. Some say it comes from a
word-root meaning "swine"; others say from one connoting Mistle-toe (a plant
that was sacred to the Druids); still other possibilities have been proposed.
In Hebrew the word Ibri (Hebrew) connotes wanderer or outsider. It is related
to the English words other and over. Several peoples in the west have names
meaning wanderer. This is one of the meanings for the names of Scot (as in
Scotland); the word Alban meaning Briton or Pict from Scotland also means
wanderer; so does the word Fin (as in Finland); so does one rendition of the
name Khazar. The Khazars were related to the Picts of Scotland. The word Barbar
(as in Barbarians) in Ancient Mesopotomia was synonymous with the word for
Hebrew and the early settlers of the west were referred to as Barbarians.
We therefore find that very many of those peoples of Ancient Western and
Northern Europe whom we identify as from the Ten Tribes either called themselves
a name that sounds the same as the Hebrew pronunciation of Hebrew or by a name
that sounded differently but had the same meaning!
Abraham was a Hebrew:
AND THERE CAME ONE THAT HAD ESCAPED, AND TOLD ABRAM THE HEBREW; FOR HE DWELT IN
THE PLAIN OF MAMRE THE AMORITE, BROTHER OF ESHCOL, AND BROTHER OF ANER: AND
THESE WERE CONFEDERATE WITH ABRAM.
The Book of Jonah relates how God told Jonah to go to the major Assyrian city of
Nineveh and there prophesy that after 40 days it would be overturned. This meant
according to the understanding of Jonah that Nineveh would be destroyed. Jonah
did not want to go on this mission and attempted to flee to Tarshish in Spain. A
storm arose at sea and the sailors of his ship realized that a supernatural
power was causing it. They threw lots and the result fell on Jonah. Jonah told
the seamen to cast him overboard.
[Jonah 1:9] AND HE SAID UNTO THEM, I AM
AN HEBREW; AND I FEAR THE LORD, THE GOD OF HEAVEN, WHICH HATH MADE THE SEA AND
THE DRY LAND.
Here we have the name Hebrew connected with worship of the God of Israel as if
the two were mutually relevant to each other. Jonah was a Hebrew going to
Tarshish in Spain. Israelites from the Ten Tribes were later exiled to Spain.
They were known as Iberi, or as Hiberi i.e. as Hebrews. From Spain the Hiberi
(Hebrews) moved onwards into Gaul and the British Isles. The Celtic inhabitants
of Britain were all referred to as Iberi, or Hiberi, or Iberni (meaning Hebrews)
by themselves and by others (such as Ptolemy) and the name Iberi (i.e. Hebrew)
very frequently occurs in ethnic and place-names of the Western Celtic peoples.
Hibernian still means Irish. The Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) was
named after the Iberi Hebrews who once dwelt there but later left moving to Gaul
The crew in Jonah's ship made another futile attempt to continue against the
storm after which they reluctantly threw Jonah into the sea. A fish (whale or
other sea-creature) swallowed Jonah and after three days spew him out onto the
shore. He went to Nineveh and prophesied. The people of Nineveh did penitence
and were forgiven and no disaster occurred (at that time) to the city.
Hebrew, IBERI, BARBARI, and Barbarians.
Incidentally the peoples who later came westward from Scythia and Germania and
who were also Israelites were referred to by the Romans as Barbari. This term is
generally taken to be a negative expression meaning that they were barbarians
and uncivilized in Roman eyes. Nevertheless the term according to some
originally had ethnic connotations. The Hebrews in the Ancient Middle East
(according to the Encyclopedia Judaica, entry "HEBREW") were known as Iberi and
as Barbari. From the term Barbari we have the name Barbarian. The early
Germanic-speaking and Scythian invaders of the west were called Barbarians by
the Greeks and Romans. Many of them were Hebrews.
Khazars, Scotts, and Picts, and the
The word "Hebrew" in Hebrew is "Ivri" or "ibri" from the root "aver, aber"
connoting "other side. The is where the English words "over" and "other" come
"Hebrew" connotes someone who moves around, from one place to another, i.e. "a
The Ancient "Celts" of Britain, Irleand, and Western Europe called themselves
Iberi meaning "Hebrew".
The Khazars were part of the Ten Lost Tribes.
The name "Khazar" is conventionally considered to derive from a root meaning
The same applies for the name "Scot" as in Scottish and Scotland.
This is the meaning of "Khazar", "Scot", and maybe "Alban" or "Albanach"
##The word "Khazar" is a Turkish word
derived from the root of kaz with the meaning of gez (wander). The term of
khazar means gezer (wanderer) and it coincides with the meaning of a nomad who
freely wanders around without any connection to one place in the Anatolian
Turkish. Probably, this word must have taken its final shape through an
etymological transformation in the forms of gezer, gazar, kazar and hazar. The
word of Khazar is used as el-Hazar in Arabian language, Huzari, Kozar in Hebrew
language, Gazari, Chazari in Latin language, Hazari in Georgian language, Huszar
in Hungarian language and Ko-sa, ka-sat in Chinese language.##
The name Khazar is therefore understood to connote "wanderer".
This is also the meaning of "Hebrew"
and one of the given meanings of "Scot" as in "Scotland".
Scott Surname Origin
A native of Scotland. Nennius uses
both Scyth and Scotti indifferently. Strabo considers Scyth and Nomades
synonymous terms. The original word in Ossian is Scuta, which literally
signifies 'restless wanderer,' hence the propriety of the name Scuite or Scot.
Source: An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names With an Essay
on their Derivation and Import; Arthur, William, M.A.; New York, NY: Sheldon,
Blake, Bleeker & CO., 1857.
The name "Scot" comes from an old Celtic word meaning wanderer or vagrant.
By Robert Craig Maclagan (1882)
Scoti means "wanderers"
Maclagan says that "Albanach" (Picts) also connotes "wandering".
The Picts dwelt mainly in the Northeast of Scotland.
Traditionally they descended from the Agathyrsi and came from Scythia.
Agathyrsi was one of the earlier names of the Khazars.
The Picts either came from the Agathyrsi (Khazars) or an important element
amongst them did.
The Hebrew Celts
Amongst Celtic names of importance was that of "EBER" (meaning Hebrew) examples
of which are found spread throughout the Celtic world. The Celtic settlers of
Britain and Ireland referred to themselves as "Hiberi" or "Iberi" as may be seen
in from the Geography of PTOLEMY and from Irish Mythology.
EBER: In the country of the Parissi was the city of York called Eboracum by the
British, Ireland was called Hibernia, and there were the Hebrides Islands and
numerous places in Gaul and other Celtic areas whose names contained the root "eber"
meaning Hebrew. In addition,
"...there were twenty or more places in
Wales, the names of which begin with another form of the name Eber, "Aber", such
as Aberystwyth and Aberdare. In Scotland we find Aberdeen, Aberfoyle, Aberdour,
Aberargie, Abruthven and several others" Bennett p.114.
Celtic Mythology and toponomy is replete with Hebraic names many of which were
recorded long before the Christian era when the Celts were still pagans and
therefore cannot be ascribed to extraneous influences:
The Iberi (Hiberi) had once been in Spain and due to them the North African
natives who invaded Spain after them and drove them out were in turn called
Iberi (Iberians) by the Greeks and Romans.
An additional proof for ascribing the original application of the name HEBER to
the Celts is the fact that Celtic peoples such as the Gaelics of Britain and
Ireland called themselves Iberi. These people had been in Spain at the time when
the name Heber or Iber was first applied to regions and rivers there and they
had been driven out to Gaul and the British Isles where numerous additional
place and ethnic names received the appellation HEBER and its cognates. This
name is considered typically Celtic and an indication of Celtic presence (de
Rougemont p.102, Hubert p.288). Later application of the term Iberian to the
Spaniards is a misnomer.
Names containing the root "HEBER" meaning Hebrew are found throughout the Celtic
sphere of influence especially in its western section of Gaul and Britain:
Examples of place names containing this root in places somehow or other regarded
as those of a sometime Celtic presence are multitudinous and include Yboracum
the original name of York, Hibernia the name of Ireland, the Hebrides, and
numerous others, see below.
Another name of significance in our study is "Hyperborean" meaning "Northern
Hebrew" and this appellation was applied to the Celts of Britain.
Celtic Names from the root Iber meaning
Ybora: mouth of Halys River in Anatolia (Turkey), place of a Galatian colony.
Hebros River: in Thrace, scene of Celtic presence.
Iberia: in the Caucasus, north of Assyria, legendary area of exiled
Israelite Ten Tribes re settlement, cultural connections with the proto-Celts.
Ibernia: name for Spain derived from the original Iberians who accepted Celtic
culture and migrated to the west and north.
Hibernia: name for Ireland.
Iberni in southwest Ireland.
Ibnerni Ocean east of Ireland.
Hebrides: islands off the northwest coast of Scotland, a Celtic region. Menasseh
ben Israel spoke of an early Hebrew inscription having been discovered on the
Eboracum: A Celtic name for the city of York in north England. York gave its
name to the North American city of New York where there are reportedly more
people of Jewish extraction (mainly from the tribe of Judah) than in the modern
State of Israel!
Eburodunum: also known as Embrun in the French Alps of ancient Gaul.
Evorolocum: in Auvergne, Gaul.
Eborobritum: Beira, Gaul, note the combination of Brit (Briton) with EBER.
Eborovices: Evreux, in Gaul
Eborobriga: Yonne, in Gaul.
Eboromagus: (in the region of Aude, in Gaul) also known as "Hebromagus" and
close to Narbonne in southern France an historically significant center in many
Eborodunum: Yverdon, in Switzerland, once dominated by the Celtic Tribe of
Eboresheim, Eporestal, Eburingen: all Celtic place names in Germany. The
Galatian Celts were once based in west central Germany but were driven out. Note
the Semitic interchange of "p" for "b" as in Eporestal.
Eburones: a Celtic people who once dwelt between the Main and Rhine rivers.
[The Heber root name examples above have been culled from: de Rougemont p.102,
Hubert-2 p.125, Markale p.308.]
HUBERT, HENRI. "The Greatness And Decline Of The Celts". London 1934.
HUBERT, HENRI. "The Rise Of The Celt", trans. By M.R.Dodrie, London 1934.
MARKALE, J. "Celtic Civilisation", Paris, 1970, trans.1978.
DE ROUGEMONT, FREDERIC. "L'Age de Bronze, ou Les Semites en Occident", Paris,
Fins also called "Wanderers"!
The Finnish people in Finland are also identified by us as part of the
Lost Ten Tribes.
The name "Fin" of uncertain origin and may have been applied to the present
inhabitants of Finland only from the 1400s CE, or it may be much earlier.
Whatever the case this is the name they are now known by and this name also may
be derived from a root-word meaning "wanderer"!
finnr, a Germanic word for a
Dacians of Denmark also called Hiberi!
What appear to be Dacian soldiers in the service of the Emperor Aurelian
(215-275 CE) on the Danube are referred to as Hiberi.
Dacia was in southeast Europe approximately in the area of present-day Romania.
The Dacians had been defeated by the Romans in ca. 106 CE. Later most of the
survivors moved to Denmark which in Early Medieval terminology was also often
known as Dacia.
cf. The History of the Decline and Fall
of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon (p.266):
The emperor's vexation breaks out in one of his private letters. "Surely," says
he, "the gods have decreed that my life should be a perpetual warfare. A
sedition within the walls has just now given birth to a very serious civil war.
The workmen of the mint, at the instigation of Felicissimus, a slave to whom I
had intrusted an employment in the finances, have risen in rebellion. They are
at length suppressed; but seven thousand of my soldiers have been slain in the
contest, of those troops whose ordinary station is in Dacia, and the camps along
the Danube." 
[Footnote 88: Hist. August. p. 222. Aurelian calls these soldiers Hiberi
Riporiences Castriani, and Dacisci.]
Hebrews or Yew Trees??
What Did the Celts Call Themselves?
Were the Ancient Hebrews the Same as the Habiru?
The Names of Isaac, Jacob, and Israel in Western Traditions
The Lost Ten Tribes were destined to be known
by the names of the forefathers, Abraham the Hebrew, Isaac, and Jacob.
Concerning Abraham who was known as "the Hebrew" we find the Western Celts also being known as "Hiberi" or Hebrews, see the source referred to above.
Isaac was considered the ancestor of the scottish, Welsh, and English according to separate traditions.The
name Jacob is repeated in the Union Jack (the flag of Britain), and in the
term Yank which is a Hebrew alternative for Jack i.e. Jacob.
AND GOD SAID UNTO ABRAHAM, LET IT NOT BE GRIEVOUS IN THY SIGHT BECAUSE OF
THE LAD, AND BECAUSE OF THY BONDWOMAN; IN ALL THAT SARAH
HATH SAID UNTO THEE, HEARKEN UNTO HER VOICE; FOR IN ISAAC SHALL THY
SEED BE CALLED.
Ephraim and Manasseh were destined to become a multitude in
the midst of the earth and the name of Jacob be called upon them and the
name of his fathers Abraham and Isaac (Genesis 48:16). This means primarily
that the essence of the forefathers would be expressed through the sons of
Joseph. It has a secondary meaning that the very names would recall the forefathers.
Abraham was known as the Hebrew (Genesis 14:13) and the early inhabitants of
Britain called themselves and were termed by others Iberi meaning Hebrews.
Names given to the Scythians (Isaac-Gulu, Ishkuza, Zohak, Saca, Sak, Saksin,
Saxon) and to the Saxons who settled England were derived from the name Isaac.
"Isacon" (Isaac) Ancestor of the Scots
The Four Ancient Books of Wales
by William F. Skene 
THE RACES OF BRITAIN AND THE PLACE OF THE PICTS AMONG THEM.
In the Albanic Duan, which seems to have belonged to some collection of
additions to Nennius, and which contains the oldest record of the
ethnological traditions of Scotland, the brothers Brittus and Albanus
appear as the eponymi of the two Celtic races inhabiting respectively
Britain and Alban, or Scotland. Thus--
"O, all ye learned of Alban,
Ye well-skilled host of yellow hair,
What was the first invasion? Is it known to you?
Which took the land of Alban?
Albanus possessed it; numerous his hosts.
He was the illustrious son of Isacon.
He and Briutus were brothers without deceit.
From him Alban of ships has its name.
Briutus banished his active brother
Across the stormy sea of Icht.
Briutus possessed the noble Alban
As far as the conspicuous promontory of Fothudain."
Note: The father of the brothers is named "Isacon" cf. "Isaac"!
Similar appellations are found in some of the earliest genealogies of the Welsh and English.
The name Jacob is recalled in the Union Jack of Britain meaning the Uniting
of Jacob, and in the nickname "Yanki" which is short for Jacob. The Ten Tribes
in the End Times are referred to in connection with the raising up the Tribes
of Jacob (Isaiah 49:6), The flag of Britain is called the UNION JACK (i.e.
union or covenant of Jacob) and the nickname Yank or YANKEE for North American
derives from a form of the name Jacob.
AND HE SAID, IT IS A LIGHT THING THAT THOU SHOULDEST BE MY SERVANT TO RAISE
UP THE TRIBES OF JACOB, AND TO RESTORE THE PRESERVED OF ISRAEL: I WILL ALSO
GIVE THEE FOR A LIGHT TO THE GENTILES, THAT THOU MAYEST BE MY SALVATION UNTO
THE END OF THE EARTH.
Adapted from Ephraim chapter four:
The prophet Isaiah addressed himself frequently to the Lost Ten Tribes
of Israel. One of his several addresses to the Ten Tribes is found in chapter
"Isles" and "isles of the sea" meaning mainly Isles in the Atlantic Ocean
(Isles of Britain and coastlines of northwest Europe and North America) are
several times mentioned in Scripture in a context recalling the Lost Tribes
"The Tribes of Jacob" (recalled above in ISAIAH 49) remind one that the
flag of Britain is called the UNION JACK (i.e. union or covenant of Jacob)
and the nickname YANKEE for North American is derivable from a Hebrew form
This etymology is explained by I. E. Mozeson ("The Word", p.20 entry: "ANKLE")
and holds true regardless as to whether the name was derived from the Dutch
Janke, a Red Indian name for "English", or from the name of a Red Indian Tribe.
Whatever its origin, "YANK" is an acceptable shortening of the Hebrew Jacob!!
This name was given to citizens of the USA and the name in Hebrew means Jacob.
"A light to the Gentiles" is what the British descended peoples and northwest
European peoples comparatively speaking have been despite frequent moral mistakes.
On the whole these nations have been the best civilizing influence the world
has ever known and they still are despite everything!
"End of the earth", or "ends of the earth" is a frequent expression in the
Prophets concerning the Lost Ten Tribes and nearly all of these peoples dwell
at the geographical extremities of Continental masses when the Biblical view
of the Holy Land of Israel as the center is taken into account. The servant
of God (Israel) is entrusted with raising up the Tribes of Jacob who will
be a light unto the nations and bring salvation unto the ends of the earth
where most descendants of the Lost Ten Tribes now dwell. The Land of Israel
in Biblical terms is the center of the earth and when measured from it most
descendants of the Lost Ten Tribes dwell on the geographical extremities,
on the ends of the earth. The Tribes of Israel are Jacob and represented by
the Union Jack and the nickname Yank meaning Jacob.
Jacob was also known as Israel:
AND HE SAID, THY NAME SHALL BE CALLED NO MORE JACOB, BUT ISRAEL: FOR AS
A PRINCE HAST THOU POWER WITH GOD AND WITH MEN, AND HAST PREVAILED.
AND GOD SAID UNTO HIM, THY NAME IS JACOB: THY NAME SHALL NOT BE CALLED ANY
MORE JACOB, BUT ISRAEL SHALL BE THY NAME: AND HE CALLED HIS NAME ISRAEL.
Israel is Yisra-el. The name Isru is derived from
Israel. Isru was also considered one of the ancestors of the Irish and Scottish according to their own traditions.
The monarchs and leaders (such as Cromwell) of England throughout history
referred to their people as Israel. It matters not whether they considered
this term to be applicable for spiritual reasons rather than physical ones
they nevertheless did apply the term to their people. The same may be said
concerning the early Puritan settlers of America.