Ezekiel 46 to 48
The future Temple service, the Rights of the Prince, and of each individual in light of the Temple offerings.
Water will flow out from underneath the Temple, flow down to the Dead Sea and purify it so that it be full of fish.
The future borders of Israel will reach far to the North beyond Damascus and into Turkey. The non-Israelite who dwells amongst Israelites will receive an inheritance with the Tribe he dwells amongst.
The Great Land of Israel within its true expanded borders will be divided equally amongst the Tribes of Israel.
The Book of Ezekiel
Chapters 46 to 48
Chapters with Brit-Am Commentary
Chapter 46: The future Temple service, the Rights of the Prince, and of each individual in light of the Temple offerings.
Chapter 47: Water will flow out from underneath the Temple, flow down to the Dead Sea and purify it so that it be full of fish.
The future borders of Israel will reach far to the North beyond Damascus and into Turkey. The non-Israelite who dwells amongst Israelites will receive an inheritance with the Tribe he dwells amongst.
Chapter 48: The Great Land of Israel within its true expanded borders will be divided equally amongst the Tribes of Israel.
Chapters with Brit-Am Commentary:
Ezekiel 46 to 48
[Ezekiel 46:1] THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; THE GATE OF THE INNER COURT THAT
LOOKETH TOWARD THE EAST SHALL BE SHUT THE SIX WORKING DAYS; BUT ON THE SABBATH
IT SHALL BE OPENED, AND IN THE DAY OF THE NEW MOON IT SHALL BE OPENED.
Ezekiel continues and speaks of the
service that will be conducted in the future rebuilt Temple. Some say that this
service will essentially be the same as that which was maintained in the Second
Temple while others interpret to Ezekiel as saying that changes will be made.
Three times a year all the males had to go up to sacrifice at the Temple.
[Ezekiel 46:2] AND THE PRINCE SHALL ENTER BY THE WAY OF THE PORCH OF THAT GATE
WITHOUT, AND SHALL STAND BY THE POST OF THE GATE, AND HE SHALL WORSHIP AT THE
THRESHOLD OF THE GATE: THEN HE SHALL GO FORTH; BUT THE GATE SHALL NOT BE SHUT
UNTIL THE EVENING.
[Ezekiel 46:3] LIKEWISE THE PEOPLE OF THE LAND SHALL WORSHIP AT THE DOOR OF THIS
GATE BEFORE THE LORD IN THE SABBATHS AND IN THE NEW MOONS.
[Ezekiel 46:4] AND THE BURNT OFFERING THAT THE PRINCE SHALL OFFER UNTO THE LORD
IN THE SABBATH DAY SHALL BE SIX LAMBS WITHOUT BLEMISH, AND A RAM WITHOUT
[Ezekiel 46:5] AND THE MEAT OFFERING SHALL BE AN EPHAH FOR A RAM, AND THE MEAT
OFFERING FOR THE LAMBS AS HE SHALL BE ABLE TO GIVE, AND AN HIN OF OIL TO AN
[Ezekiel 46:6] AND IN THE DAY OF THE NEW MOON IT SHALL BE A YOUNG BULLOCK
WITHOUT BLEMISH, AND SIX LAMBS, AND A RAM: THEY SHALL BE WITHOUT
[Ezekiel 46:7] AND HE SHALL PREPARE A MEAT OFFERING, AN EPHAH FOR A BULLOCK, AND
AN EPHAH FOR A RAM, AND FOR THE LAMBS ACCORDING AS HIS HAND SHALL ATTAIN UNTO,
AND AN HIN OF OIL TO AN EPHAH.
[Ezekiel 46:8] AND WHEN THE PRINCE SHALL ENTER, HE SHALL GO IN BY THE WAY OF THE
PORCH OF THAT GATE, AND HE SHALL GO FORTH BY THE WAY
[Ezekiel 46:9] BUT WHEN THE PEOPLE OF THE LAND SHALL COME BEFORE THE LORD IN THE
SOLEMN FEASTS, HE THAT ENTERETH IN BY THE WAY OF THE NORTH GATE TO WORSHIP SHALL
GO OUT BY THE WAY OF THE SOUTH GATE; AND HE THAT ENTERETH BY THE WAY OF THE
SOUTH GATE SHALL GO FORTH BY THE WAY OF THE NORTH GATE: HE SHALL NOT RETURN BY
THE WAY OF THE GATE WHEREBY HE CAME IN, BUT SHALL GO FORTH
OVER AGAINST IT.
[Ezekiel 46:10] AND THE PRINCE IN THE MIDST OF THEM, WHEN THEY GO IN, SHALL GO
IN; AND WHEN THEY GO FORTH, SHALL GO FORTH.
[Ezekiel 46:11] AND IN THE FEASTS AND IN THE SOLEMNITIES THE MEAT OFFERING SHALL
BE AN EPHAH TO A BULLOCK, AND AN EPHAH TO A RAM, AND TO THE LAMBS AS HE IS ABLE
TO GIVE, AND AN HIN OF OIL TO AN EPHAH.
[Ezekiel 46:12] NOW WHEN THE PRINCE SHALL PREPARE A VOLUNTARY BURNT OFFERING OR
PEACE OFFERINGS VOLUNTARILY UNTO THE LORD, ONE SHALL THEN OPEN HIM THE GATE THAT
LOOKETH TOWARD THE EAST, AND HE SHALL PREPARE HIS BURNT OFFERING AND HIS PEACE
OFFERINGS, AS HE DID ON THE SABBATH DAY: THEN HE SHALL GO FORTH; AND AFTER HIS
GOING FORTH ONE SHALL SHUT THE GATE.
[Ezekiel 46:13] THOU SHALT DAILY PREPARE A BURNT OFFERING UNTO THE LORD OF A
LAMB OF THE FIRST YEAR WITHOUT BLEMISH: THOU SHALT PREPARE IT EVERY
[Ezekiel 46:14] AND THOU SHALT PREPARE A MEAT OFFERING FOR IT EVERY MORNING, THE
SIXTH PART OF AN EPHAH, AND THE THIRD PART OF AN HIN OF OIL, TO TEMPER WITH THE
FINE FLOUR; A MEAT OFFERING CONTINUALLY BY A PERPETUAL ORDINANCE UNTO THE
[Ezekiel 46:15] THUS SHALL THEY PREPARE THE LAMB, AND THE MEAT OFFERING, AND THE
OIL, EVERY MORNING FOR A CONTINUAL BURNT OFFERING.
[Ezekiel 46:16] THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; IF THE PRINCE GIVE A GIFT UNTO ANY OF
HIS SONS, THE INHERITANCE THEREOF SHALL BE HIS SONS'; IT SHALL BE THEIR
POSSESSION BY INHERITANCE.
The future princely ruler of all Israel will bear children and his sons shall
have positions of authority.
[Ezekiel 46:17] BUT IF HE GIVE A GIFT OF HIS INHERITANCE TO ONE OF HIS SERVANTS,
THEN IT SHALL BE HIS TO THE YEAR OF LIBERTY; AFTER IT SHALL RETURN TO THE
PRINCE: BUT HIS INHERITANCE SHALL BE HIS SONS' FOR THEM.
[Ezekiel 46:18] MOREOVER THE PRINCE SHALL NOT TAKE OF THE PEOPLE'S INHERITANCE
BY OPPRESSION, TO THRUST THEM OUT OF THEIR POSSESSION; BUT HE SHALL GIVE HIS
SONS INHERITANCE OUT OF HIS OWN POSSESSION: THAT MY PEOPLE BE NOT SCATTERED
EVERY MAN FROM HIS POSSESSION.
Every Israelite will receive an
inheritance that will always belong to him and that he will pass on to his
<<MY PEOPLE BE NOT SCATTERED EVERY MAN FROM HIS POSSESSION: Everyone will be in
his own inheritance in his Tribal territory. The Bible appears to place emphasis
on Tribal belonging. Members of the same tribe were to live together in their
own area. The mutual influences of common ancestry were to enable the unique
Tribal potentialities of the individual members better express themselves.
Marriage between members of the different Tribes was permitted and took place
but we have sources that suggest that this was not common and not encouraged.
[Ezekiel 46:19] AFTER HE BROUGHT ME THROUGH THE ENTRY, WHICH WAS AT THE SIDE OF
THE GATE, INTO THE HOLY CHAMBERS OF THE PRIESTS, WHICH LOOKED TOWARD THE NORTH:
AND, BEHOLD, THERE WAS A PLACE ON THE TWO SIDES WESTWARD.
[Ezekiel 46:20] THEN SAID HE UNTO ME, THIS IS THE PLACE WHERE THE PRIESTS SHALL
BOIL THE TRESPASS OFFERING AND THE SIN OFFERING, WHERE THEY SHALL BAKE THE MEAT
OFFERING; THAT THEY BEAR THEM NOT OUT INTO THE UTTER COURT, TO SANCTIFY THE
We all make mistakes. We all sin
sometimes or do things we regret and wish we could
We can repent of these things and feel remorse and contrition. Nevertheless
often a remaining sense of guilt and uneasiness can bear down on us. This can
cause depression or other negative energies. The Temple service in some way
would cause an effect to free us of these burdens, to uplift and liberate our
inner beings to the point they should be at. Until the Temple is rebuilt the
same effect may be partially achieved through good deeds, prayer, Bible
learning, offerings and charity.
[Ezekiel 46:21] THEN HE BROUGHT ME FORTH INTO THE UTTER COURT, AND CAUSED ME TO
PASS BY THE FOUR CORNERS OF THE COURT; AND, BEHOLD, IN EVERY CORNER OF THE
COURT THERE WAS A COURT.
[Ezekiel 46:22] IN THE FOUR CORNERS OF THE COURT THERE WERE COURTS JOINED OF
FORTY CUBITS LONG AND THIRTY BROAD: THESE FOUR CORNERS WERE OF ONE
[Ezekiel 46:23] AND THERE WAS A ROW OF BUILDING ROUND ABOUT IN THEM, ROUND ABOUT
THEM FOUR, AND IT WAS MADE WITH BOILING PLACES UNDER THE ROWS ROUND
[Ezekiel 46:24] THEN SAID HE UNTO ME, THESE ARE THE PLACES OF THEM THAT BOIL,
WHERE THE MINISTERS OF THE HOUSE SHALL BOIL THE SACRIFICE OF THE PEOPLE.
[Ezekiel 47:1] AFTERWARD HE BROUGHT ME AGAIN UNTO THE DOOR OF THE HOUSE; AND,
BEHOLD, WATERS ISSUED OUT FROM UNDER THE THRESHOLD OF THE HOUSE EASTWARD: FOR
THE FOREFRONT OF THE HOUSE STOOD TOWARD THE EAST, AND THE WATERS CAME DOWN FROM
UNDER FROM THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE HOUSE, AT THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ALTAR.
The Temple Mount in Jerusalem has
underneath it numerous tunnels, great cavities, and also underground streams of
water whose source is not clear. There are a lot of things we do not know of
this nature. The Sinai Desert, for instance, according to an analysis of
satellite photographs may possess a vast underground sea of possibly fresh
[Ezekiel 47:2] THEN BROUGHT HE ME OUT OF THE WAY OF THE GATE NORTHWARD, AND LED
ME ABOUT THE WAY WITHOUT UNTO THE UTTER GATE BY THE WAY THAT LOOKETH EASTWARD;
AND, BEHOLD, THERE RAN OUT WATERS ON THE RIGHT SIDE.
[Ezekiel 47:3] AND WHEN THE MAN THAT HAD THE LINE IN HIS HAND WENT FORTH
EASTWARD, HE MEASURED A THOUSAND CUBITS, AND HE BROUGHT ME THROUGH THE WATERS;
THE WATERS WERE TO THE ANKLES.
[Ezekiel 47:4] AGAIN HE MEASURED A THOUSAND, AND BROUGHT ME THROUGH THE WATERS;
THE WATERS WERE TO THE KNEES. AGAIN HE MEASURED A THOUSAND, AND BROUGHT ME
THROUGH; THE WATERS WERE TO THE LOINS.
The further away they went from the
source of the waters, the deeper they became.
[Ezekiel 47:5] AFTERWARD HE MEASURED A THOUSAND; AND IT WAS A RIVER THAT I COULD
NOT PASS OVER: FOR THE WATERS WERE RISEN, WATERS TO SWIM IN, A RIVER THAT COULD
NOT BE PASSED OVER.
[Ezekiel 47:6] AND HE SAID UNTO ME, SON OF MAN, HAST THOU SEEN THIS" THEN HE
BROUGHT ME, AND CAUSED ME TO RETURN TO THE BRINK OF THE
[Ezekiel 47:7] NOW WHEN I HAD RETURNED, BEHOLD, AT THE BANK OF THE RIVER WERE
VERY MANY TREES ON THE ONE SIDE AND ON THE OTHER.
[Ezekiel 47:8] THEN SAID HE UNTO ME, THESE WATERS ISSUE OUT TOWARD THE EAST
COUNTRY, AND GO DOWN INTO THE DESERT, AND GO INTO THE SEA: WHICH BEING BROUGHT
FORTH INTO THE SEA, THE WATERS SHALL BE HEALED.
The Dead Sea is now so salty that you
can float in it without sinking. It will be sweetened and become a source of
[Ezekiel 47:9] AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS, THAT EVERY THING THAT LIVETH, WHICH
MOVETH, WHITHERSOEVER THE RIVERS SHALL COME, SHALL LIVE: AND THERE SHALL BE A
VERY GREAT MULTITUDE OF FISH, BECAUSE THESE WATERS SHALL COME THITHER: FOR THEY
SHALL BE HEALED; AND EVERY THING SHALL LIVE WHITHER THE RIVER COMETH.
There will be a plentitude of fish in
[Ezekiel 47:10] AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS, THAT THE FISHERS SHALL STAND UPON IT
FROM ENGEDI EVEN UNTO ENEGLAIM; THEY SHALL BE A PLACE TO SPREAD FORTH NETS;
THEIR FISH SHALL BE ACCORDING TO THEIR KINDS, AS THE FISH OF THE GREAT SEA,
[Ezekiel 47:11] BUT THE MIRY PLACES THEREOF AND THE MARISHES THEREOF SHALL NOT
BE HEALED; THEY SHALL BE GIVEN TO SALT.
[Ezekiel 47:12] AND BY THE RIVER UPON THE BANK THEREOF, ON THIS SIDE AND ON THAT
SIDE, SHALL GROW ALL TREES FOR MEAT, WHOSE LEAF SHALL NOT FADE, NEITHER SHALL
THE FRUIT THEREOF BE CONSUMED: IT SHALL BRING FORTH NEW FRUIT ACCORDING TO HIS
MONTHS, BECAUSE THEIR WATERS THEY ISSUED OUT OF THE SANCTUARY: AND THE FRUIT
THEREOF SHALL BE FOR MEAT, AND THE LEAF THEREOF FOR MEDICINE.
<<MEAT: Hebrew, "ma-acol",
[Ezekiel 47:13] THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; THIS SHALL BE THE BORDER, WHEREBY YE
SHALL INHERIT THE LAND ACCORDING TO THE TWELVE TRIBES OF ISRAEL: JOSEPH SHALL
HAVE TWO PORTIONS.
[Ezekiel 47:14] AND YE SHALL INHERIT IT, ONE AS WELL AS ANOTHER: CONCERNING THE
WHICH I LIFTED UP MINE HAND TO GIVE IT UNTO YOUR FATHERS: AND THIS LAND SHALL
FALL UNTO YOU FOR INHERITANCE.
[Ezekiel 47:15] AND THIS SHALL BE THE BORDER OF THE LAND TOWARD THE NORTH SIDE,
FROM THE GREAT SEA, THE WAY OF HETHLON, AS MEN GO TO ZEDAD;
[Ezekiel 47:16] HAMATH, BEROTHAH, SIBRAIM, WHICH IS BETWEEN THE BORDER OF
DAMASCUS AND THE BORDER OF HAMATH; HAZAR HATTICON, WHICH IS BY THE COAST OF
[Ezekiel 47:17] AND THE BORDER FROM THE SEA SHALL BE HAZARENAN, THE BORDER OF
DAMASCUS, AND THE NORTH NORTHWARD, AND THE BORDER OF HAMATH. AND THIS IS THE
In the notes below we have identified
"Damascus" in Biblical terms with the region of
in southeast Turkey and to the east of
Another alternative (not entirely contradictory) would place "Damascus" in
Biblical terms in the Habor
River region in eastern Syria.
I just came across an entry ("Near Eastern Archaeology in the Twentieth
Century", edited by James A. Sanders, 1970, article by Abraham
p. 173, note 2) that claims that in ancient times there were two places
identified with Damascus (Apum)
one where the present city of Damascus is and the other "in the
region". He quotes ancient texts and academic sources that I have not yet
Adapted from "Lost Israelite Identity" by
The northern borders of Israelite occupation reached into the present day
region of Armenia. The River Euphrates along all its course appears to have
served as the boundary. The area of Biblical Damascus was not present-day
"Damascus" but rather another place situated on the Euphrates and as a city-site
is identical with Meskine
in northern Syria. Damascus was also the name of the surrounding district that
seems to have encompassed Cilicia
and the rivers Ceyhan
in modern southeast Turkey. The Tribes of Dan and Judah were to
outlying provinces of their own within this "Damascus" region. The northern area
of Dan (the Dananu)
was known in Assyrian Inscriptions as "Smal"
and that of Judah as "Yadi"
(i.e. "Judah" in Assyrian). Jeroboam-ii (785-758
King of northern Israel "returned Damascus and
to Judah in Israel" (2-Kings 14;28): referring to the Israelites and
temporarily regaining control over their northern territories*1.
DAMASCUS was far to the north near (or in
and not Damascus of today. The
Yadi (of Judah) ruled over the
Mushkabim19 who (according to a bi-lingual Phoenician-Hittite inscription) are
apparently identical with the
Moshki or people of
who were also subjects of the
Dananu king from the Tribe of Dan
in the north. The names Mushkabim
support the notion that Smal
are identical with the Biblical
Da-Meshek i.e. Damascus:-
"Damascus [i.e. Da-Meshek]
to Judah in Israel" (2 Kings 14;28). Both the
of Judah ruled over the same subject
people who later were known as
Muski and are identified with the
Phrygians. There were periods when both the
were ruled by the same monarch. At some stage they separated,
a king of Yadi
backed the subject Mushkabim
against the Baririm
or nobility of his own people and also enlisted Assyrian help against the
The ultimate result was that both kingdoms were destroyed and the
exiled. Centuries later the Jutes (from "Yadi"")
were to settle in Denmark and a Danish tradition traced the Jutes to Judah and
the Danes to Dan. Dan and Judah were often linked throughout their histories as
explained in "The Tribes".
In the Book of Ezekiel (48;1) it says concerning the future apportionment of the
Promised Land amongst the Israelite Tribes,
"From the north end to the coast ...as one goes to
border of Damascus northward, to the coast of
portion for Dan".
This verse according to Commentaries indicates that Dan is destined
to receive a portion stretching beyond
on the Orontes)
and into the region northward of it. This
Promise seems to have had an historical precedent.
ISRAELITE BORDERS IN THE FAR NORTH: DAMASCUS, DAN, AND NORTHERN JUDAH
The region of Cilicia
in the southeast of present day Turkey extending to
on the Euphrates River in Biblical times was known as "Damascus" or as Damascus
of "Judah in Israel". It was to be ruled by enclaves of settlers from the
Israelite Tribes of Judah and Dan.
Proofs that this region was Israelite consist of the following:
David put garrisons in Syria Damascus and established his dominion by the
"And David smote
Hadarezer king of
as he went to establish his dominion by the river Euphrates.
".....Then David put garrisons in
Damascus [Syria Damascus]." (1 Chronicles 18;3,6).
cf. "And Solomon went to
and prevailed against it.
"And he built Tadmor
in the wilderness, and all the store cities, which he built in
(2 Chronicles 8;3 4).
"Damascus" in Biblical terms did not usually refer to the Damascus of today but
rather (when speaking of a city) to
in north Syria on the Euphrates River and (when speaking of a country) including
all the area to the north, east, and west.
Note that Hamath
in the Bible mostly means a country (and not just one city as sometimes
supposed) and in the above verse it has (several) store cities built in it.
King Solomon established an economic base in the province of
though this fact has been often overlooked due to a misunderstanding in the King
The KJ says,
"And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn
the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a price".
"And a chariot came up and went out of Egypt for six hundred shekels
of silver, and an horse for an hundred and fifty: and so for all the kings of
the Hittites, and for the kings of Syria, did they bring them out by their
means.." (1 Kings 10;28 29).
The word ("KU") translated in the KJ as "linen yarn" actually was
the name of a place transliterated as "Qu",
or as Qeve.
This place was Cilicia
in southeast Turkey.
"The kings of Aram"
may be referring to north Syria though there were also Tribes of
concentrated in north Mesopotamia and others scattered in the south.
It may be concluded that Solomon had a base in
(i.e. in Ku), a monopoly on the horse trade with "Mitsrayim"
which could also refer to northern regions, and trading leverage throughout the
Middle East and north Mesopotamian region.
was eventually controlled by the
Dananu rulers of
in Hebrew means "left" (as opposed to right) and the left side was considered
the Northern one.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS reveal connections between the various parts of the
Israelite Kingdom. Buildings in
Smal, in the
(Northern Damascus region), and
are similar in style to those later or contemporaneously associated with the
reigns of Kings David and Solomon in Israel. Inscriptions show that some kings
had Hebraic names.
Jeroboam 2 (785 758 b.c.e),
"returned Damascus and Hamath
to Judah in Israel" (2 Kings 14;28). "To return" implies that the receiver had
previous and rightful possession. "Damascus and
mean here the regions between
on the north Syrian coast and
Meskine on the Euphrates. This
was the southern region of Luash
) of Smal
in Assyrian is synonymous with Judah.
was also known as "Yaudi",
which were all dialectical forms in Assyrian and Caucasian areas for Judah.
Jeroboam 2 King of Northern Israel had
"returned Damascus and
to Judah in Israel".
Perhaps the meaning is that he returned those regions to
which was just to the north of them,
being "Judah in Israel"" i.e. that entity of Judah which was within the boundary
of the northern kingdom of Israel as distinct from the independent southern
kingdom of Judah in the south"
Jeroboam 2 (the son of
was contemporary (2 Kings 15;1 2) with
(also called Uziah
2-Chronicles 26;1) king of Judah. The northern
had become dominated by a dynasty that favored the subject
people over the Israelite aristocracy and it was this situation that Jeroboam-ii
came to rectify. After Jeroboam's demise (in 758
of Judah led a coalition of 19 mainly northern states against Assyria.
etc., were all in the coalition of
is termed "Azariah
by the Assyrians. "Yadi"
is the Assyrian term for JUDAH. "YADI"
(in this case) meant either Judah in the south (over which
ruled) or Yadi
in the north (over which Azariah
may have had suzerainity)
or both. The allies were defeated by
iii in ca.738 b.c.e.
All the kings EXCEPT AZARIAH
submitted to Assyria. The northern kingdoms of
were destroyed. One inscription records exiles from
being taken to Ullubu
in the former land of Urartu.
The territory of Ullubu
was approximately that of the
Urartian Provinces of
i.e. of "Mutsri"
being the northern Egypt, in modern Armenia.
The site of ancient Damascus has not yet been uncovered. It is not
the Damascus of today. The position of Damascus is of interest to us since
DAMASCUS was apparently within the boundaries of the northern border of Israel
which reached to the Euphrates (Genesis 15;18) and is one of the marks of
Israel's boundary in the Messianic era (Ezekiel 47;17 18).
Identifying ancient Damascus serves as an exemplary indicator
concerning the location of other places. Damascus was the name of both a region
and a city. There was "Syria of Damascus" ("Aram
in Hebrew in 2 Samuel 8;5). The
Arami (i.e. "Syrians") were an
ethnic group with members in both Mesopotamia and the Syrian region. The
Israelite Hebrews could also refer to themselves as
(Deuteronomy 26;5*) and were called "Arami"
by others*. Likewise, the Scythians according to Pliny (N.H.16;9) were
originally called "Arami".
(Syria of Damascus) was part of, or closely associated with,
(1 Chron.13;5 2-Samuel 8;5).
Zobah equals the area called
by the Assyrians. This area bordered Assyria on the west.
It was noted above that
also originally meant a place to the north and included the northern Syrian port
city of Antiochea.
Jeremiah (49;23) linked Damascus with
Amos (1;5) associated Damascus with the House of Eden meaning the State of Bit
in Assyrian records. All these areas linked with Damascus are places to the
northwest of Syria.
A Syrian general Naaman,
when told to bathe in the Jordan expostulated,
"Are not Abana
rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel"" (2 Kings 5;12).
From this verse it may be learned that Damascus had two rivers,
both of which were probably more impressive than the Jordan River. Present day
visitors see the Jordan as a narrow stream but this is because most of its water
is diverted for irrigation. In Biblical times the climate of the Middle East was
colder and wetter. There were vast forests which served to conserve moisture and
lower temperature. The Jordan River was deeper and wider than it now is. The
former banks may still be seen beside the Jordan today. They show where the
water once reached. It must have been quite impressive by any standards.
In the Middle East place names move and in some cases are based on
little more than local Arab imagination. The town now called Damascus does have
two rivers but these are hardly comparable to the Jordan even as it now and even
less so when compared to how it must once have been.
There were two Rivers in
which in Classical Literature are known as the
Both these rivers are of impressive size and carry a large quantity of water.
Both could well have compared
favourably with the Jordan. Even
today the quantity of freshwater that pours into the sea from these rivers if
properly harnessed could solve most water shortage problems in the Middle East.
River in a Hittite document is called the "Pu
This name is believed to be derived from a similar root as the Hebrew "PARAR".
means `to break in pieces' and expresses the action of a violent stream. The
English word "poor" similarly comes from the Hebrew "PUR"
meaning "a small piece" or broken remnant. One of the Rivers of Damascus
recalled by the Syrian general
Naaman (mentioned above) was
in Hebrew are derived from the same root and have a similar sound. The
River of Classical Literature is therefore the
of the Hittites and the "Parpar"
River of Damascus in the Bible.
River in Cilicia
of southeast Turkey is now called the
River. It is just to the west (see Map) of the
Mountain Range. The Abana
were the two rivers of Damascus. The
has just been identified as the
Pyramus, leaving the
to still be located. In the Hebrew Bible (Masoretic
Text) it will be noticed (2 Kings 5;12) that the word
River) has none of the usual vowel points and besides it in the margin is the
word "AMANA". There are a few similar cases of this phenomenon in the Hebrew
Bible. The reasons are not always clear but the practical traditionally accepted
implication is that the word in the text must always be pronounced as it is in
the margin even though it is written differently! In other words, the Jewish
Hebrew traditionalists always pronounced the word transliterated as "Abana"
in 2 Kings 5;12 as "AMANA"! It stands to reason that the river Amana (i.e.
of Damascus would have been relatively close to the
which was the other river of Damascus and also that it was in the vicinity of
the similarly named AMANUS
Mountain Range which is also called Amana in the Song of Solomon (4;8) I would
suggest that the river concerned was the
or the northeast tributary of the
which is to the east of the
Amanus Mountains. This solution
places the Abana
to the southeast of the Amanus
Mountains and the Parpar
to the west. This was approximately the region of
which fits the description "returned Damascus and
to Judah in Israel" (2 Kings 14;28). The city of Damascus will be demonstrated
as having been that of Thapsacus
on the Euphrates. A solution which has the ancient Land of
Damascus stretch from Thapsacus
to the northwest of neighbouring
and encompass the strategic
Amanus Mountains solves most of
the Geographical requirements posited for the location of Damascus in Scripture.
The subject (non-Israelite) population of
of the Dananu
were called "Mushkabim"
It had been prophesied that the Ten Tribes of Israel would be "scattered beyond
the river" (1-Kings 14;15) meaning according to the Aramaic Translation of
"Beyond the Euphrates". Amos the Prophet foresaw the exile of Israel "beyond
Damascus" (Amos 5;27).
"For the LORD shall smite Israel as a reed is shaken in the water,
and he shall root up Israel out of this good land, which he gave to their
fathers, and shall scatter them beyond the river, because they have made groves,
provoking the LORD to anger.
"And he shall give Israel up because of the sins of Jeroboam, who
did sin, and who made Israel to sin" (1 Kings 14;15-15-16).
"Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus,
the LORD, whose name is The God of hosts" (Amos 5;27).
By assuming that the Damascus spoken of in Scripture was by the
Euphrates River the above verses are reconciled with each other.
Proof From Ezekiel That Biblical Damascus Was Far To The North.
(Main sources: Eiseman
on Ezekiel, Bar-Deroma).
Ezekiel (47;17 18) placed Damascus on the northern or north east
boundary of Israel which reached at least up to the Euphrates River (Genesis
15;18). Ezekiel in chapter 47 describes the future allocation of the Promised
Land to the Tribes of Israel. Ezekiel (ch.48) divides the Land up into 13
portions. Each portion is 150,000 cubits wide:
A cubit equals between 18 to 24 inches depending upon which opinion
is relied upon. This measurement gives a minimum of 42.6 miles per portion.
Between Jerusalem and the northern border there were 7 portions which gives us
298 miles and brings us to the Euphrates River to the city of
otherwise known as Meskine.
is the Biblical city of Damascus. Damascus in Hebrew is pronounced as
Scholars for some time have been interpreting this name as "DA-MESHEK"
and relating it to the Meshki
people who dwelt in the area.
Abraham the patriarch said,
"The steward of my house is
of Damascus" (Genesis 15;2).
This verse contains a play on words. The words translated as "Steward" in Hebrew
which may also be understood to mean "Man of
i.e. the verse may alternately be read,
"The man of Meshek
[(serving)] in my house is
"Man of Meshek"
being naturally a native of
Da-Meshek this being
on the Euphrates adjoining the territories of the
who later were ruled by the
and the Israelite Dananu..
[It should be noted that there exist other opinions concerning the
location of Damascus IN CONTRADICTION TO OUR OWN. One of these views is that of
who places Biblical Damascus in Mesopotamia! This opinion is placed on several
arguments, amongst which are the following:
were to be found in Mesopotamia as well as around
There was an important canal linking the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. This canal
was called Avena
which he interprets as Abana.
There was also a nearby area called
A Talmudic passage (Erubin
19a) states that a place called
Dumaskinin (i.e. Damascus") was
the most beautiful site in the Mesopotamian region.]
NEVERTHELESS, the identification of
with Damascus of Scripture fits all of the Biblical passages. It accords with
the identification of the Parpar
River as the Pyramus
and of the Abena
(Amana) as the Orontes
tributary east of the Amanus
mountains. It identifies Scriptural Damascus with
of Judah and thus clarifies the verse, "returned
and Damascus to Judah in Israel". It also accords with the axiom that places the
boundary of Israel on the Euphrates River even though from time to time
excursions were made to the east of it, and it corresponds with the border
measurements based on Ezekiel.
[Ezekiel 47:18] AND THE EAST SIDE YE SHALL MEASURE FROM HAURAN, AND FROM
DAMASCUS, AND FROM GILEAD, AND FROM THE LAND OF ISRAEL BY JORDAN, FROM THE
BORDER UNTO THE EAST SEA. AND THIS IS THE EAST SIDE.
[Ezekiel 47:19] AND THE SOUTH SIDE SOUTHWARD, FROM TAMAR EVEN TO THE WATERS OF
STRIFE IN KADESH, THE RIVER TO THE GREAT SEA. AND THIS IS THE SOUTH SIDE
[Ezekiel 47:20] THE WEST SIDE ALSO SHALL BE THE GREAT SEA FROM THE BORDER, TILL
A MAN COME OVER AGAINST HAMATH. THIS IS THE WEST SIDE.
[Ezekiel 47:21] SO SHALL YE DIVIDE THIS LAND UNTO YOU ACCORDING TO THE TRIBES OF
The Land of Israel shall be divided
amongst the Tribes of Israel. This land stretches from the western Nile
Tributary eastward to the Persian Gulf. It includes Kuwait and parts of Saudi
Arabia and Iraq. In the east it also cuts into Iraq and goes northward to the
Caucasus taking in parts of eastern Turkey and Island of Cyprus. In the future
there will be climatic changes and a bounty of water enabling the settlement of
large Israelite populations. Whether all the Israelites will resettle in the
Land or only representative (though large) portions from each family (as seems
possible) is uncertain.
[Ezekiel 47:22] AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS, THAT YE SHALL DIVIDE IT BY LOT FOR AN
INHERITANCE UNTO YOU, AND TO THE STRANGERS THAT SOJOURN AMONG YOU, WHICH SHALL
BEGET CHILDREN AMONG YOU: AND THEY SHALL BE UNTO YOU AS BORN IN THE COUNTRY
AMONG THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL; THEY SHALL HAVE INHERITANCE WITH YOU AMONG THE
TRIBES OF ISRAEL.
Non-Israelites who have settled amongst
us, identified with us and shared our trials and tribulations alongside us will
be considered as the same as us. They will be part of whatsoever Tribe of Israel
they have dwelt amongst.
[Ezekiel 47:23] AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS, THAT IN WHAT TRIBE THE STRANGER
SOJOURNETH, THERE SHALL YE GIVE HIM HIS INHERITANCE, SAITH THE LORD
[Ezekiel 48:1] NOW THESE ARE THE NAMES OF THE TRIBES. FROM THE NORTH END TO THE
COAST OF THE WAY OF HETHLON, AS ONE GOETH TO HAMATH, HAZARENAN, THE BORDER OF
DAMASCUS NORTHWARD, TO THE COAST OF HAMATH; FOR THESE ARE HIS SIDES EAST AND
WEST; A PORTION FOR DAN.
This is the final chapter of Ezekiel. It
concentrates on the division of the western section of the Land amongst the
Tribes. [We understood that the western section is divided equally and in square
shaped areas but other opinions say it is not divided equally only that it is
At all events the eastern section apparently will be divided according to other
criteria]. Ezekiel began with describing the departure of the Divine Presence
from Jerusalem and he ends in the final verse by saying that this will return
and all will know of the Return. The Return is connected with the Return and
re-location of the Tribes. This is very important. Tribal identification and the
return of the Tribes is important before the Almighty. It should be important to
all of us. A first prerequisite is acknowledgment of Israelite heritage, of
Israelite ancestry. Probably only in the Messianic era will most of us know, or
be sure of what we know, concerning which specific Tribe we belong to.
In the book, "The Tribes", we used historical names, symbols, Biblical and
Rabbinical sources, anything that seemed pertinent, etc, to arrive at Tribal
approximations primarily at the national level. This was done after an extended
period of significant effort on several levels. On the whole it worked.
Since the publication of "The Tribes" more evidence has come to light, groups of
people from the countries in question have met up with us, scholars have
corresponded, etc. The identifications hold.
We can refine and strengthen these national findings. We can also, in all kinds
of ways, to a degree further refine our identities within the areas in question.
Within the USA go to:
This will tell you where in the USA your family name is the most concentrated.
This is a beginning. It may well be that to the degree that different Israelite
Tribes are in the USA and their distribution changes from State to State and
your family name is inherited then you belong to the group represented by where
your name is concentrated. And it may not be so. So we try something else and
attempt to confirm whatever we find in other ways. Or we leave it for the
Messianic era. Nevertheless awareness of Israelite Identity in general is
something we must achieve. This must be internalized. This to my mind borders on
a religious obligation. This is part of your individual destiny and it is the
particular goal of this generation of Israelites from the Ten Tribes.
indicates that the division amongst the Tribes in Ezekiel refers to that of the
Land of Israel but that each tribe will inherit "from one end of the world to
the other". What they inherit however in the rest of the world will somehow be
connected to what they inherit in the Land of Israel. It is as if a line goes
out from their inheritance in the Land of Israel to wherever else they may be.
[Ezekiel 48:2] AND BY THE BORDER OF DAN, FROM THE EAST SIDE UNTO THE WEST SIDE,
A PORTION FOR ASHER.
The Divisions given in Ezekiel reflect
those in the Wilderness with significant differences here and there. Ezekiel
places Dan at the far north and historically (as shown in "Lost Israelite
Identity") a portion of Dan did break away and seize territory of its own in
Eastern Turkey to the North of Syria. They also seized the Island of Cyprus
which was called "Ydnna"
(Isle of Dan") by the Assyrians.
[Ezekiel 48:3] AND BY THE BORDER OF ASHER, FROM THE EAST SIDE EVEN UNTO THE WEST
SIDE, A PORTION FOR NAPHTALI.
In the north: Dan, Asher,
Naphtali, Manasseh, Ephraim,
THE CITY AREA: Levi, The Messianic Prince, chosen Israelites from all the
In the south:
Benjamin, Simeon, Issachar,
[Ezekiel 48:4] AND BY THE BORDER OF NAPHTALI, FROM THE EAST SIDE UNTO THE WEST
SIDE, A PORTION FOR MANASSEH.
[Ezekiel 48:5] AND BY THE BORDER OF MANASSEH, FROM THE EAST SIDE UNTO THE WEST
SIDE, A PORTION FOR EPHRAIM.
[Ezekiel 48:6] AND BY THE BORDER OF EPHRAIM, FROM THE EAST SIDE EVEN UNTO THE
WEST SIDE, A PORTION FOR REUBEN.
[Ezekiel 48:7] AND BY THE BORDER OF REUBEN, FROM THE EAST SIDE UNTO THE WEST
SIDE, A PORTION FOR JUDAH.
[Ezekiel 48:8] AND BY THE BORDER OF JUDAH, FROM THE EAST SIDE UNTO THE WEST
SIDE, SHALL BE THE OFFERING WHICH YE SHALL OFFER OF FIVE AND TWENTY THOUSAND
REEDS IN BREADTH, AND IN LENGTH AS ONE OF THE OTHER PARTS, FROM THE EAST SIDE
UNTO THE WEST SIDE: AND THE SANCTUARY SHALL BE IN THE MIDST OF IT.
[Ezekiel 48:9] THE OBLATION THAT YE SHALL OFFER UNTO THE LORD SHALL BE OF FIVE
AND TWENTY THOUSAND IN LENGTH, AND OF TEN THOUSAND IN
<<OBLATION: Hebrew, "trumah"
[Ezekiel 48:10] AND FOR THEM, EVEN FOR THE PRIESTS, SHALL BE THIS HOLY
OBLATION; TOWARD THE NORTH FIVE AND TWENTY THOUSAND IN LENGTH, AND TOWARD THE
WEST TEN THOUSAND IN BREADTH, AND TOWARD THE EAST TEN THOUSAND IN BREADTH, AND
TOWARD THE SOUTH FIVE AND TWENTY THOUSAND IN LENGTH: AND THE SANCTUARY OF THE
LORD SHALL BE IN THE MIDST THEREOF.
[Ezekiel 48:11] IT SHALL BE FOR THE PRIESTS THAT ARE SANCTIFIED OF THE SONS OF
ZADOK; WHICH HAVE KEPT MY CHARGE, WHICH WENT NOT ASTRAY WHEN THE CHILDREN OF
ISRAEL WENT ASTRAY, AS THE LEVITES WENT ASTRAY.
[Ezekiel 48:12] AND THIS OBLATION OF THE LAND THAT IS OFFERED SHALL BE UNTO THEM
A THING MOST HOLY BY THE BORDER OF THE LEVITES.
[Ezekiel 48:13] AND OVER AGAINST THE BORDER OF THE PRIESTS THE LEVITES SHALL
HAVE FIVE AND TWENTY THOUSAND IN LENGTH, AND TEN THOUSAND IN BREADTH: ALL THE
LENGTH SHALL BE FIVE AND TWENTY THOUSAND, AND THE BREADTH TEN
[Ezekiel 48:14] AND THEY SHALL NOT SELL OF IT, NEITHER EXCHANGE, NOR ALIENATE
THE FIRSTFRUITS OF THE LAND: FOR IT IS HOLY UNTO THE LORD.
[Ezekiel 48:15] AND THE FIVE THOUSAND, THAT ARE LEFT IN THE BREADTH OVER AGAINST
THE FIVE AND TWENTY THOUSAND, SHALL BE A PROFANE PLACE FOR THE CITY, FOR
DWELLING, AND FOR SUBURBS: AND THE CITY SHALL BE IN THE MIDST
[Ezekiel 48:16] AND THESE SHALL BE THE MEASURES THEREOF; THE NORTH SIDE FOUR
THOUSAND AND FIVE HUNDRED, AND THE SOUTH SIDE FOUR THOUSAND AND FIVE HUNDRED,
AND ON THE EAST SIDE FOUR THOUSAND AND FIVE HUNDRED, AND THE WEST SIDE FOUR
THOUSAND AND FIVE HUNDRED.
[Ezekiel 48:17] AND THE SUBURBS OF THE CITY SHALL BE TOWARD THE NORTH TWO
HUNDRED AND FIFTY, AND TOWARD THE SOUTH TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY, AND TOWARD THE
EAST TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY, AND TOWARD THE WEST TWO HUNDRED AND
[Ezekiel 48:18] AND THE RESIDUE IN LENGTH OVER AGAINST THE OBLATION OF THE HOLY
PORTION SHALL BE TEN THOUSAND EASTWARD, AND TEN THOUSAND WESTWARD: AND IT SHALL
BE OVER AGAINST THE OBLATION OF THE HOLY PORTION; AND THE INCREASE THEREOF SHALL
BE FOR FOOD UNTO THEM THAT SERVE THE CITY.
[Ezekiel 48:19] AND THEY THAT SERVE THE CITY SHALL SERVE IT OUT OF ALL THE
TRIBES OF ISRAEL.
Members of all the tribes will dwell in
the Holy City. In ancient times the Israelites had to separate two tithes from
their agricultural produce. The first tithe was for the Priests (Cohans)
and Levites who served in the Temple and also instructed and supervised the
people. The second tithe in the third and six years was given to the poor and
the Levites. In the seventh year all the produce belonged to everybody so there
were no tithes. In the first, second, fourth, and fifth years (of each
seven-year cycle) the second tithe had to be eaten within the confines of
Jerusalem. It could be eaten by anybody. Those who separated the second tithe
could eat it themselves or give it to whomsoever they wished just as long as it
was eaten in Jerusalem. Alternately, it could be exchanged for its monetary
value (plus 25%) and the money taken to Jerusalem and there used to buy second
tithes from others to be eaten in Jerusalem. The object of all this it has been
said was to encourage each family to have members of the family living
permanently in Jerusalem. These family members would study and work and their
income be provided for (or at least supplemented) by offerings of second tithes
of the other family members. The advantages of this were that every family of
Israel would have a minimum family base within Jerusalem and a family member who
would know the Law well.
[Ezekiel 48:20] ALL THE OBLATION SHALL BE FIVE AND TWENTY THOUSAND BY FIVE AND
TWENTY THOUSAND: YE SHALL OFFER THE HOLY OBLATION FOURSQUARE, WITH THE
POSSESSION OF THE CITY.
[Ezekiel 48:21] AND THE RESIDUE SHALL BE FOR THE PRINCE, ON THE ONE SIDE AND ON
THE OTHER OF THE HOLY OBLATION, AND OF THE POSSESSION OF THE CITY, OVER
AGAINST THE FIVE AND TWENTY THOUSAND OF THE OBLATION TOWARD THE EAST BORDER, AND
WESTWARD OVER AGAINST THE FIVE AND TWENTY THOUSAND TOWARD THE WEST BORDER, OVER
AGAINST THE PORTIONS FOR THE PRINCE: AND IT SHALL BE THE HOLY OBLATION; AND THE
SANCTUARY OF THE HOUSE SHALL BE IN THE MIDST THEREOF.
[Ezekiel 48:22] MOREOVER FROM THE POSSESSION OF THE LEVITES, AND FROM THE
POSSESSION OF THE CITY, BEING IN THE MIDST OF THAT WHICH IS THE PRINCE'S,
BETWEEN THE BORDER OF JUDAH AND THE BORDER OF BENJAMIN, SHALL BE FOR THE
[Ezekiel 48:23] AS FOR THE REST OF THE TRIBES, FROM THE EAST SIDE UNTO THE WEST
SIDE, BENJAMIN SHALL HAVE A PORTION.
[Ezekiel 48:24] AND BY THE BORDER OF BENJAMIN, FROM THE EAST SIDE UNTO THE WEST
SIDE, SIMEON SHALL HAVE A PORTION.
[Ezekiel 48:25] AND BY THE BORDER OF SIMEON, FROM THE EAST SIDE UNTO THE WEST
SIDE, ISSACHAR A PORTION.
[Ezekiel 48:26] AND BY THE BORDER OF ISSACHAR, FROM THE EAST SIDE UNTO THE WEST
SIDE, ZEBULUN A PORTION.
[Ezekiel 48:27] AND BY THE BORDER OF ZEBULUN, FROM THE EAST SIDE UNTO THE WEST
SIDE, GAD A PORTION.
[Ezekiel 48:28] AND BY THE BORDER OF GAD, AT THE SOUTH SIDE SOUTHWARD, THE
BORDER SHALL BE EVEN FROM TAMAR UNTO THE WATERS OF STRIFE IN KADESH, AND TO THE
RIVER TOWARD THE GREAT SEA.
[Ezekiel 48:29] THIS IS THE LAND WHICH YE SHALL DIVIDE BY LOT UNTO THE TRIBES OF
ISRAEL FOR INHERITANCE, AND THESE ARE THEIR PORTIONS, SAITH THE LORD
[Ezekiel 48:30] AND THESE ARE THE GOINGS OUT OF THE CITY ON THE NORTH SIDE, FOUR
THOUSAND AND FIVE HUNDRED MEASURES.
[Ezekiel 48:31] AND THE GATES OF THE CITY SHALL BE AFTER THE NAMES OF THE TRIBES
OF ISRAEL: THREE GATES NORTHWARD; ONE GATE OF REUBEN, ONE GATE OF JUDAH, ONE
GATE OF LEVI.
The City Gates: Each Tribe will have a
gate to the city of its own.
North: Reuben, Judah, Levi
East: Joseph, Benjamin, Dan"
South: Simeon, Issachar,
West: Gad, Asher, Naphtali
The Twelve-Tribe Quorum: There were actually 13 tribes but twelve always only
counted. This chapter illustrates the principle. In the list of territorial
allocations Ephraim and Manasseh are counted as separate tribes. Levi is not
listed since his territory was bound up with the central portion of the Prince
and City. In the list of the gates Ephraim and Manasseh are counted together as
Joseph and Levi is listed separately. In each case 12 separate entities are
listed and not 13. This also shows that even though Ephraim and Manasseh were
separate tribes (in Biblical times they sometimes fought each other!) in some
ways in the eyes of God and practical reality (a gate) they could be considered
[Ezekiel 48:32] AND AT THE EAST SIDE FOUR THOUSAND AND FIVE HUNDRED: AND THREE
GATES; AND ONE GATE OF JOSEPH, ONE GATE OF BENJAMIN, ONE GATE OF
[Ezekiel 48:33] AND AT THE SOUTH SIDE FOUR THOUSAND AND FIVE HUNDRED MEASURES:
AND THREE GATES; ONE GATE OF SIMEON, ONE GATE OF ISSACHAR, ONE GATE OF ZEBULUN.
[Ezekiel 48:34] AT THE WEST SIDE FOUR THOUSAND AND FIVE HUNDRED, WITH THEIR
THREE GATES; ONE GATE OF GAD, ONE GATE OF ASHER, ONE GATE OF NAPHTALI.
[Ezekiel 48:35] IT WAS ROUND ABOUT EIGHTEEN THOUSAND MEASURES: AND THE NAME OF
THE CITY FROM THAT DAY SHALL BE, THE LORD IS THERE.
The Presence of God will be known all
over the earth but it will be ESPECIALLY tangible in the Holy City.
The Future Tribal Arrangements:
From North to South (Ezekiel chapter 48):
THE CITY AREA: Levi, The Messianic Prince, chosen Israelites from all the
In the south:
The Future National Arrangements:
Taking different sources together the following picture may be proposed. This is
a PROPOSAL (and nothing more) based on sources as to what may be:
The Messiah or a Process associated with the Messiah will let all Israelites
know what tribe they belong to. Outside of the Land of Israel: Non-Israelites
who have not identified with their Israelite neighbors and/or not gained merit
will be sent away. Those who remain will be counted as belonging to the tribe
amongst whom they dwell. People from different tribes will move to areas were
members of their own tribe are predominant. Each Tribe will be divided according
to clans listed in the Bible. Altogether there are seventy clans.
The Land of Israel in its Biblical proportions (as described by Ezekiel) will be
divided up amongst each of the Tribes. Representatives of each clan will be
given land in their Tribal regions in the Land of Israel. This land can never be
sold, must remain within the Tribe, and is passed on by inheritance.
Families will probably be large and every family will endeavor to have some
family members permanently dwelling in the Holy City Territory which is quite
large. Land in this area (including agricultural areas) will be set aside for
this purpose. Their income will be supplemented by other family members and it
may become a custom for dwelling in Jerusalem to be rotated around the family.
Perhaps couples in the first years after their marriage will spend time in the
Holy City area learning and in spiritual and intellectual invigoration.