Brit-Am Anthropology and DNA Update
25 March 2011, 19 Adar-Sheni 5771
1. Important New Brit-Am Article Rewritten and Re-Arranged.
YDNA haplogroups directly correspond to types of climate!
2. No R1b Before Bronze Age??? A Minority in Medieval Times???
3. Experts Admit Near Eastern Origins of Western Peoples BUT Err as to When the Change Took Place!!!
4. Head-Shape Changes.
5. Jews in Ancient York Physically Similar to Gentiles of York.


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1. YDNA Haplogroups Determined by Climate!
YDNA haplogroups directly correspond to types of climate!
As one moves towards the equator from north to south or (in the southern hemisphere) the opposite the climate becomes warmer. This warming up or cooling down may be modified by closeness to the sea, warm sea currents moving into cold areas, winds, rain, etc.
YDNA haplogroups may also be arranged roughly-speaking on  a north-south basis parallel to temperature.

The Terminology.
Environmental Influence on Man and Animal.
MtDNA and Environmental Influence.
The "Experts" Malign Brit-Am.
African Heat and DNA.
Brit-Am Replies to "Objections".
The Question of Relative
Haplogroup Complexity.
The "Out of Africa" Thesis.
Ancient Y-DNA.

2. No R1b Before Bronze Age??? A Minority in Medieval Times???
R1b is NOW the predominant YDNA haplogroup in Western Europe.
It seems however to be comparatively new.
It was not present (it would seem) in Bronze Age times.
[But King Tut in Egypt may have had it!!!]
Indications are that even in the medieval era (less than a thousand years ago) it was still a minority.
Or was it??
If it was,
What happened in the meantime???
Why are the experts avoiding these questions???
Different sources indicate that:
There was a change in head-shaped amongst North American Indians ca. 1000 CE-1200 CE and also in Europe at about the same time.
We have not been able to locate any conclusive studies on these matter so far but have seen references to them.
Can anybody help?
If the changes did take place:
Were they due to diet?
Were they accompanied by changes in DNA????

3. Experts Admit Near Eastern Origins of Western Peoples BUT Err as to When the Change Took Place!!!

Relevance to Brit-Am:

This article borders in some respects on rubbish. Nevertheless it does show that nowadays numerous DNA "experts" accept that fact that most people of West European extraction originated in the Middle East including the area of Ancient Israel. They say however this happened eons ago long before the Ten Tribes were exiled. Nevertheless, they also will admit that from a purely "scientific" point of view they have no proof as to when the ethnic demographic transfusion took place.
This, for us, is a beginning.
It is a step in the right direction.
They can no longer say we are that far off the mark.

Newspaper Article:
Most Britons descended from male farmers who left Iraq and Syria 10,000 years ago (and were seduced by the local hunter-gatherer women)

By David Derbyshire

Most Britons are direct descendants of farmers who left modern day Iraq and Syria 10,000 years ago, a new study has shown.

After studying the DNA of more than 2,000 men, researchers say they have compelling evidence that four out of five white Europeans can trace their roots to the Near East.

The discovery is shedding light on one of the most important periods of human history - the time when our ancient ancestors abandoned hunting and began to domesticate animals.

The invention of farming led to the first towns and paved the way for the dawn of civilisation.

The Leicester University study looked at a common genetic mutation on the Y chromosome, the DNA that is passed down from fathers to sons.

They found that 80 per cent of European men shared the same Y chromosone mutation and after analysing how the mutation was distributed across Europe, were able to retrace how Europe was colonised around 8,000BC.

The new study suggests the farmers routinely upped sticks and moved west when their villages became too crowded, eventually reaching Britain and Ireland.

The waves of migrants brought their new skills with them. Some settled down with local tribes and taught them how to farm, the researchers believe.

'When the expansion happened these men had a reproductive advantage because they were able to grow more food so they were more attractive to women and had more offspring,' said Prof Jobling.

'In total more than 80 per cent of European men have Y chromosomes which descend from incoming farmers.

'It seems odd to think that the majority of men in Ireland have fore fathers from the near East and that British people have forefathers from the near East.'

The findings are published in the science journal PLoS Biology.

Dr Patricia Balaresque, a co-author of the study, said: 'This means that more than 80 per cent of European Y chromosomes descend from incoming farmers.'

In contrast, other studies have shown that DNA passed down from mothers to daughters can be traced by to hunter-gatherers in Europe, she said.

'To us, this suggests a reproductive advantage for farming males over indigenous hunter-gatherer males during the switch from hunting and gathering, to farming - maybe, back then, it was just sexier to be a farmer,' she said.

Reactions from Others to Article:
The model is wrong on three counts.

1) We now know from Coward,
Shennan et al (2008) that farming spread into Europe by island hopping from Cyprus to Crete to the Greece mainland.

2) R1b1b2 is too late in itself and its calculated expansion time (those big clusters of
subclades) much too late to have spread into Europe in the Neolithic.

3) They claim that the incoming farmers (male) married hunter-gatherer women. In fact two studies last year showed a whole lot of new
mtDNA haplogroups arriving in the Neolithic. The farmers brought their wives along.

However the
Balaresque study was good news in that it shifted the ground from under those still trying to claim R1b1b2 as Palaeolithic.

4. Head-Shape Changes.

Head shapes change with environment.

Relevance to Brit-Am:

Head shapes change with environment. This has been proven from numerous studies and may be seen by everyday observation. The study of Boas (1911) was one of the first to point this out but others said the same and are still saying it. Sparks and Jantz (2002) claimed to have gone over the figures of Boas and proved him wrong. The article below discusses this and shows that Boas was in fact right.

cf. Tacitus: Agricola
# Those who are nearest to the Gauls are also like them, either from the permanent influence of original descent, or, because in countries which run out so far to meet each other, climate has produced similar physical qualities. #

Head shape and size of adult males as possible indicators of childhood stress in northern Jordan (1900-1978): a study in human biology and political economy.(Report)

Boas (1911) studied a group of children born in the United States to parents who were born in Europe. He found that the average cephalic index (CI) of Eastern European Jewish parents was 83%, whereas that of their children was slightly lower, 81%. On the other hand, Sicilians had an average CI of 78% and that of their children was 80%. Boas concluded that the difference in both cases might be due to changes in living conditions, nutrition, environment, or occupation. Recently Sparks and Jantz (2002) reexamined Boas's interpretation using statistical methods that were not available in his time. Sparks and Jantz concluded that head diameters are highly determined by genetic components. Moreover, CI differences between European- and American-born offspring were not statistically significant, and therefore the role of the American environment in shaping the head was concluded to be quite small. Holloway (2002) strongly agreed with Sparks and Jantz, but Gravlee et al. (2003a, 2003b) reached a different conclusion. Using more appropriate methods, they showed that in fact Boas's interpretation was supported by the data.

5. Jews in Ancient York Physically Similar to Gentiles of York.
Jewish cemeteries - ten in England. Partial excavation has been carried out in London and Winchester, and the large cemetery of Jewbury in York was recently excavated. The latter was the burial place for Jews of York, Lincoln and Stamford. There is no intercutting of graves because of the Jewish belief of literal resurrection from the grave. Some clustering of burials by sex was observed, and children were not found in the excavated area. A comparison with people in Christian cemeteries in York suggested little ethnic difference, other than some minor differences in the back of the skull and the maxilla, and high frequencies of some genetic traits suggestive of a closed community.


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