YDNA Haplogroups Determined by Climate!

Contents:
Introduction
The Terminology.
Environmental Influence on Man and Animal.
MtDNA and Environmental Influence.
The "Experts" Malign Brit-Am.
African Heat and DNA.
Brit-Am Replies to "Objections".
The Question of Relative Haplogroup Complexity.
The "Out of Africa" Thesis.
Important Afterword.
Ancient Y-DNA.
Conclusion.




Introduction
YDNA haplogroups distinguish between different groups of males and are used to help determine ethnic origins. We do not deny the efficacy of DNA studies in helping clarify some aspects of Racial History.
Nevertheless there are many problems and unwarranted assumptions involved. It so happens that Y-DNA haplogroups correspond with continental climatic changes. It has been acknowledged for some while that mt-DNA (female trasnmitted) is influenced by the environment.The correlation of Y-DNA haplogroups with climatic temperatures would suggest that here too the environment is of major importance.




The Terminology.
DNA in effect is a sequence of genetic information.

A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells. Chromosomes regulate DNA. They more or less determine what forms DNA will take. Human cells have 23 pairs of large linear nuclear chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes), giving a total of 46 per cell. The female sex chromosome is XX. The male sex chromosome is XY.

DNA haplogroup means a group of DNA with the same characteristic SNPs which for the present we may define as branching-off points.

A Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in the supposedly non-recombining portions [i.e. does not switch parts from elsewhere, remains stable?] of DNA from the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). The Y chromosome consortium has established a system of defining Y-DNA haplogroups by letters A through to T, with further subdivisions using numbers and lower case letters. YDNA haplogroups are those transmitted by the male line.

DNA mutations are changes in the DNA sequence of a cell.
#They can be defined as sudden and spontaneous changes in the cell. Mutations are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic chemicals, as well as errors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication. They can also be induced by the organism itself, by cellular processes..#

Mutations are usually negative and automatically eliminated by nature. But not always. Mutations lead to a loss of DNA information. Or they lead to changes in the SNPs.

SNPs (Single-nucleotide polymorphism)s are changing points in the DNA sequence. Differences in the SNPs (i.e. appearance of new ones) are used in sections of YDNA to classify different haplogroups.

Indications are that DNA mutations increase with a rise in climatic temperature. The hotter it is, the more mutations take place. This leads to both an increase in variation amongst existing DNA types and also to a simplification of those types through loss of DNA information.




Environmental Influence on Man and Animal.
Our understanding is that man was created with adaptation abilities.
Changes take place in response to environmental influences.
Once the changes are set in place they will continue through heredity until new changes occur.
This, from a biological point of view, was explained by Lee M. Spetner ("Not by Chance," 1996).
Genes (i.e DNA sequences that determine specific functions) switch on and off. Once the switch is thrown the change is inherited until the switch is thrown again.
The changes on the whole take place quickly in one or sometimes a few generations. They are usually not slow 'evolutions'.

For examples of Changes According to Environmental Influences in the Animal Kingdom see:
"Brit-Am Now"-366
http://britam.org/now/now366.html

"Brit-Am Now"-570
http://britam.org/now/570Now.html





MtDNA and Environmental Influence

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Human_mitochondrial_DNA_haplogroup

Extract:
...Balloux et al. (2009) have shown that mtDNA also correlates with climate and that temperature-based natural selection has helped shape global mtDNA..
See:
The worm in the fruit of the mitochondrial DNA tree
http://johnhawks.net/weblog/
reviews/genetics/mtdna_migrations/
mtdna-selection-balloux-2009.html





The "Experts" Malign Brit-Am.
We sent something like the following ("African Heat and DNA" below) to DNA Forums.
DNA Forums is a public blog that reports upon and discusses DNA matters.
It is a valuable source of information for anyone interested in DNA-related subjects.
We were arguing that physical features such as color and Y (male) DNA haplogroups are initially determined by environment.
This should not be considered such a revolutionary suggestion since much has been written on it. Concerning physical features it is more or less agreed that environment is a determinative factor.
It is also agreed  that environment helps determine mt(Female-transmitted)DNA.
The Monitor (under the peudonym "R1a1") on DNA Forums reacted to our message as if we had delivered a personal insult. We were accused of racialism, threatened with disbarment from the forum.
We had not mentioned Brit-Am in our messages nor broached overtly any of Brit-Am beliefs. Nevertheless one of the correspondents noted that "Yours Truly" was the "head" (their words) of Brit-Am. It was stated that we must obviously have an agenda. Following this Brit-Am beliefs were grossly misrepresented and held up to ridicule. We replied somewhat vigorously but also showed from logical deduction and accepted scientific findings that our position was at least defendible whereas theirs was not.
Almost immediately afterwards we were actually disbarred from the Forum!
I do not think they could take it. They could however dish it out.
What was wrong with what we said?
Why should YDNA be different from mtDNA?
And also subject to environmental influence?
We were in effect arguing a point that should be considered an argument against racial prejudice!!!
Apparently they who made the accusation and threat against us are prejudiced bigots incapable of countenancing original thought.

This is what one of the "Monitors"  with the status of  "Staff" wrote us:
## Stop posting and take your racist trolling elsewhere. Or, we can just ban you and your entire IP range if we have to, you know. ##

Wikipedia tells us:
# a troll is someone who posts inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community, such as an online discussion forum, chat room, or blog, with the primary intent of provoking other users into a desired emotional response or of otherwise disrupting normal on-topic discussion.#

We replied:
# I  did not intend to provoke an emotional reaction but rather academic input.
Emotional reaction is what I have indeed received  however.
Why is that so?
I suspect sir that you suffer from a certain lack of rationality.

You should perhaps endeavor to think outside the confines of conventionality. #


[Anyway the reaction we received is typical of the snobbery, prejudice, and academic obtuseness prevailing in certain self-appointed "expert" circles.
This incidentally explains why and how "evolutionary theory" has became the equivalent of religious dogma with all other considerations being treated as unacceptable!]

Later after exposing faulty logic and mendacious tendencies on the part of the Moderator we received the following message:
R1a1a said:

yair, Your posting privileges are being suspended and you are being put under moderation because you are posting nonsensical and unscientific messages with a religious-based agenda. We do not welcome that here. Please find somewhere else to air your fringe theories. Yours, R1a1a DNA-Forums.org

To this we replied:
You accused me of being a racialist and a bigot.
This was unjustified.
You also took my writings from outside the forum as an indication as to whom I was. You deliberatedly misrepresented what I had written and held me up to ridicule.
My letters were in fact more in accord with "scientific" findings than yours or those of the others who participated in our discussion.
OK.
It is your ball and you can play the game as you wish.
You were losing through your own demerits and foul play so you expelled your opponent.
Fair enough.




African Heat and DNA
YDNA haplogroups directly correspond to types of climate!
As one moves towards the equator from north to south or (in the southern hemisphere) the opposite the climate becomes warmer. This warming up or cooling down may be modified by closeness to the sea, warm sea currents moving into cold areas, winds, rain, etc.
YDNA haplogroups may also be arranged roughly-speaking on  a north-south basis parallel to temperature.


Conventional YDNA chart turned on its head.
Diagram by Estelle Schutte

.


http://www.britam.org/DNA/YDNAreverse.html




See also the Wikipedia article which gives the conventional picture together with a listing as to what ethnic groups correspond with which haplogroups.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Haplogroups#Human_Y-chromosome
_DNA_haplogroups





The Lowest in the Brit-Am diagram or the highest in the Wikipedia one are mainly those found in Africa.
The African ones are the less complex. The more one moves away from the Equator the more complex the haplogroups become.
[At least that is how the "facts" have been almost universally represented to the lay public but see our note at the end of this article.]
There is an almost straightforward progression of increasing complexity parallel to the climate. The colder it is the more complex it is supposed to become.




See MacDonald World Map of Y-DNA haplogroups:
http://www.scs.illinois.edu/
~mcdonald/WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf










Even though the haplogroups in Africa are the simplest they are also the most active. They have the most mutations.
Differences within the same haplogroup between one African village and its neighbor have been described as typically greater than those found in the whole of Europe.  Mutations nearly always result in  loss of information. In Africa more mutations occur. That is why the African haplogroups are less complex than  those in Europe. There is a direct correlation between complexity of YDNA and average temperature.
This can be checked very easily. It may be seen on the map.
A few haplogroups (such as Q in North and South America) remain constant from south to north.




There are two main exceptions (O in southeast Asia and M in New Guinea) that according to our suggestion should belong to cold climates but instead are found partly in warm ones. [Nevertheless even these two major exceptions do conform to distribution patterns according to latitude. M is found at roughly equidistant points from the Equator, especially when land masses (instead of ocean areas) are taken into consideration. O is concentrated in one area but supplements the "balance" since M and O are relatively closely related to each other].
Apart from this however the general rule prevails: The colder it is the more complex is the haplogroup.
The predominance of most haplogroups changes from one area to another. Nearly everywhere a change occurs it corresponds to latitude and change in climate.
The conclusion should be that YDNA haplogroups are an outcome of environment!

This is not evolution but rather inbuilt adaptation.




Brit-Am Replies to "Objections".
We received several replies to our proposed conclusion correlating Y-DNA halplogroups with the climate.
These replies mostly relied on showing exceptions to the "rule" we had suggested. A closer look at these exceptions however shows that they confirm rather than contradict the principal point. In the list of objections below mention is made of R which is complicated and according to our suggestion should belong to cold climates. R is however also found in warm places such as India.
E which is "simpler" should be found in warm places but sometimes is also located in cold ones such as Wales and the Balkans of southeast Europe. N is complicated and mainly found in Finland and Siberia which is where it should be BUT in theory it originated in warm places!
These objections are listed and answered below.
It was claimed:

# R is very common in South Asia, which is hot, and Southern Europe, which is hot, and West Africa, which is hot, and parts of the Near East/West Asia, which are hot. #
# R1b is still the dominant
haplogroup throughout Southern Europe - Southern Spain, Italy, and gives E-V13 a run for the money in southern Greece as well. I don't think it is all that populous in Northern-Central and NE Europe, but it definitely expanded there at some point. #
R is very common in South Asia, which is hot, and Southern Europe, which is hot, and West Africa, which is hot, and parts of the Near East/West Asia, which are hot.
E is also concentrated in cold places (such as Wales and the Balkans).
# N has very few
subclades, while E has many.
While we're not sure where N originated, there's a decent case it could have been somewhere like Thailand or Vietnam, which are very hot. #


Regarding haplogroup R: This is one of the most complex haplogroups. It is found in many climates but on the whole it predominates in colder areas.




Concerning R1a in southern Asia (meaning in this case mainly Pakistan and India) we replied:

# R in south Asia is confined to Brahmins, Rajputs, and related peoples who are relatively white and originated elsewhere. #
This evoked energetic responses. This is the post for which we were accused of bigotry and racialism though such had not been our intention. Our assertion apparently was also not precise enough. R is found throughout India and in many different shades of "color".




We re-examined the matter and so refined our point:

R in India is divided into R1a and R2.
It is mostly R1a. Hapologroup R1a in Europe is associated largely with peoples who speak the Slavic languages. It is the predominant haplogroup amongst the Russians and Poles. It is also found in Scandinavia and in Norway accounts for ca. 30% of the population. It is thought that the Vikings brought R1a to Britain and in England it is found in areas of Viking-Scandinavian  settlement.
Wikipedia [article: "Haplogroup R (Y-DNA)"]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R_(Y-DNA)
tells us:

# The highest levels of R1a (>50%) are found across the Eurasian Steppe: West Bengal Brahmins (72%), and Uttar Pradesh Brahmins, (67%) , the Ishkashimi (68%), the Tajik population of Khojant (64%), Kyrgyz (63.5%), Sorbs (63.39%), Poles (56.4%), Ukrainians (50%) and Russians (50%)[14][10][15][16].#

There are numerous academic articles including Indian ones attributing R1a in India to invaders from the steppe region.
India is a subcontinent with many varieties of climate and numerous castes and ethnic groups who endeavor not to intermix with each other.
A map of R1a in India and Pakistan shows:


In India and Pakistan there is an overwhelming predominance of R1a in the north and northwest.
R1a can be found in all groups of all types BUT it is overwhelmingly predominant in those who are relatively whiter than the others.


Even in India the colder it is, the more R1a there is. This is a verifiably observation.
It is not racial prejudice.
I am not R1a and not Indian and could not care what color Indians may or may not be.
White, black, green, or purple?
Is our saying that more R1a are white people who are located in relatively colder regions a racialist statement??
It seems that some people think so!
What if I said that many black people live in hiot equatorial regions? Would that also be considered racialist and symptomatic of bigotry?




In addition to more R1a in India being found in cooler areas, a map of R (e.g. both R1a and R2) in India shows from north to south and from west to east a progressively higher proportion of R2 (green color) and of diversity within R. The hotter it is the more changes occur.

So much for India.




What about "West Africa, which is hot" where R is also found?
We replied:
Y haplogroup R in Africa is R#. This is defined as R without the appendages that define R1a, R1b, and R2, etc.
In other words R# is a simplified version of "R".
R# in West Africa is believed to have originated in the Middle East. It is association with speakers of the Chadic Languages. These tongues are believed to be related to Ancient Egyptian.
R# today is also found in Egypt (under 10%), amongst a small group of Bedouin east of the Dead Sea in Jordan, and amongst Australian Aborigines (again less than 10#).
[It may indeed be a connecting factor between Ancient Egypt and the Australian Aborigines which is a point we have discussed elsewhere.]
West Africa, Egypt, Jordan east of the Dead Sea, and Australia are all hot regions.
We therefore find that though R may have originated in cold areas when it reached hotter climates it too became relatively "simplified" as an outcome of increased mutational activity.




It was also claimed against us that haplogroups such as E which we associate with Africa and hot climates are also found elsewhere such as Wales which is cold. E is also found in the Balkans of southeast Europe.

E in Wales is a small minority on the north coastline, the result of maritime colonization in historical times.
It may be associated with the Phoenicians or with a Roman legion.
The town of Abergele has 39% E-V13. Apart from that, however, very little E is to be found. It comprises ca. 2% of the total population.
More than 80% of the Welsh are R1b.
The next highest group is I1 with ca. 6%.

E in the Balkans is also an exception and may be attributed to an intrusion. Alternately E in the Balkans may be considered a natural extension northwards from equatorial regions.





The map of E YDNA distribution shows E to be the most dense just north and south of the Equator and peters out progressively the further away one moves from Equatorial regions. The density of E is definitely a factor of climate and temperature. There is an almost one-on-one correlation.

Claims were also made against us concerning Haplogroup N.
It was said:
# N has very few subclades, while E has many.
While we're not sure where N originated, there's a decent case it could have been somewhere like Thailand or Vietnam, which are very hot. #

We could not quite fathom the logic of these statements.

Wikipedia tells us:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_N_(Y-DNA)
Haplogroup N has a wide geographic distribution throughout northern Eurasia, and it also has been observed occasionally in more southerly areas, including Southeast Asia, Nepal, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe. Its highest frequency occurs among the Finnic and Baltic peoples of northern Europe, the Ob-Ugric and Northern Samoyedic peoples of western Siberia, and the Siberian Turkic-speaking Yakuts.[10]

Today N is mainly in the north, in cold regions. Ca. 80% of all the N population is found in Finland.
Other suggestions as to its origins do not reflect present reality. Neither is there any proof they were valid in the past. As far as we know N was always where it is now.
N is in cold areas while E is in hot ones. Therefore E undergoes more mutations.
There are more different types of E.
A parallelism to environmental-induced change may be found with blondism.
Blond people are an outcome of cold cloud-covered skies. After "appearing" blond populations sometimes moved to warmer climes and some of them remained blond in part.
The same applies to black people in hot areas.
The hotter it is the darker the natives become.
Check it out.




The Question of Relative Haplogroup Complexity.
YDNA Haplogroups become more complex according to the climate.
From the point of view of observed phenomena it is easier for nature to "simplify" an existing state than to complexify it.
We would therefore be justified in assuming that the complex Haplogroups were the earlier ones.
When in nature one finds a "simplified" form and a "complex" form of the same species it would be most logical (all other things being equal) to assume that the "simple" specimen derived from the complex one.
To determine the direction of a paternal relationship, when and if one exists, is dependant on chronology. If however we suggest a change in direction of relationship (i.e. what was considered to be the parent is now assumed to be the offspring) then the chronological assumptions must change as well.
A simple specimen is more likely to have "evolved" from a complex one than vice-versa.

Amongst the claims against us it was stated that:

The "Out of Africa" Thesis.
# there is no evidence yDNA SNPs are more likely to arise in hot climates by virtue of mutation being tied to climate, but possibly the descendants of such men as mutate in warm climates will be better nourished and so will have sons earlier in life, making for more and faster generations; human life is older in hot climates, because our ancestors came from Africa, so adaptation to cold was required while adaptation to heat was not. #

To which we replied:

You are in effect, in this paragraph, agreeing with what we said.
You are saying that haplogroups in Africa are indeed less complex.
You give an explanation for it.
You say that since humanity originated in Africa it was already equipped to deal with the African climate. As Man moved out of Africa there was a need for adaptation and therefore greater complexity.
There is therefore a correlation between haplogroup complexity and climate.
This is the main point of what we said.
Haplogroup differences are a function of climatic variation.
The explanation as to what came first may be considered a different topic!

YDNA haplogroups correspond with climatic changes especially temperature differences. Other environmental factors may also be involved.




Important Afterword:
The article above says that Y(male-transmitted)DNA Haplogroups Correspond with Climate Changes.
They do, as the article shows.
That was our primary point.
We also said that what are described as the more complex haplogroups preceded the simpler ones. We based this on the "Evolutionary Tree" conventional explanations. Only we suggested a reverse of process. We understood that certain haplogroups were more complex than others and that a regular progression exists from the simple to the complex.
Nearly Everyone else seems to have had the same understanding as to what was being said as well. This may be seen on Wikipedia articles and diagrams.
See:
Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
In this article two illustrations present an evolutionary progression.
The whole Wikipedia article and the two illustrations within it are based on evolutionary progression.
See also:
"Origins, age, spread and ethnic association of European haplogroups and subclades"
and scroll down a little to the heading:
Y-DNA Haplogroups. Chronological development of Y-DNA haplogroups
This gives an evolutionary sequence of YDNA haplogroups in an "authoritative" manner and articles like these are to be found all over the web.
This is an official EU-sponsored site. Do you think the experts there would deliberatedly lie?
Or simply not know?
That is what we are now being told!
Now when we show the inherent contradictory fallacies in the evolutionary theory behind these articles we are told that they are all wrong!!!
It is now claimed that no such thing was ever believed to exist!
We wrote the above article and went to the trouble to show from their own logic that the evolutionists have got it all back to front.
We then received letters from DNA "authorities" that the whole argument on this matter may have been for nothing!
There never was an observable evolutionary sequence!
It was all theoretical and still is, they say.
It was an abstract concept not based on reality!!!
They now tell us that, No DNA haplogroup is necessary more or less complex than another!
They are presented as such to accord with assumptions of evolutionary progression based on the impressions of researchers. There is probably no concrete evidence for any progression or difference in complexity they now inform us. Whether these "experts" who now give us this "new" information are correct and the others wrong is not clear to us.
DNA Forums from which we received this knowledge has now barred us from its ranks and the e-mails that imparted this new viewpoint to us seem to be no longer accessible!

How dastardly can they get?
We may learn from all this that seeming facts presented by evolutionists may well be illusions and/or delusions.
How The correspondence between Y DNA Haplogroups and environment is proven. It may be demonstrated by a glance at the world map of Y-DNA distribution.

Greater variety and a diminishing in complexity of Y-DNA haplogroups may also be a factor of the environment. Alternately this may be an "optical" illusion caused by the mendacious presentations of Evolution Theory and its acolytes. At all events Y-DNA is initially determined by environmental factors.
Be all this as it may, there is a correspondence between DNA haplogroups and climate changes from one area to another.
This may be seen from the Maps and text above.






Ancient Y-DNA
Y-DNA is initially determined by environmental factors.
The question remains: How far back did these DNA changes take places?
The answer is: We do not know!
YDNA degrades quickly and is difficult to obtain reliable samples from archaeological remains.
Nevertheless, here and there succesful samples have been taken.

http://www.eupedia.com/forum/
showthread.php?t=25201

In the Basque area (Northern Spain) out of 27 samples, 21 were R1b and 3 I12a.
For R1b this roughly corresponds with the present situation.

Lichtenstein Cave Bronze-Age Family (3,000 years old, Lower Saxony, Germany) :
- 4 haplogroup I2b*
- 1 haplogroup R1a
- 1 haplogroup R1b

This is not much to go on but nowadays this area is overwhelmingly R1b.
Have changes taken place?


Eneolithic Corded Ware from Eulau (4,600 years old, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany)
- 3 haplogroup R1a
Region now also considered as overwhelmingly dominated by R1b (and not R1a!).





A DNA analysis of the Egyptian Pharoah Tutankhamen indicated that he was R1b. A repeat confirmatory analysis has not yet been carried out. The Egyptian authorities are refusing to authorize one.





Conclusion.
The correspondence between Y DNA Haplogroups and environment is proven. It may be demonstrated by a glance at the world map of Y-DNA distribution.

Greater variety and a diminishing in complexity of Y-DNA haplogroups may also be a consequence of the environment. Alternately this may be an "optical" illusion caused by the mendacious presentations of Evolution Theory and its acolytes.

Indications are that YDNA (like mtDNA) is determined by the environment and that the DNA of western Europe has changed over the centuries.

The 'experts are now tending to agree that in Europe a change in Y-DNA did take place but they attribute it to ethnic incursions. They also date the change to the end of the Stone Age or earlier.
Our impression is that the change took place much, much later. We also think that the change, at least in part, should be attributed to environmental factors.





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