Date: 08/09/2002 1:34:35 AM Central Daylight Time
1.Is this the meaning of 'fountains of the deep'?
1.Is this the meaning of 'fountains
of the deep'?
>From: surfer1 <email@example.com>
>Subject: [origin of nations] Is this the meaning of 'fountains of the deep'?
>Is this the meaning of 'fountains of the deep'?
>"In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the
>seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the
>great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened." (Gen 7:11)?
>Inner Earth May Hold More Water Than the Seas
>By Ben Harder
>for National Geographic News
>March 7, 2002
>Molten rocks deep in the earths interior may be surprisingly wet, Japanese
>researchers say. From lab experiments, they have concluded there may be
>more H2O deep underground than in all oceans, lakes, and rivers combined.
>Japanese scientists say their experiments
show there may be as much as
>five times more water in Earth's deep mantle than on the surface.
>The experiments replicated the environment
and conditions deep in the Earth.
>Based on what they witnessed in their lab, the researchers concluded that
>more water probably exists deep within the Earth than is present on
>Earth's surface as much as five times more.
>"Our results suggest that the lower mantle can potentially store
>considerable amounts of water," said Motohiko Murakami of the Tokyo
>Institute of Technology, where the experiments were conducted.
>"The presence of water in the crystal structure of [deep-Earth] minerals
>would be expected to soften the minerals and change their flow behavior,"
>he added. That, in turn, could affect how the innards of the planet mix
>and shift over time, and could indirectly affect conditions and forces
>near the surface, such as plate tectonics.
>Far beneath the seas, in the lower mantle, rocks exist at temperatures and
>pressures similar to those recreated in the Tokyo lab. The research team
>wanted to determine how much water might be in that region of Earth's
>interior, which they did by studying the nature of the chemical reactions
>in their tabletop mini-mantle.
>The results indicated that the lower mantle has a lot of water, they
>reported March 8 in the journal Science.
>Murakami and his colleagues reached their conclusion based on how much
>water they managed to dissolve under the experiment's extreme conditions
>in several types of material that make up much of the lower mantle.
>They used heat and pressure 25.5 gigapascals of it, or more than 250,000
>times natural atmospheric pressure at sea level to create four mineral
>compounds that exist in the lower mantle.
>A Waveless Waterworld
>Earth's oceans make up just 0.02 percent of the planet's total mass. This
>means the vast lower mantle could contain many times more water than
>floats on the planet's surface.
>The Japanese experiments don't guarantee that that's the case, of course,
>because the researchers haven't actually measured the mantle. No one is
>ever likely to get a direct sample of material from the fiery mantle
>itself. But by simulating mantle-like conditions in the lab, Murakami and
>his colleagues have demonstrated that a water-rich inner Earth is plausible.
>Just how water-rich it is depends on the amount of trace "impurities" in
>the minerals. Compounds such as aluminum and iron "could dramatically
>change the solubility of water in these minerals," Murakami explained.
>Other research has suggested that a zone between the mantle and the crust
>also contain a great deal of water, the Japanese researchers noted. If so,
>there could be more than ten times the amount of water inside the planet
>as there is on its surface.
"And I will make of you a great nation.
And I will bless you and make your
And you shall be a blessing.
"And I will bless they who bless you, and curse him who curses you.
And in you shall all the families of the earth be blessed.
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