Date: Wed Jul 10, 2002 4:20 am
1. Thank you
2. look forward to your web mailings
3. Vikings in America
4. The German Perspective
1. Thank you
From: Ryno Opperman
Thank you for all your hard work in searching and finding the lost sheep of
Yisrael, how rightly such are called the good shepherds of Yisrael
2. look forward to your web mailings
Subject: G-d Bless Yair
Man you have done a lot of work. I look forward to your web mailings
everyday. They are the most interesting articles I have ever read. The
articles have it all from religious , historical, current events, and
scientifical. The article about genes and names was fasinating. G-d has
definitly given you a great mind for information and research. Maybe you
don't hear this enough but G-d bless you for all your efforts. I have been
reading a great book and maybe some of your new comers to Brit-Am may like
this book for learning about Israelism. It is Biblical Literacy by Rabbi
Joseph Telushkin. Its great for people starting to get into the nut's and
bolts of Israels great religion. Rabbi Telushkin has many quotes from great
Rabbi's and insightful reflections about people and events in the Bible. It
has made me look at the Bible with far more insight then ever before. Fast
note. G-d bless Yair, G-d bless
3. Vikings in America
Geraldine Barnes, <i>Viking America: The First
Millenium</i>. Woodbridge, Suffolk: D. S. Brewer, 2001.
Pp. xx, 187. $70.00. ISBN 0 85991 608 1.
Reviewed by Jens Ulff-Moller
University of Copenhagen
ulff@h... or ulf@h...
The legendary Viking expeditions to the mythical Vinland
around the year 1000 are, without doubt, the most exciting
of all the Icelandic saga literature, magnificent tales of
'derring-do', recounting a series of violent conflicts
between Norsemen and the native peoples of Northern America.
Historians have debated the sagas at length and with
passion--and, indeed, continue to do so. One burning issue
has been the precise intention and nature of the saga texts.
Do they present a historical reality or are they instead
mere fiction, of little or no intrinsic worth? The
discovery, in 1960, by Helge and Anne Ingstad, of a
settlement of Norse houses at L'Anse-aux-Meadows at the
northernmost tip of Newfoundland, confirmed a Viking
presence--but this location was, however, not Vinland, which
has never been found.
Geraldine Barnes, Associate Professor at the University of
Sydney, is a specialist of Middle English and Middle French
whose particular areas of interest focus on the literary
intentions of those who composed the Vinland sagas, and the
post-Medieval reception of these sagas over the past two
Barnes debates briefly whether the
Vinland expeditions qualified as a 'discovery'. As long ago
as 1929, Dewey in <i>Experience and Nature</i> disqualified
the Norse expeditions as 'discoveries' on the grounds that
they lacked global cultural consequences. Considered in
such stringent terms, only the expedition of Columbus to
America in 1492 would constitute a discovery, yet the
discovery of America has continued to be a controversial
issue, particularly at the centennial anniversaries of this
event in 1892 and 1992. In contrast to this opinion, the
archaeological evidence, ignored by Barnes, reveals the
importance of Norse influence on Eskimos in the extreme
Arctic who entered a proto-Iron Age, stimulated by the trade
in iron with the Norse. As Robert McGhee has stated, "The
relationship between the Norse and aboriginal North
Americans was clearly more enduring, complex and significant
than hinted by the few, brief mentions of hostile Scraelings
in the sagas and annals of Norse exploration" (<i>Scientific
American Discovering Archaeology</i>, Sept.- Oct. 2000).
Urs Bitterli, moreover, in <i>Cultures in Conflict</i>,
considers that "the history of relations between Europe and
Canada begins with the Viking voyages around AD1000."
After this, Barnes examines the more eccentric fringes of
Vinland literature. In <i>The Discovery of the Ancient City
of Norumbega</i> (1889), the archaeologically-aware Eben
Norton Horsford claimed to have found Vinland in Norumbega
county west of Boston, and erected a memorial tower in a
park off South Street, south of Brandeis University. In
contrast, the interests of J. P. MacLean, and Marie Shipley
were driven by an ethnic and religious bias, an aversion to
Viking culture and preference for things Roman, also
determining how they demonstrated their distaste for native
peoples. Likewise, Henry Wheaton's <i>History of the
Northmen</i> (1831) and John S. C. Abbot's <i>The History of
Maine</i> (1882) also condemn the behavior of the Norsemen
as worse than that of savages. On the other hand, Charles
Kingsley, <i>Works</i> (1885), favored the Vikings despite
their brutality, while Charles Morris in <i>The Aryan
Race</i> (1892) attributed their brutality to the innate
nature of the master race.
The exploration of Vinland in British literature began in
1819 with the publication of <i>Greenland</i> by the
Scottish poet, James Montgomery. This work inspired by
David Crantz's <i>The history of Greenland</i> (London,
1767), contains one episode which featured the Vinland
voyages. The publication of R. M. Ballantyne's <i>The
Norsemen in the West</i> (1872) coincided with the rise of
competition from the European powers, combined with the
first stirrings of British anxiety over colonialism.
Ballantyne, in fact, saw England as the legitimate heir to
the Viking virtues, in contrast to those he referred to as
"grotesque, ursine, and infantile Eskimos".
centennial celebrations, Sydney Lanier wrote <i>The Psalm of
the West</i> (1892), followed later by Ottilie
Liljencrantz's <i>The Thrall of Leif the Lucky</i> (1904).
Barnes might have included the cartoon, <i>Hagar the
Horrible</i>, details of the Kensington Stone, the supposed
Viking settlement in the Midwest, a discussion of the
Vinland Map and much recent historical scholarship on
Vinland that raises the issue of Vinland in myth and
It may be of interest to add that, while the book was in
press, the following titles have been published on the
Erik Ingvar Thurin, <i>The American Discovery of the Norse:
an Episode in Nineteenth-Century American Literature</i>
Andrew Wawn, <i>The Vikings and the Victorians:
Inventing the Old Norse in Nineteenth-Century Britain </i> (2000).
4. The German Perspective
According to Brit-Am findings people of Israelite descent at one stage were
once numerous in Germany but left in several waves
beginning at early times and culminating in the early 19th century.
After that time people of Israelite descent remained only a relatively
small percent of the German population but some did remain.
At the end of World War II Germany needed to survive as part of the western
world. Germany needed to adopt a veneer of Western values
and to mitigate the bad impression left by the Nazi legacy. For this
purpose Germany had need of leaders of appropriate outlook.
The leaders at both the political and cultural levels had to both represent
Germany as a western nation and to believe in what they were representing.
The leaders who were chosen may well have therefore been genuine and may
have represented a small remnant of Israelite origin.
Adenauer for instance in his youth had led a movement advocating that the
Ruhr region leave Germany and attach itself to France.
The leaders in question were not necessarily reflective of German sentiment.
Churchill once said: "The German is either at your feet or at your throat".
At present the German establishment on the one hand is usually pro-Western
and pro-Israel. Germany has assisted Israel at several levels.
On the other hand the Germans are more anti-Jewish than any other western
people. Levels of anti-semitic sentiment are not so far behind what they
were in the past. German firms provide Iraq and Iran with the ability to
produce biological weapons and these nations have declared that they wish
to use these weapons against Israel.
The European Union, of which Germany is a dominant partner, funds the PLO
and provides money for terrorist attacks against Jewish people whose
primary "sin" is being Jewish.
There are elements within The European Union that would wish to take
control of the Land of Israel under the guise of enforcing an international
The European Union pays the salaries of a few corrupt but prominent Israeli
politicians and activists who endeavor to weaken belief in God and the
Bible and to turn the country over to the hands of Arab Nazis.
Behind the scenes it appears that Germany is the pusher for the European
Union to take a more independent anti-American stance on the international
Germany in this has the backing of the smaller nations like Spain and even
Italy. Germany is able to express itself through the European Union.
At present Germany has problems of its own: Its population is diminishing
and its people appear tired and not inclined to do anything that could
their every-day comforts but you never know.
France is another story. Not only does France have a large Moslem element
but also the demographic constitution of the "native" French has been
changing drastically for some time and more work needs to be done on this.
We have been working through the Bible. We have now reached the Book of
Ezekiel and shortly will begin sending out a Brit-Am commentary on this work.
We have been giving an overall commentary while highlighting aspects
connected with the Lost Ten Tribes and their present-day identity.
We will continue along the same path but may also begin sending out
frequent Bible studies on Brit-Am themes.
Please assist us to function and expand through your own efforts (telling
others about us, etc) and also through contributions.