July 19, 2003
1. Question on Germany and Migrants to the USA
2. Web-sites of interest:
3. Remark on Israelites and Red Hair
1. Question on Germany and Migrants to the USA
At 02:29 PM 7/17/2003 -0500, David wrote:
>Most of my ancestors are from northern England. However, my mom's
>father's family came to the United States from Leipzig, Germany around
>1870. Their surname was Reuther. Leipzig is in Saxony.
>When you say that many of the Germans who came to the US were not really
>Germans, what evidence do you have for this? In which part of Germany
>were the Hebrew-descended ones concentrated?
>I don't know that I believe what you are saying, but it is interesting to
>me. My family is Protestant on both sides, but they were always very
>pro-Jewish, including my mother's side. I've always wondered why this
>was, given that most Germans are not sympathetic to the Jews.
Answer: These questions are answered in our books, especially "Joseph".
In short: We said that many (probably most) of the Germans who
emigrated to the USA in the great waves of migration belonged to groups
that had always been separate from the others and were in effect
Israelites whereas most of those who stayed behind in Germany were of
The same principle (usually to a lesser degree) applied to other areas of
Areas of Germany in which many Israelites had settled included especially
the Rhineland, the southwest, and parts of Prussia but it applied all over.
Justifications for these statements include:
* The Biblical Promises, especially
[Amos 9:9] FOR, LO, I WILL COMMAND, AND I WILL SIFT THE HOUSE OF ISRAEL
AMONG ALL NATIONS, LIKE AS CORN IS SIFTED IN A SIEVE, YET SHALL NOT THE
LEAST GRAIN FALL UPON THE EARTH.
* Historical studies that show that peoples we identified as Israelites
(Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Vandals, etc) settled in part in Germany. Most of
the said peoples may well have moved out at an early stages in the
invasions of Britain and the west but there are also indications that
many stayed. Those who stayed settled amongst, or were joined by, others
of different origin. The Israelites thus became a minority if they had not
always been so.
*Demographically most peoples in the same region married only amongst
themselves, generation after generation. Villages and social classes stayed
* Different studies showed that on the whole those who migrated to the USA
were often physically different, had different social values,
were less anti-semitic and more politically "free", often came en masse
from specific areas, and social groups, and were also
regarded as somehow "different" by the other Germans.
These statements of ours are based on studies conducted by others in
We took these different studies and welded them together to form a
The latest edition of the Encyclopedia Brittanica mentioned the fact that
physical studies on migrants indicated that they were different
from the mass of people whose countries they were migrating from. Ripley
and others make similar statements.
In our works we have really only dealt very briefly with this subject and
adduced a few quoted sources.
The whole subject really deserves at least one book in its own right.
You said also:
<<I don't know that I believe what you are saying, but it is interesting to
The possibility exists that we could be wrong on some points but if so all
the indications are that this should involve only minor points.
In quite a few fields our conclusions and suggestions have been verified by
Stay with us, read our literature and postings, etc. The chances are that
eventually you will experience a strong reinforcement
of your positive inclination towards us.
As for specific families we cannot be of assistance at the moment but in
the future we may expand to this area as well.
God bless you
2. Web-sites of interest:
Forums for people who are "half-Jewish":
3. Remark on Israelites and Red Hair
>Hi Yair, you wrote,
> > David the King of Israel and forefather of the future Messiah was
> > also > described as "Admoni" which is exactly the same term, meaning
> "reddish" as that applied to
> > Esau.
> > "Admoni" can mean blonde or someone with red hair and freckled skin.
> Actually Yair, this does not refer to fair skin or hair in any way, we
>are talking about Israelites, a Semitic and Mediteranean people, who
>would have been swarthy. Fair skin is an adaption to a colder northern
>This "Admoni" actually refers to a dark reddish brown, not fair skin.
>These were Semitic people Yair. This word is related to Adam, and
>remember that Adam in the OT was created from the dust of the ground, and
>so this refers to the color of dirt, like I mentioned above a dark
Shalom, You are saying that on linguistic and racial grounds I must be
mistaken? Well, stranger things have happened. I should confess in advance,
that you have touched a personal spot here. I have blondish hair that is
inclined to red and so this question naturally always interested me. Since
King David (who was described as "admoni") is a hero of mine I was
naturally always in favor of any explanation that said he may have had a
similar hair coloring to my own. [This was perhaps some consolation for not
being exactly similar to King David in more important ways!].
First of all linguistically:
[Genesis 2:7] AND THE LORD GOD FORMED MAN [ha-ADaM] OF THE DUST OF THE
GROUND [ha-ADaMaH], AND BREATHED INTO HIS NOSTRILS THE BREATH OF LIFE; AND
MAN BECAME A LIVING SOUL.
The Hebrew word for man [Adam: Aleph-daleth- mem] is linked to the word for
ground [Adamah: Aleph-daleth- mem-heh]. The Hebrew word for red is edom
[Aleph-daleth-vav-mem] and it may be connected to the same root as the
words for man and for ground or earth. On the other hand, Iben Shushan in
his Concordance says that the word edom meaning red derives from the same
root as dam meaning blood, i.e. red like blood. At all events edom does not
mean brown. In Hebrew the word for brown is choom.
"Admoni" according to the Concordance of Iben Shushan means inclined to red.
Both Esau and David were described as "admoni".
Concerning the birth of Esau (who was later renamed Edom) it says:
[Genesis 25:25] AND THE FIRST CAME OUT RED [admoni], ALL OVER LIKE AN
HAIRY GARMENT; AND THEY CALLED HIS NAME ESAU.
[1-Samuel 16:12] AND HE SENT, AND BROUGHT HIM IN. NOW HE WAS RUDDY
[admoni], AND WITHAL OF A BEAUTIFUL COUNTENANCE, AND GOODLY TO LOOK TO. AND
THE LORD SAID, ARISE, ANOINT HIM: FOR THIS IS HE.
And again concerning David:
[1-Samuel 17:42] AND WHEN THE PHILISTINE [Goliath] LOOKED ABOUT, AND SAW
DAVID, HE DISDAINED HIM: FOR HE WAS BUT A YOUTH, AND RUDDY [admoni], AND
OF A FAIR COUNTENANCE.
We see that in one case the King James version says that "admoni" means
red and in another two cases that it means ruddy. In Hebrew Literature you
can find the word admoni used in all kinds of contexts but in the earliest
examples it seems to mean someone who is red-haired. In Jewish popular
tradition of both Ashkenazim and Sephardim it is generally accepted that
David had red-hair. The word "admoni" usually means someone with red hair
but in some cases it can also mean someone who is blond or blond inclined
to red. It is often taken as synonymous with the Modern Hebrew slang word
"gingi" (from ginger) meaning blond or red haired.
At all events concerning Esau and David even though one could perhaps
conceivably interpret "admoni" to mean ruddy in
complexion, red-haired would be the more likely explanation.
This brings us to your point regarding racial characteristics. You said
that Esau and David would have belonged to the Mediterranean race and
therefore must have been darkish in appearance.
Some people find this whole subject superfluous and distasteful but it is a
necessary one. It is a matter that a lot of people have questions about
even if they do not always express them.
You mentioned the climatic factor.
In Northern areas of Europe most peoples even though not related to each other
are of fair complexion. Even the animals (foxes, hairs, bears, etc) in
those areas are often "albinoid" and a fair complexion is physically a lack
of pigmentation rather than a genetic coloring.
In ancient times time the climate in many areas was colder and wetter over
much of the Middle East.
Under the old system (emphasizing external appearance) of racial physical
classification it was supposed that the Mediterranean type though usually
darkish could produce about 15% of blond types. We find natural blonds
amongst Australian aborigines, New Guinea pygmies, and in parts of the
East. A fair or blond appearance CAN BE a racial marker but it is not
always so. It is not an exclusive characteristic of northern peoples even
though it is most common amongst them.
Red Hair in General
<<Early tradition spoke of the Lost Ten Tribes being in the Scythian
area. This has been discussed by Andrew Colin Gow
("The Red Jews. Anti-Semitism in an Apocalyptic Age 1200-1600" NY 1995).
The Lost Ten Tribes were called "Red Jews" and were described as all having
Red Hair. Red Hair in the Middle Ages especially in Germany was considered
a negative characteristic and associated with the Jews and with Judas. The
Anti-Christ and Judas were depicted as both having red hair and as both
coming from the Tribe of Dan. In Germany the Jews were believed to be in
league with the devil and to be plotting with the "Red Jews" meaning the
Ten Tribes to overthrow Christendom. >>
<<T. E. Reed (1952) declares simply that "The frequency of red hair in
Britain is only about 4%."&
<< Reaching even farther back, Michelson (1934) found 435 out of 2,397
male subjects "showed a red component in their hair." That's 18%.
<<Subsequent research by others verifies that the proportion of people with
any red hair - e.g., ruddy whiskers - hovers between 18% and 20%.
<< However, Michelson (citation ) performed a careful count of the
proportion of red hairs in the heads of his subjects. Of 2,361 final
subjects (very light hair was excluded), 56 had 50% or more red hairs on
the head (2.37%).
<<There seems to be a consensus that redheads account for about 4% of the
population>> (of Britain).
A very High proportion of red-heads amongst Jews were reported in "Galicia"
in Eastern Europe. Unconfirmed opinions state that 12% of the Scottish are
red-haired and that redhair was especially prevalent amongst the Picts.
Red-heads are also common in Ireland, Scotland, Norway and are found in
small numbers throughout Europe.
Red-heads were also common in the population of ancient Thrace in which we
reported entities from Edom to have settled and from there moved to Germany.
Some of the Pharaohs had red hair though most Egyptians were darkish. The
Egyptians used to sacrifice red-heads. The Egyptian god Seth was described
as red-haired and was associated with the Hyksos and with the Land of
Canaan. Seth could be considered to sometimes represent Israel in Egyptian
thought. Red-hairs used to be associated with Seth. People from the Land
of Israel are occasionally depicted as red-haired in Egyptian paintings.
Egyptian illustrations of foreign peoples had an element of caricature and
ethnic distinctions were emphasized. Red colored hair for Egyptian artists
was considered one of the distinguishing characteristics of Semites from
the region of Ancient Israel and the Middle east in general.
Red-heads however are found in small numbers all over the world. It is a
similar phenomenon to albinoism or blond hair. It may be due to genetics
interacting with environmental influences.
People with red hair have a chance of being related to each other BUT IT IS
NOT NECESSARILY SO.
JEWS AND RED HAIR
The Jewish Encyclopedia: Article
The Jewish Encyclopedia under the heading "Hair":
<<Among Jews the color of the hair has attracted special attention because,
while the majority have dark hair, there is found a considerable proportion
with blond and red hair, as shown by the appended table (No. 1):
see Table No. 1: Color of Hair Among 145,380 Jewish School Children.
From these figures it is seen that the proportion of dark hair (black and
brown) is quite high 66 per cent in Germany, and reaching 76.3 per cent in
Hungary. The proportion of fair hair is lowest in Hungary (23.7 per cent)
and highest in Germany (32 per cent). In a fair proportion of blond-haired
children the hair becomes darker as age advances; it is therefore essential
to take observations upon adults. In the appended table (No. 2) are given
the results of investigations upon Jews of both sexes and in various parts
of the world:
see Table No. 2: Color of Hair Among 7,505 Jews.
The figures in this table show again that dark hair predominates. The
percentage of blond Jews varies only slightly, but is greatest in those
countries in which the non-Jewish population is blond. Thus in northern
Russia (the Baltic Provinces) Blechman found 32 per cent of blonds; in
England, according to Jacobs, 25.5 per cent have blond hair.
On the other hand, in Caucasia, where the natives are dark, the Jews show
96 per cent of dark hair. The proportion of red hair is also quite high,
reaching 4 per cent in some observations. This has been considered
characteristic of the Jews by some anthropologists. It appears to be not of
recent origin, and was not unknown among the ancient Hebrews (Esau was
"red, all over like a hairy garment"; Gen. xxv. 25).
Races are also differentiated, more or less, by straight, curly, or woolly
hair. Among the Jews the distribution of these varieties of hair is shown
in the following table (No. 3):
see Table No. 3: Variety of Hair Among Jews.
The next table (No. 4) shows that the beard is usually darker than the hair:
see Table No. 4: Color of the Beard.
By comparing these figures with those in No. 2 it is found that in the
beard the proportion of light to dark is much higher. The number of red
beards also increases perceptibly.
Hair of Jewesses.
The differences in the color of the hair between the sexes have also been
investigated. Jacobs shows that the Jewesses in England have darker hair.
Similar observations have been made by Weissenberg in South Russia, by
Talko-Hryncewicz in Little Russia, by Yakowenko in Lithuania, and by Majer
and Kopernicki in Galicia. On the other hand, Elkind in Poland and Fishberg
in America have found conditions different: the males have darker hair than
Cause of Blond Hair.
The true explanation of the existence of Jewish blonds has been the subject
of lively discussions among anthropologists. Some believe that it is due to
climate and environment (Pruner, Bey, Pritchard, Jacobs), while others
attribute it to racial intermixture, particularly to the admission of Aryan
blood into modern Jewry (Broca, Virchow, Schimmer, Ripley, and others).
Elkind shows that the color of the hair is independent of the cranial
index. Virchow's investigations show that in the eastern or darkest
provinces of Germany the proportion of blond types among Jews does not
decrease; whereas in the Prussian provinces, which are predominantly blond,
the Jews show the highestproportion of brunettes, and in Silesia, where the
non-Jewish population is of very dark complexion, the Jews have a high
percentage of blonds. The same has been shown by Schimmer to be the case in
Austria. Andree ("Zur Volkskunde der Juden," pp. 34-40) points out that the
fact that red and blond Jews are found in North Africa, Syria, Arabia,
Persia, etc., is proof that intermarriage has had little to do with the
production of the blond type in eastern Europe. He is of the opinion that
there were blonds among the ancient Hebrews, and that the modern red and
blond Jews are their descendants. Luschan agrees in this view. Jacobs
attributes the erythrism of the Jews to defective nutrition, and shows that
it is present not only among the European Jews, but also among those in
Algiers, Tunis, Bosnia, Constantinople, Smyrna, and Bokhara, where the
presence of Aryan blood could not be admitted.