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Brit-Am Now no. 1172
Date 15 Sivan 5768 18 June 2008
1. Cam Rea, " The Assyrian Exile: Israel's Legacy in Captivity"
Correct Book Link
2. Jewish History of Armenia: Lost Tribes and
3. Michelle Bowie: Keeping the Law and Being in the Land of Israel
4. Malcolm Crawford:  Persia (Elam) and the Throne of David followed by Brit-Am Comment
Was the Imminent demise of Iran Predicted?
5. New Article by Cam Rea
"Assyria's invasion of Media, a Short Introduction"


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Biblical Truth.
The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel
according to the Book of Genesis

Biblical Prophecy Predicted that the Lost Tribes of Israel would be found amongst Western Nations.
Biblical Verses analysed in the light of the Hebrew language, Rabbinical Commentary, and Historical Reality.
A valuable educational, inspirational, and enjoyable work

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1. Cam Rea
"The Assyrian Exile: Israel's Legacy in Captivity"

Correct Book Link

2. Jewish History of Armenia: Lost Tribes and Khazars
Mentions themes that Brit-Am deals with such as a northern polity of Edom and the Israelite origin of the Khazars.
A short article with valuable sources.


The Khazars were sometimes credited with Armenian origin: this is stated by the seventh-century Armenian bishop and historian Sebeos, and the Arab geographer Dimashqi (d. 1327). In the 13th to 14th centuries the Crimea and the area to the east were known as Gazaria (Khazaria) to western authors, and as Maritime Armenia to Armenian authors. The term Armenia often included much of Anatolia, or otherwise referred to cities on the Syrian-Mesopotamian route (now Turkey, near the Syrian frontier) such as Haran (Harran), Edessa (Urfa), and Nisibis (Na\ibin).

In the past Armenia has been connected with the biblical Ashkenaz. The Armenians are termed "the Ashkenazi nation" in their literature. According to this tradition, the genealogy in Genesis 10:3 extended to the populations west of the Volga. In Jewish usage Ashkenaz is sometimes equated with Armenia; in addition, it sometimes covers neighboring Adiabene (Targ. Jer. 51:27), and also Khazaria (David b. Abraham Alfasi, Ali ibn Suleiman; cf. S. Pinsker, Likkutei Kadmoniyyot (1860), 208; S. L. Skoss (ed.), Hebrew-Arabic Dictionary of the Bible of David ben Abraham al-Fasi (1936), 159), the Crimea and the area to the east (Isaac Abarbanel, Commentary to Gen. 10:3), the Saquliba (Saadiah Gaon, Commentary, ibid.), i.e., the territory of the Slavs and neighboring forest tribes, considered by the Arabs dependent of Khazaria, as well as Eastern and Central Europe, and northern Asia (cf. Abraham Farissol, Iggeret Orhot Olam (Venice, 1587), ch. 3). In other expositions found in rabbinical works, Armenia is linked with Uz. The anti-Jewish attitudes prevailing in eastern-Byzantine (Armenian) provinces made the Targum identify it with the "daughter of Edom that dwellest in the land of Uz" (Lam. 4:21) or with "Constantina in the land of Armenia" (now Viransehir, between Urfa and Na\ibin (Nisibis). Hence Job's "land of Uz" is referred to as Armenia in some commentaries, for instance in those of Nahmanides and Joseph b. David ibn Yahya. The "Uz-Armenia" of Abraham Farissol is however the Anatolian region near Constantinople. Armenia is also sometimes called Amalek in some sources, and Jews often referred to Armenians as Amalekites. This is the Byzantine term for the Armenians. It was adopted by the Jews from the Josippon chronicle (tenth century, ch. 64). According to Josippon, Amalek was conquered by Benjaminite noblemen under Saul (ibid., 26), and Benjaminites are already assumed to be the founders of Armenian Jewry in the time of the Judges (Judg. 19?21). Benjaminite origins are claimed by sectarian Kurds. The idea that Khazaria was originally Amalek helped to support the assumption that the Khazar Jews were descended from Simeon (I Chron. 4:42?43; Eldad ha-Dani, ed. by A. Epstein (1891), 52; cf. Hisdai ibn Shaprut, Iggeret).

Armenia is sometimes identified in literature with the biblical Minni (Pal. Targ., 51:27), based on onomatopoeic exegesis of Armenia = Har ("Mountain") Minni; similarly, Harmon (ha-Harmonah, Amos 4:3) is understood in the Targum to denote the region where the Ten Tribes lived "beyond the mountains of Armenia." Rashi identified Harmon with "the Mountains of Darkness," the term used by medieval Jews for the Caspian mountains, believed in the West to surround the kingdom of the Khazars (who were often taken for the Ten Lost Tribes) and to include the Caucasus. The reference in Lamentations Rabbah 1:14, no. 42, does not refer to the passage of the Tribes through Armenia as is usually claimed, but more probably to the Jerusalem exiles' easy (harmonyah, "harmonious") route.

Armenia has further been identified with the biblical Togarmah (Gen. 10:3). In Armenian tradition this genealogy has competed with the theory of Ashkenazi origins, and extended to the Scythians east of the Volga. The identification of Armenia as Aram (Gen. 10:22; 25:20; 28:5) is adopted by Saadiah Gaon and also occurs in Islamic literature.

3. Michelle Bowie: Keeping the Law and Being in the Land of Israel
From: Michelle Bowie <mbowie02@verizon.net>

In Response to the Noachide Movement:
Greetings Yair,
I am currently studying the book of Deuteronomy and have come across a few places where YHWH has told us that if we are far away from the place where He puts His name (that would be Jerusalem) then He tells us there is some relaxing allowed for the eating of certain food, the Passover observance can be without a sacrifice, and how we handle our money and wealth. So far I have found passages in the following places:
12: 8-14, 15-22;  16: 2,56.
If I have misinterpreted, these verses, please let me know. If you can expand on them I am open as I have had to reread them a few times and will probably more. I find it interesting that it kind of ties in with what you have said in the past about Ephraim not being held to the LAW as those who are in the land of Judah and Jerusalem. It appears that when we come back to the place of His name, then we must follow the LAW as outlined earlier and it is still in place for those who are physically there now. Is that correct?
Shalom, --michelle b.

Brit-Am Answer:
We do not necessarily deduce what you suggest from the verses you quoted.
We do however know that a definite link exists between Keeping the Law and Israelites permanently dwelling in the Land.
"Brit-Am Now"-277 
#5. Nachmanides: The Connection Between Law and Land

4. Malcolm Crawford:  Persia (Elam) and the Throne of David followed by Brit-Am Comment
Was the Imminent demise of Iran Predicted?
From: Malcolm Crawford <macrawford@rogers.com>

Dear Yair,
It seems to me that some people overlook an important passage in Jeremiah 49:34 - 39.  It clearly prophesies that God will 'set His throne in Elam.'  As verse 38 cannot be referring to any divine throne God sits on, it must be talking of King David's throne. This sounds suspiciously as if it was fulfilled in Esther who Josephus says was truly of royal blood.  It also sounds a lot like the deeds of Amestris who some (e.g. Wilson) have identified with Esther. (She destroyed much of the Persian royal family) If England's throne is truly Davidic it must have come through Persia (Elam) and therefore Esther's lineage.  Was she the 'tender twig' (Ezek. 17:22) God said He would transfer the throne to?
Malcolm Crawford

Brit-Am Comment:
In our Commentary to Jeremiah we did not touch on this possibility:
You do however have a point.
Historically the Elamites were a very strong element in Ancient Persia and according to some (e.g. Altheim) most of the population actually spoke Elamite.
Even if the Prophecy was partly fulfilled in the time of  Esther it would only have been as a Prototype for later and more complete fulfillment in the End Times.
See our note on Protypical Prophecies
Elam in Prophecy could very well represent the IRAN of today.
This may be worth exploring.
Is IRAN about to be punished by the Almighty through the agency of Israelites?
Are these events a Prelude to the Messianic Era?
Was this indicated by Jeremiah and the other Prophets?

5. New Article by Cam Rea
"Assyria's invasion of Media, a Short Introduction"

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