The Earliest European Beliefs in their Hebraic Origins.

  Traditions of Israelite Descent  
  in Scotland  

a) Constituent Elements
(1. Early Settlers, Picts, etc
Dal Riada, Gaels, Scotti
(3.Angles, Vandals, Lowlanders and Vikings
(4. Other Elements.

b) Tribal Identifications
Picts, Alban, Isacon i.e. Son of Isaac. Picts from Agathyrsi i.e. Khazars.
The Declaration of Arbroath
Christianity Against Associations with Israel
Scotland in Bible Codes.


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a) Constituent Elements

(1. Early Settlers, Picts, etc
Roughly speaking at first there were Tribes associated with the Picts in the North. These were a mixture of peoples and included the Caledonians.
In the south were groups who spoke a type of Celtic similar to Welsh and are referred to as Brythons.
These groups more or less defeated the Romans and forced the Romans to build long defensive walls backed by substantial forces to keep them from raiding the south.

Dal Riada in Ireland and Scotland

(2. Dal Riada, Gaels, Scotti
In the 300s-400s CE a group from southwest Ireland moved to Ulster in Northern Ireland and from there crossed the seas to occupy Dal Reada on the west coast. These people were known as the Scotti and gave Scotland its name. Some say that originally "Scotti" meaning "Wanderer" was another name for Irishmen in general. One of the meanings of the word "Hebrew" (Ibri) also connotes "Wanderer". From the Geography of Ptolemy,  and elsewhere the earliest inhabitants of both Britain and Ireland were known as Iberi meaning Hebrew. The ethnic name Iberi was also common throughout the Celtic-speaking regions of Europe especially in the West. Nowadays the Scotti from Ireland who settled in Scotland are referred to as the Gaels. The Irish tongue and the "Celtic" language of the Scottish Highlands are both known as Gaelic. Irish Gaelic and Scottish Gaelic are similar.

(3. Angles, Vandals, Lowlanders and Vikings
In the 400s and 500s CE groups associated with the Angles and identified by us (in "The Tribes") as Vandals settled in Northern England and southern Scotland.  In southern Scotland they intermixed with the peoples already there forming the ethnic group  known as "Lowlanders".
In the north Viking settlers from Denmark and Norway intermixed with the Picts and Gaels.

(4. Other Elements.
In addition to all the above over time settlements of Flemings, Walloons, Normans, Englishmen, and others were established in Scotland along with a possible group of assimilated Jewish origin.

b) Tribal Identifications
In "The Tribes" we identified the Vandal-Angle group that moved into the Lowlands with the Tribe of Asher.
Some of the early Celtic groups in the north that were later taken over by Scandinavians also pertained to the Tribe of Asher.
The Scandinavians who settled in Scotland appear to have been somewhat different from those who remained in Scandinavia and may have been dominated by the As or Aseir who in turn relate to the Tribe of Asher.
In our work "The Khazars. Tribe 13" further evidence is given linking together Israelites, Scotland, the Picts, Khazars, and Scandinavia.
The Tribe of Manasseh was also dominant in Scotland especially in the Pict and Gaelic groups.

(c) Picts, Alban, Isacon i.e. Son of Isaac.
Picts from Agathyrsi i.e. Khazars.
The Picts or the leading element in what became the Picts  came from Scythia. They were descended from the Agathyrsi who were later known as the Khazars.  The Agathyrsi sent a contingent across the sea to Scotland where it became identified with the PICTS (Servius on Aenid 4.v.146).

In early Russian the Khazars were referred to as "Hebrews". The Old Russian word for Hebrew is usually translated as "Jew" which can be confusing if we want to distinguish between Hebrews from the Ten Tribes and the Jewish People. The Khazars had traditions that they were of Israelite descent especially from the Tribes of Simeon and Manasseh.

The Khazars, Tribe 13.
Scotland and the
Some type of tradition of Israelite descent probably existed throughout Scotland. The Biblical laws concerning clean and unclean animals were observed to some degree throughout Scotland.
The Food Taboos of Old Scotland. The Law of Moses and of Caledonia

Folklore of the Picts
by Stuart McHardy
## An account of the origins of the Picts which comes from the Irish Book of Invasions or Conquests states that the Picts were descended from a Scythian named Gelon son of Hercules and that they were called Agathyrsi. They supposedly landed in Leinster in Ireland, helped the king of Leinster win a battle against the Tuatha Fidhbhe (Fife?) then were forced to sail north into Scotland taking Irish wives with them on the condition that in any disputed succession the female line would be dominant...

##In 1879 a book was published called the History of Ancient Caledonia written by John
Maclarren from Dunning, near the ancient Pictish capital of Forteviot. In this Maclarren takes one of the wilder explanations for the mysterious origins of the Picts - that they were one of the lost tribes of Israel. According to him Daniel and Lazarus arrived at Montrose in the distant past, bearing with them the Stone of Destiny and founded a new nation. The fact that he has them accompanied by a man called McIntyre gives the game away -clan names of this sort are less than a thousand years old. ##

Chronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum
Picts take their name in their own tongue from their painted bodies; this is because, using sharp iron tools and ink, they are marked by tattoos of various shapes. The Scots, who now are incorrectly called Irish, are {as it were} Sciti, because they came from the Scythian region, and had their origin there; or else they take their name from Scotta the daughter of Pharaoh the king of Egypt, who as the story goes was the queen of the Scots. It is known for a fact that the Britons arrived in Britain in the third age of the world. However the Sciti, that is, the Scots took possession of Scocia, or Ireland, in the fourth age.

"Brit-Am Now"-719
Isacon (Isaac) ancestor of Picts and Scots
# In the
Albanic Duan, which seems to have belonged to some collection of additions to Nennius, and which contains the oldest record of the ethnological traditions of Scotland, the brothers Brittus and Albanus appear as the eponymi of the two Celtic races inhabiting respectively Britain and Alban, or Scotland. Thus--

p. 100
"O, all ye learned of Alban,
Ye well-skilled host of yellow hair,
What was the first invasion' Is it known to you'
Which took the land of Alban'
Albanus possessed it; numerous his hosts.
He was the illustrious son of
He and
Briutus were brothers without deceit.
From him Alban of ships has its name.
Briutus banished his active brother
Across the stormy sea of
Briutus possessed the noble Alban
As far as the conspicuous promontory of
Fothudain." 1
Chron. Picts and Scots, p. 57.

Historia had said that Brittus and Albanus were brothers, and sons of Hessitio, and that from them proceeded the nations of the Britti and the Albani. The Pictish Chronicle adds, after quoting a passage from Isidorus giving the etymology of the name Albani. "de quibus originem duxerunt Scoti et Picti;" 1 that is, that both Scots and Picts belonged to the race of which Albanus was the eponymus.

Triads, in which the ethnology of the inhabitants of Britain is conveyed under the form of successive colonies, or invasions, they are thus represented: "Three social tribes of the Isle of Britain--the nation (
cenedl) of the Kymry, the race (al) of the Lloegrwys and the Brython--and these are said to be descended from the original nation of the Cymry, and to be of the same language and speech. Three refuge-seeking tribes that came to the Isle of Britain--the tribe of Celyddon yn y Gogled, the race (al) of the Gwyddyl that are in Alban, and the men of Galedin.

A few further extracts of interest from Skene ch.VII:

# Brutus, the
eponymus of the Britons, being, in the Bruts, father of Camber Locrinus and Albanactus, while, in the Triads, the Kymri, the Lloegri, and the Brython, are successive colonies which entered the country from different lands.

# Albanus possessed it; numerous his hosts.
He was the illustrious son of
He and
Briutus were brothers without deceit.

# Here the two brothers,
Brittus and Albanus, appear, and the latter is the eponymus of the inhabitants of Alban or Scotland, while the tradition of the retreat of the race of the one before that of the other seems to be preserved.

# And first of the Saxons. It is somewhat remarkable that when
Ammianus Marcellinus narrates the first great outburst of the barbarian, or ex-provincial tribes, against the Romans in 360, he enumerates them as consisting of the "gentes Scotorum Pictorumque." In the second invasion, in 364, they were joined by two other nations, and consisted of the "Picti Saxonesque, et Scotti et Attacotti;" and in the third invasion, in 368, of the "Picti in duas gentes divisi Dicaledones et Vecturiones, itidemque Atticotti bellicosa hominum natio, et Scotti per diversa vagantes."

 # Claudian, in writing of the same invasion, expressly mentions the Saxones along with the Picts as forming part of the ravagers, and names the Orkneys as their seat.

Maduerunt Saxone fuso
Orcades, incaluit Pictorum sanguine Thule
Scotorum cumulos flevit glacialis Ierne."

# I have elsewhere shown 1 that the tradition given by
Nennius, that Octa and bussa, the son and nephew of Hengist, led a body of Saxons past the Orkneys, and took possession of a part of Scotland, "usque ad confinia Pictorum," indicated a real settlement of Saxons on the east coast of Scotland as early as the year 374; and it is not impossible that they may have allied with the Picts proper so closely as to form one of the two gentes [Dicaledones et Attacotes?], and that the Vecturiones included them.

Brit-Am Note: All the above are extracts from Skene.
Albanus and Briutus are described as the first conquerors of Britain.
They are the sons of "Isacon".
In continuation Isacon switches with Hesitio
 Isacon is another form of Isaac.
Galedin is derived from Gilead son of Machir of Manasseh.

In addition we have the Declaration of Arbroath.

The Declaration of Arbroath
# The Declaration of Arbroath was a declaration of Scottish independence, and set out to confirm Scotland's status as an independent, sovereign state and its use of military action when unjustly attacked. It is in the form of a letter submitted to Pope John XXII, dated 6 April 1320.

Raymond McNair
King David's Everlasting Dynasty!
by Raymond F. McNair
# Scotlands most famous national document is her highly prized Declaration of Independence, also called the Declaration of Arbroath. King Edward I seized the Stone of Scone and took it to London in 1296 AD. But the Scots would still not fully yield to English rule. Edward II, successor to Edward I, appealed to Pope John XXII to convince the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, to acknowledge the English Kings lordship over Scotland. At that time, many Scots were anti-British, and would not consider yielding to Englands supremacy over Scotland.

      #     When Pope John XXII appealed to the Scots to submit to Edward,
Bruces nobles wrote the Pope a letter on April 6, 1320, 24 years after King Edward I had stolen their Stone of Scone.

Most Holy Father and Lord, we know and from the chronicles and books of the ancients we find that among other famous nations our own, the Scots, has been graced with widespread renown. They journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Pillars of Hercules, and dwelt for a long course of time in Spain among the most savage tribes, but nowhere could they be subdued by any race, however barbarous. Thence they came, twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea, to their home in the west where they still live today. The Britons they first drove out, the Picts they utterly destroyed, and, even though very often assailed by the Norwegians, the Danes and the English, they took possession of that home with many victories and untold efforts; and, as the historians of old time bear witness, they have held it free of all bondage ever since. In their kingdom there have reigned one hundred and thirteen kings of their own royal stock, the line unbroken a single foreigner. The high qualities and deserts of these people, were they not otherwise manifest, gain glory enough from this...

For an English translation of the Version in full go to:
The Declaration of Arbroath 1320 by John Prebble

The Declaration says:
# Thence they came, twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea, to their home in the west where they still live today. ##
Some claim that this sentence implies that they themselves were descended from Israelites. It does not say this explicitly.

The History of Britain, written by
Nennius some five centuries earlier, would doubtless have been among the books of the ancients to which reference was made. There, following an account of various migrations of people from Spain to Ireland, we read (15):

'According to the most learned among the Scots, if any one desires to learn what I am now going to state, Ireland was a desert and uninhabited when the children of Israel crossed the Red Sea, in which, as we read in the Book of the Law, the Egyptians who followed them were drowned. At that period, there lived among this people, with a numerous family, a Scythian of noble birth who had been banished from his country, and did not go to pursue the people of God. The Egyptians who were left, seeing the destruction of the great men of their nation, and fearing lest he should possess himself of their territory, took counsel together and expelled him.'

We are then told that this Scythian and his family, after wandering through many countries, eventually 'landed in Spain, where they continued many years, having greatly increased and multiplied. Thence, a thousand and two years after the Egyptians were lost in the Red Sea, they passed into Ireland'.

The Scottish historian, John of Fordun, .. in 1385. 'In the days of Moses,' he wrote, 'a certain king of one of the countries of Greece, Neolus, or Heolus, by name, had a son beautiful in countenance, but wayward in spirit, called Gaythelos, to whom he allowed no authority in the kingdom. Roused to anger, and backed by a numerous band of youths, Gaythelos disturbed his father's kingdom by many cruel misdeeds, and angered his father and his people by his insolence. He was, therefore, driven out by force from his native land, and sailed to Egypt, where, being distinguished by courage and daring, and being of royal birth, he married Scota, the daughter of Pharaoh. Mother Chronicle says that in those days all Egypt was overrun by the Ethiopians who, according to their usual custom, laid waste the country from the mountains to the town of Memphis and the Great Sea; so that Gaythelos, the son of Neolus, one of Pharaoh's allies, was sent to his assistance with a large army; and the king gave him his only daughter in marriage to seal the compact' (History of Scotland, Transl, Skene, 1872, pp. 6, 7).

Gaythelos, therefore, assembled his retainers and, with his wife Scota, quitted Egypt., and as on account of an old feud he feared to retrace his steps to those parts whence he had come to Egypt, he bent his course westwards' (p. 10).

After wandering for forty years through many lands, he eventually left Africa and 'embarked in such ships as he could then get, and went over into Spain', where he built a town by the name of Brigantia (pp. 11, 12). In Roman times a town of this name existed near Coruna in the province of Gallicia in north-west Spain.

Two sons of
Gaythelos, after first making a reconnaissance of Ireland and returning to Spain, finally migrated there after Gaythelos had died. In support of this Fordun quotes the Legend of Brandan as saying:

'Now one of the sons of
Gaythelos, Hyber by name, a young man but valiant for his years, being incited to war by his spirit, took up arms, and having prepared such a fleet as he could, went to the aforesaid island, and slew part of the inhabitants he found, and part he subdued. He thus appropriated that whole land as a possession for himself and his brethren, calling it Scotia from his mother's name' (p. 15).

Similar accounts with some differences but sharing essential features are all also found in Irish Mythology and refer to the Milesians or Sons of Neil who ruled over all Ireland but were concentrated in the north.
In the Scottish context the legends apply to the Gaels who settled in Dal Riada in the West of  Scotland.

McNair tells us:
# In 1879,  Scottish historian John MacLaren published an interesting history of Scotland titled, The History of Ancient Caledonia... according to MacLaren's history, they had worshipped the 'God of Bethel,' and knew that they were descendants of the 'twelve tribes of Israel,' and say they brought 'Jacob's Pillow stone' into Britain. According to MacLaren, some of the Scots kept the 'seventh day' Sabbath, observed the annual Sabbaths (mentioned in Leviticus 23) and kept the 'Sabbath of the land' every seventh year, according to the laws God gave Moses to give to Israel; they also refused to eat any 'unclean food' and paid 'tythes' (The History of Ancient Caledonia, pp. 1-61). These comments reveal the close racial connection between the Scotch-Irish and the people of ancient Israel.

         # This same historian also says, 'The original writings from which this history is translated are believed to have been carried away by Edward I, along with...Jacob's Pillow [the British coronation stone, the Stone of Scone] upon which the Caledonians crowned their kings at Scone Palace' (p. 2).

More discussion of  this matter  is to be found in our coming article on Tea Tephi.

Christianity Against Associations with Israel
It would seem that in both Ireland and Scotland traditions concerning their Israelite origin had once existed.
We suspect that the influence of Christianity both kept these traditions alive while emasculating them.
The Lost Ten Tribes in the eyes of the Church were Jews.  Associations with Jews and with Jewish trends of thought were fought against fiercely. Nowadays one would think that the last thing Ministers, academics, and other modern-day "clericals" should be worried about is having some of the better members of their communities take an interest in their Hebrew ancestry.

Scotland in Bible Codes.

Points that were noted as linked in the Bible Codes with Scotland include:
Benjamin the brother of Joseph;  KEREN: THE HORN OF GILEAD (Manasseh); Out of Egypt; Caledonia; Becher of Benjamin (or Ephraim); throne; David; Ephraim; Jews; Kings of Judah; Yamin of Simeon; City of Refuge, baal.

See also:
The Israelite and Scythian Origins of the Scots in Early British Tradition..Nennius.
Questions on Scotland

There various traditions in Scotland and Ireland that indicate Israelite Orgins and that dove-tail with evidence from other sources. Much of this evidence is available from our web-site or from Brit-Am Publications.

We will continue this study concerning Scotland and Israel and add to it.
Those who are interested will find information that is pertinent to Scotland in our studies of other Western Nations.
This especially applies to Ireland with which Scotland shared an ethnic, cultural, and historical  background.


For articles on other nations see:
The Earliest West European Beliefs in their Israelite Origins: Countries Index

To Make an
Offering to Brit-Am

The name "Ephraim" in Hebrew Letters as Seen
by Satellite in the Hills of Ephraim

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