The Ten Tribes separated from Judah, were Exiled and lost their identity. They lost consciousness of their Hebrew ancestry. This is an historical fact. Did the Jews also forget them? Indications exist that in the time of the second Temple and for some centuries afterwards Jewish traditions show awareness that at least part of the Ten Tribes were to be located in Western Europe and the British Isles.

Did the Jews Know Where the Ten Tribes Are?
Jewish Traditions and Locating the Ten Tribes of Israel in the West.
The Israelites Forget Their Ancestry.
Two Main Focii of Ten Tribes Location.
What About the Jews?
Greek and Roman Conceptions.

Sons of Moses and Rechabites.
Aed and Aaad.
Different Sources Concerning "Aed" and "Aad".
YouTube Clip.

The Israelites Forget Their Ancestry.
The Ten Tribes separated from Judah after the death of King Solomon. They worshipped idols. Almost 300 years after their separation from Judah
they were exiled by the Assyrians. They were taken away and settled elsewhere. They got lost. They lost their identity.  We trace them through a combination of archaeological finds, historical records, legends, comparative religion, linguistics, and so on. All these sources of enquiry lead us to focus on certain groups who ultimately migrated to western Europe. The Lost Tribes being in Western Europe is confirmed by Biblical Sources.
The Ten Tribes had lost their identity because even while still in the Land of Israel they had worshipped other idols. They had gone in the ways of the peoples around them. They had intermarried with them as described in the Book of Judges. They appear to have been mostly illiterate, superstitious, and gullible. They tended to believe in anything and everything. They probably behaved just like the Ancient Greeks who adopted ideas and mythos from everybody else and adapted them to their own concepts. Some people are liable to be a little offended with us saying these things. It is however what the "experts" say and in this case we tend to agree with them. They lost their identity partly because they may not have had much of an identity to lose in the first place.

Apart from that everyone else lost their identity as well.
Out of all Ancient Peoples only the Jews remained aware of their ancestry.
All other peoples who moved from one place to another forgot where they had come from and who they were.

If it is any consolation our impression is that this was part of a Divine Plan.
God wanted the Ten Tribes to lose their identity. They were to become like Gentiles. From being Gentiles they were destined to evolve, to move forwards with the rest of humanity. On their way forward their task was to elevate the rest of humanity along with them selves. This was what to some degree they accomplished.
The Purpose of Exile and Loss of Identity

The Yearning of Ephraim For Redemption

The Divine Purpose for the Exile and Division of the Tribes

Two Main Focii of Ten Tribes Location.
From our historical studies we find the ten tribes here and there, in different groups, moving to and fro, conquering and at times being conquered, federating with others and then splitting away. We are dealing with thousands of years of human history. This could entail violent dramatic and extreme permutations. We find two main focii. In the east many of the Israelites were in the region of Scythia and from there they moved westwards. In the west we find Israelites in Western Europe and the British Isles from an early period. Not only were Israelites in the western areas at an early stage but over time all of the Israelites moved there.

What About the Jews?
The Jews descend from the Tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and Levi as well as minority groups from all the other Tribes.
The Jews were exiled by the Babylonians to Babylon. This was the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. A minority of Jews returned from Babylon under Ezra and Nehemia. They were ruled over by Persians, then by Seleucid Hellenized Syrians or Greeks. Under the Maccabees they obtained independence from the Greeks. This lasted fro a few centuries. Then  the Romans took over. Later they rebelled against the Romans and were exiled and scattered again. In other words throughout much of their history the Jews were either dominated by other nations or fighting for their very existence. Sometimes both situations prevailed at one and the same time.

Did they know who and where the Ten Tribes were? Did other peoples?
Josephus mentions the Ten Tribes being beyond the Euphrates and numbering vast numbers.
Jewish legends speak of Jews in the east in the region of Scythia, in areas wherefrom there were later large-scale migrations to western Europe.
Concerning part of the Ten Tribes being at that stage in the east, we have discussed the issue elsewhere.
e.g. in our books:
"The Tribes"

 and "Ephraim. The Gentiles Children of Israel."

Were the Jews Aware that part of the Ten Tribes were in the West and the British Isles?
The Romans and Greeks also seem to have known.

Greek and Roman Conceptions
The Greeks and Romans saw the world through their own eyes. The gods and heros of other peoples would be explained in Greek or Roman terms.
They identified the Canaanite god Baal Zephon as well as the God of Israel with their own god known as Cronos (to the Greeks) and as Saturn to the Romans. They also seem to have identified the Jews with the sons or followers of Saturn.
In simplified terms they said that Saturn (Cronus) had been expelled from Israel and gone to the British Isles or to one of the islands of Britain.
They also said other things. Sometimes they would contradict themselves. We do not need to find an overwhelming consistency in this mythology. It is enough to note that these sources may indicate that the Greeks and Romans saw some kind of ancestral connection between the Jews and the inhabitants of Britain.
#1. Did the Ancients identify the Lost Israelites with Saturn in the British Isles?

The inhabitants of Britain and many of western Europe of that time are called "Celts" in modern terms.
This is a new term.
It should be noted that the inhabitants of Britain do not seem to have called themselves Celts.
They were called Iberi. This is a western pronunciation of the word "Hebrew".

Sons of Moses and Rechabites.
The Jews spoke of the Lost Ten Tribes. They associated the Ten Tribes with the Sons of Moses and the Rechabites.
The Sons of Moses were descendants of Moses. They were believed to be very numerous. Usually they were associated with the Ten Tribes but sometimes with exiled Jews in general.
The Rechabites were a branch of the descendants of Jethro who had attached themselves to Israel.
It had been prophesied that they would be exiled with the Ten Tribes.
[Numbers 24:22]
This verse may be interpreted differently as the Rabbinical Commentators have done:
# The
Kenites here are those who were to convert together with Jethro and attach themselves to the Children of Israel.  They always remained as a somewhat separate group. They were exiled by the Assyrians with the Ten Tribes. They are destined to return with them (Rashi).

Britain in the Mythology of the Middle East (even in Assyrian times? see "Zeitscript fur Assyriologie", 1909, 1929), and later of the Gauls and Romans  was known as the Isle of the Dead.
Ireland was referred to as the Happy Island or Island of the Blessed and this term later could also be applied to the British isles (or part of them) in general.

Jewish legends and traditions from the Second Temple period and shortly afterwards said that the Lost Ten Tribes, Rechabites, and Sons of Moses were in the Islands of the Blessed. This is confirmed by Apocryphical  Jewish and Christian-Jewish writings that have survived from those times and also from other sources.

Rechabites: A New and Unexpected Source?
Jewish Traditions Placed the Lost Ten Tribes in the British Isles!!

Aad and Israel.
The Arabs of Arabia when they first became Muslims borrowed heavily from Jewish sources.

They spoke of Aad brother of Hud who had once lived in the area of Israel.
Hud represented the Jews who kept the Law of Moses. Hud is another form of "YaHud" i.e. Judah.
Aad the brother of Hud could therefore be the Ten Tribes.
Aad could mean "exile" (cf. Aramaic ) or 'witness" or something else.
Aad was exiled for his sins and went to the Happy Isles of the Blessed.
This is what happened to the Ten Tribes.

The Arab sources also say that the sons of Moses who were associated with the Ten Tribes) were in  Gaul i.e. present-day France Belgium and Holland.

Aed and Aaad.
Other versions state that the CHILDREN OF MOSES were in the far west in "Djabarka"  (i.e. "The Golden Castle"), in the "Islands of the Happy", dwelling in a town wherein the remnants of AD (Aed) were also to be found.

We do not know what Aad means (one source says it connotes "high") BUT in British Legends (Welsh Triads) a similar name, "Aed", exists!
Britain was named after Prydain son of Aed the Great. There was a god  named Aedui or Aed. Britain  was also called "Aeddon", in honor of Aed. The capital of Scotland, Edinburgh" is called "Caer Eiddyn" in Welsh; "Caer" meaning "walled city" just as in Hebrew er have "KIR" (wall);  and "KIRIAH" in Biblical Hebrew  which meant a walled city. "CAER" and "KIRIAH" use the same Hebrew word-root, "KIR". The name AED which was given once to Britain and from which "Edin-burgh" is derived is cognate with AD which was synonymous in Arabian literature with northern Israel.
Aed and the Lost Tribes in Britain
The Lost Ten Tribes in Celtic and Arabic Lore


Aad in Arabic lore represented the Land of Arabia. We have shown that originally it referred to the Land of Israel especially the eastern sections.

It is worth noting that in Greek and Roman thought much of what was the Greater Land of Israel is referred to as Arabia.

See the Map of Arabia of  Ptolemy in the The Tribes"

Britain in Roman thought was associated with "Arabia".

Different Sources Concerning "Aed" and "Aad":

Aed : derived from the word aedh "fire"; common in early Ireland; name of several early saints, and four Ui Neill High Kings.
cf Hebrew Aed, Uud flaming ember  cf. Zechariah 3:2 Amos 4:11 Isaiah 7:4).
  [Isaiah 24:15]

Aed -There were Kings and heros in Irish mythology with the name Aed or Aodh. It means "fire".
Aedan and Aodhan are variations on the name Aed.

Also known in Ireland as
Father of

Macha- goddess of war.
Macha (Maax-ah)- Death goddess of Ireland, a crone aspect of the Goddess who is sometimes synonymous with the Caillech.
Caillech (Call-y'ac)- Death goddess who presides over the cauldron of death and rebirth from her home in the Land of the Dead. She is the crone form of all Celtic Goddesses.
Other forms:
Aeducan, Aodhagen
Aed - an Irish underworld God. Son of Lir and Aobh.

Lir, like his Welsh counterpart, is a God of the Sea, though in the case of the Gaelic myths his son Manannan mac Lir seems to take over his position and so features more prominently. It is probable that more myths referring to Llyr/Ler which are now lost to us existed and that his popularity was greater, especially considering the number of figures called 'son of Llyr/Ler'.

Lir is a key character in the well-known mythological story Oidheadh Chlainne Lir; however, it is not definitely established whether this is the same person as Manann's father or a different Lir. The Lir in this story was the rival of Bodb Dearg for the kingship of the Tuatha D?Danann after their retreat into the fairy mounds. In order to appease Lir, Bodb gave one of his daughters to marry him, Aeb. She bore him four children, one girl, Fionnuala, and three sons, Aed and twins, Fiachra and Conn.

Once the most common Irish boys name.
Anglicised Hugh, although there is no real connection with that name

Aad in Arab Sources:
Aad is the name of a powerful ancient Arabian tribe. ...the Arabs refer to them as Umame Baaidah (the annihilated nations) or Arabe Aaribah (pure Arabs) and named their different tribes as Aad, Thamud, Tasam and Jadees, while the Orientalists call them Umame Saamiyah. However the difference in name does not influence the question of their existence. Accordingly the Quran has named them "The First Aad" so as to clarify that Banu Saam and Aade Ula are one and the same.

Whatever the reason for the name Arab may be, it is a fact that this area was the land of
Umame-Saamiyah or Aad. Hence concerning the nation of Aad being Arabs, there is no difference of opinion. The word Aad is Arabic, meaning high and in Hebrew it means famous. In the Quran the word Iram which means lofty and high is also used for them. Aad have wrongfully been called Amalekites by incorrect reference to the Torah.

The word
Aad is Arabic, meaning high and in Hebrew it means famous. In the Quran the word Iram which means lofty and high is also used for them. Aad have wrongfully been called Amalekites by incorrect reference to the Torah.
In the
Qur'an, we see the stories of three prophets who were sent to three different Arabian tribes: Hud to the tribe of 'Ad (Surah 7:65), Salih to the tribe of Thamud (7:73), and Shu'aib to the tribe of Madyan (7:85). Each one of these three prophets is said to have been "one of their own brethren", and each addresses his respective audiences as "O my people!". The Qur'an, likewise, openly states that prophethood and revelation were given to the children of Israel (Suwar 29:27, 45:16-17).

YouTube Clip..

Jewish Knowledge of the Ten Tribes.avi

Duration: 27.06 minutes

The Ten Tribes of Israel went to the West and East. Those in the east also later moved westward. They converged on Western Europe and the British Isles. The Jews in the Land of Israel as well as the Greeks and Romans knew that the Ten Tribes were in the West and in the Isles of Britain. This may be seen in Jewish legends and traditions from Second Temple times and also by Arab legends derived from Jewish sources.

For accompanying article see:
Did the Jews Know Where the Ten Tribes Are?.

The Jews of Judah considered the Ten Tribes to be in the British Isles and neighboring areas. This is confirmed by legends concerning the Ten Tribes, the Rechabites, and the Sons of Moses. The Romans also knew of this.
Arab legends derived from Jewish sources also located the Ten Tribes in the West and in the British Isles. The Arabic "Aad" symbolizes the Ten Tribes of Israel and is cognate with the Ancient British and Irish name "Aed".

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