2 Kings 21

1. King Mannasseh begins His Reign Badly!
Rabbi Asi Encounters King Manasseh.
King Mannasseh Sins and Repents.

Idolatry and the Temple.
The Nazi Pact with Satan!
The Consequence of Sin.
King Manasseh in Wikipedia.
King Manasseh in the Book of Chronicles.
King Manasseh in Josephus.
King Amon of Judah.


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2-Kings 21

1. King Mannasseh begins His Reign Badly.

[2-Kings 21:1] Manasseh was twelve years old when he became king, and he reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Hephzibah.

Manasseh may mean "forget, remove, place elsewhere, represent, etc."
Menasseh can also mean Responsible Representation. The name would therefore symbolize a guiding principle of self-government that resulted in the USA coming into being.


Hephzibah means "Will of the Almighty" or "My Desire is in Her".

Manasseh was the son of King Hezekiah of Judah. It appears that Manasseh had been born after the last remnant of the northern Ten Tribes had been exiled by the Assyrians. The Tribe of Manasseh had been one of the leading tribes and perhaps in practice it had been the most important, even more than Ephraim.
Hezekiah named his son and heir to his throne in remembrance of the Ten Tribes of Israel.

[2-Kings 21:2] And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, according to the abominations of the nations whom the LORD had cast out before the children of Israel.

[2-Kings 21:3]  For he rebuilt the high places which Hezekiah his father had destroyed; he raised up altars for Baal, and made a wooden image [Asheirah], as Ahab king of Israel had done; and he worshiped all the host of heaven and served them.

The "High Places" in Hebrew are "Bamot". These were elevated altars. Some of these had been intended to worship God Almighty in an Unorthodox manner outside of recognized convention. Pagan practices had accrued to them. Others had been built with idolatrous intention from  the beginning (Daat Mikra)..

King Hezekiah had destroyed all of them.

Manasseh rebuilt them.
Manasseh went in the pathway of Ahab. King Ahab of the northern Kingdom of Israel had set up an Asheirah in addition to the two golden bull calves that had already existed since the time of Jeroboam ben Nebat. So too, Menasseh set up an Asheirah in addition to the altars to Baal he had already built (Me'am Loez).

Manasseh is compared to King Ahab of Israel. The Sages said that Manasseh reigned for 55 years out of which he was a sinner for the first 22 years and then he repented and reigned for another 33 years.
The 22 years in which Manasseh sinned parallel the 22 years in which Ahab ruled over Israel.

The Sages said that in the time of Manasseh the attractions of idolatry were very great and in some respects almost irresistible.
The situation, social attitude, and common psychology was different from what it is today. In some ways they may have been at a higher level than we are today but otherwise they were not.

Rabbi Asi Encounters King Manasseh.
The Talmud (Sanhedrin 21) tells us about Rabbi Asi who was teaching the Book of Kings. When he finished the section just before that concerning Manasseh, he said:
"Tomorrow we will deal with our colleague, Manasseh".
By this he meant that Manasseh had doubtless learned much Torah from his father the righteous King Hezekiah. Nevertheless despite his learning he had gone wrong and turned away from righteousness. Manasseh could therefore serve as an example and warning to the Sages not to be too sure of themselves. Manasseh at one stage had been like them. That night Manasseh appeared to Rabbi
Asi in a dream.
"Who are you to consider me a colleague of yourself and your father, as you referred to me?"
Manasseh then asked him a question on a legal-ritual matter they had been discussing in the House of Study.
Asi could not answer. He requested that Manasseh tell him the answer so that he could quote from him and attribute the source to him.
Manasseh told him the solution.
Asi then queried Manasseh,
"Since you know so much how did you come to err in matters of idolatry?"
Menasseh replied:
"If you had have been there [in my time] you would have lifted up the skirt of your cloak to make it easier to run after me and do as I did!"

King Mannasseh Sins and Repents.

Idolatry and the Temple.

[2-Kings 21:4]  He also built altars in the house of the LORD, of which the LORD had said, 'In Jerusalem I will put My name.'

King Menasseh built altars to idols in the Holy City of Jerusalem. This was a worse crime than if he have done the same thing somewhere else. Jerusalem is the Holy City. It is the center of the world. It is the place where the God of Israel promised that HE would be most approachable from.
cf. The answer of God to the supplication of King Solomon:
[1-Kings 9:3] And the LORD said to him: 'I have heard your prayer and your supplication that you have made before Me; I have consecrated this house which you have built to put My name there forever, and My eyes and My heart will be there perpetually.

[2-Kings 21:5]  And he built altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the LORD.

The Temple in effect consisted of a building divided into three sections of ascending Holiness. In addition to the building there were two courtyards divided by a wall with a connecting gateway. The main altar was in the inner courtyard in front of the building. Most of the activity took place in the courtyards. The whole Temple complex was surrounded by a wall. The Temple Complex with its wall was on the Temple Mount which was surrounded by another wall.

[2-Kings 21:6]  Also he made his son pass through the fire, practiced soothsaying, used witchcraft, and consulted spiritists and mediums. He did much evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him to anger.

This is the practice of Molech.
The grandfather of Menasseh, King Ahaz had also been guilty of this practice.
The Ten Tribes after their exile continued to practice it in a diluted form until recently:
Moloch Sacrifice and the
Beltain of Britain, Ireland, and Scandinavia.

There were two main forms to this Moloch worship.

One was simply causing the person or animal offered to pass through the flame without actually burning them. This is the more modern West European practice that might still go on?
The other was actually burning the victim alive.
The Commentators are divided as to whether Manasseh actually offered up one of his sons as a human sacrifice or merely caused him to pass through the flames.
The Prophet Jeremiah lived after the reign of Manasseh but his exhortations appear to have referred to the time of Manasseh as well as that of his own time:
Jeremiah 7:
30 For the children of Judah have done evil in My sight,' says the LORD. 'They have set their abominations in the house which is called by My name, to pollute it. 31 And they have built the high places of
Tophet, which is in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire, which I did not command, nor did it come into My heart.
32 'Therefore behold, the days are coming,' says the LORD, 'when it will no more be called
Tophet, or the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, but the Valley of Slaughter; for they will bury in Tophet until there is no room.

Jeremiah 19:
4 'Because they have forsaken Me and made this an alien place, because they have burned incense in it to other gods whom neither they, their fathers, nor the kings of Judah have known, and have filled this place with the blood of the innocents 5 (they have also built the high places of Baal, to burn their sons with fire for burnt offerings to Baal, which I did not command or speak, nor did it come into My mind), 6 therefore behold, the days are coming,' says the LORD, 'that this place shall no more be called
Tophet or the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, but the Valley of Slaughter.

See the Brit-Am Commentary to this verse:

The Druids in  the West practiced human sacrifice.
In Scandinavia, the old Scandinavian religion contained human sacrifice. The Norse sagas and German historians relate of this, e.g. Temple at Uppsala in Sweden whose constriction in some ways is reminiscent of the Temple in Jerusalem.

The rationale behind human sacrifice was that the victim should die for the sake of the community or the individual making the offering.
Today, the practice of abortion is defended along similar lines.

The Nazi Pact with Satan!

The Nazis killing of the Jews was a form of human sacrifice.
Ruth Schechter wrote on this.
She also described how the Culture of the West is Hebraic culture in many ways. Ruth Schechter  from the University of  Beer- Sheva  conducted researches and wrote a number of books in Hebrew  concerning the common denominator between Jewish Philosophy and Western Thought, especially in regards to that of the British Isles.

"Brit-Am Now"-141: Geneva
#2. Calvinists

I was introduced to the works of Ruth Schechter by John Hulley who in turn had borrowed them from Yerocham Levitt a lecturer in Philosophy. These works are in Hebrew but they are interesting,  well-researched and original. I do not know why they have not been translated into English. I could not find even one reference (apart from that of Brit-Am) to them on the web.
I read these works some time ago.
In one of her works Ruth Schechter takes the play "Faust" by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) as prototypical of the German mind set.
This is a complicated piece of work but in short Faust makes an arrangement with the devil that the devil will give him what he wants in return for his soul. He seduces Gretchen who has killed her mother to be with him. Gretchen becomes pregnant and kills her child.Gretchen is condemned to death by the court. She refuses to be rescued by Faust and the devil. A heavenly voice says that Gretchen will be saved.

# Ultimately, Faust goes to heaven, for he loses only half of the bet. Angels, who arrive as messengers of divine mercy, declare at the end of Act V: "He who strives on and lives to strive/ Can earn redemption still" (V, 11936'7). #

If I remember correctly, Ruth Schechter stated that the Germans thought that by killing the Jews they could achieve world power at least for a while. The Jews were a kind of sacrifice to Satan. The Germans were aware that this was an evil thing, the work of the devil, but somehow hoped that like Faust, they would escape retribution.
This may sound like a fantasy but when one reads the background history, the biographies and autobiographies of the perpetrators it is seen to be not that far-fetched.
Even today Germany is a center of witchcraft and vigorous Satanism.
[ It is interesting that the Conspiracy Freaks very seldom speak negatively of Germany. Why?
Why are Germans building nuclear reactors for Iran? ]

The Consequence of Sin.

[2-Kings 21:7]  He even set a carved image of Asherah that he had made, in the house of which the LORD had said to David and to Solomon his son, 'In this house and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, I will put My name forever;

The Anglo-Saxons worshipped a goddess named Eostre. This is Astarte of the Middle East also referred to as Asherah. The name Asherah meant a goddess of that name and also a kind of wooden grove dedicated to her or perhaps to other idols.

[2-Kings 21:8]  and I will not make the feet of Israel wander anymore from the land which I gave their fathers 'only if they are careful to do according to all that I have commanded them, and according to all the law that My servant Moses commanded them.'

Dwelling in the Land of Israel requires Keeping the Law at some minimum level!!
Nachmanides: The Connection Between Law and Land

[2-Kings 21:9]  But they paid no attention, and Manasseh seduced them to do more evil than the nations whom the LORD had destroyed before the children of Israel.

The Canaanite Nations had been killed off and/or expelled from the Land of Israel partly due to their sins.
The Israelites took their place.
Now, not only were the Israelites acting in the same way the Canaanites had done but they were even worse!

[2-Kings 21:10] And the LORD spoke by His servants the prophets, saying,

[2-Kings 21:11] 'Because Manasseh king of Judah has done these abominations (he has acted more wickedly than all the Amorites who were before him, and has also made Judah sin with his idols),

[2-Kings 21:12] therefore thus says the LORD God of Israel: 'Behold, I am bringing such calamity upon Jerusalem and Judah, that whoever hears of it, both his ears will tingle.

[2-Kings 21:13]  And I will stretch over Jerusalem the measuring line of Samaria and the plummet of the house of Ahab; I will wipe Jerusalem as one wipes a dish, wiping it and turning it upside down.

What was done to Samaria will be done to Jerusalem. In the same way as King Manasseh of Judah imitated King Ahab of Israel in planting an Asherah (2-Kings 21:3) so too will the same fate befall Judah, cf. Micah 1:6  3:12

[2-Kings 21:14]  So I will forsake the remnant of My inheritance and deliver them into the hand of their enemies; and they shall become victims of plunder to all their enemies,

[2-Kings 21:15]  because they have done evil in My sight, and have provoked Me to anger since the day their fathers came out of Egypt, even to this day.''

[2-Kings 21:16]  Moreover Manasseh shed very much innocent blood, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another, besides his sin by which he made Judah sin, in doing evil in the sight of the LORD.

[2-Kings 21:17]  Now the rest of the acts of
Manasseh'all that he did, and the sin that he committed'are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?

[2-Kings 21:18]  So Manasseh rested with his fathers, and was buried in the garden of his own house, in the garden of
Uzza. Then his son Amon reigned in his place.

According to tradition Manasseh was the son of king Hezekiah and a daughter of the Prophet Isaiah.
Isaiah was therefore his grandfather. It is said that Manassah killed Isaiah!
We see from other sources (quoted below) that Manasseh was captured by the Assyrians and exiled to Babylon. In Babylon he repented and was restored to the Kingdom of Judah. He attempted to rectify the evil he had done and was partially successful. The prophesied disasters were postponed and made contingent on the behavior of those who were come after him.

King Manasseh in Wikipedia

Manasseh is mentioned in Assyrian records as a contemporary and loyal vassal of Sennacherib's son and successor,
Esarhaddon.[2] Assyrian records list Manasseh among twenty-two kings required to provide materials for Esarhaddon's building projects. Esarhaddon died in 669 BC and was succeeded by his son, Ashurbanipal, who also names Manasseh as one of a number of vassals who assisted his campaign against Egypt.[2]

King Manasseh in the Book of Chronicles.

2-Chronicles 33: 1-11
 1 Manasseh was twelve years old when he became king, and he reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem. 2 But he did evil in the sight of the LORD, according to the abominations of the nations whom the LORD had cast out before the children of Israel. 3 For he rebuilt the high places which Hezekiah his father had broken down; he raised up altars for the
Baals, and made wooden images; and he worshiped all the host of heaven and served them. 4 He also built altars in the house of the LORD, of which the LORD had said, 'In Jerusalem shall My name be forever.' 5 And he built altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the LORD. 6 Also he caused his sons to pass through the fire in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom; he practiced soothsaying, used witchcraft and sorcery, and consulted mediums and spiritists. He did much evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him to anger. 7 He even set a carved image, the idol which he had made, in the house of God, of which God had said to David and to Solomon his son, 'In this house and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, I will put My name forever; 8 and I will not again remove the foot of Israel from the land which I have appointed for your fathers' only if they are careful to do all that I have commanded them, according to the whole law and the statutes and the ordinances by the hand of Moses.' 9 So Manasseh seduced Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to do more evil than the nations whom the LORD had destroyed before the children of Israel.
10 And the LORD spoke to Manasseh and his people, but they would not listen. 11 Therefore the LORD brought upon them the captains of the army of the king of Assyria, who took Manasseh with hooks, bound him with bronze fetters, and carried him off to Babylon.
Note: # The reference to Manasseh's captivity to Babylon was once commonly held by liberals as a mistake on the part of the Bible, because Nineveh was the capital of Esarhaddon's Assyrian empire. However, inscriptions from Esarhaddon prove that he did indeed rebuild Babylon. One such inscription reads:
'Esarhaddon.... king of Assyria, governor of Babylon.' #

2-Chronicles 33 continues:
12 Now when he was in affliction, he implored the LORD his God, and humbled himself greatly before the God of his fathers, 13 and prayed to Him; and He received his entreaty, heard his supplication, and brought him back to Jerusalem into his kingdom. Then Manasseh knew that the LORD was God.
14 After this he built a wall outside the City of David on the west side of
Gihon, in the valley, as far as the entrance of the Fish Gate; and it enclosed Ophel, and he raised it to a very great height. Then he put military captains in all the fortified cities of Judah. 15 He took away the foreign gods and the idol from the house of the LORD, and all the altars that he had built in the mount of the house of the LORD and in Jerusalem; and he cast them out of the city. 16 He also repaired the altar of the LORD, sacrificed peace offerings and thank offerings on it, and commanded Judah to serve the LORD God of Israel. 17 Nevertheless the people still sacrificed on the high places, but only to the LORD their God.

King Manasseh in Josephus.

Josephus (Antiquities, Book 9, chapter 3) tells us about Manasseh repenting after he was brought to Babylon:

But then it was that Manasseh perceived what a miserable condition he was in, and esteeming himself the cause of all, he besought God to render his enemy humane and merciful to him. Accordingly, God heard his prayer, and granted him what he prayed for. So Manasseh was released by the king of Babylon, and escaped the danger he was in; and when he was come to Jerusalem, he endeavored, if it were possible, to cast out of his memory those his former sins against God, of which he now repented, and to apply himself to a very religious life. He sanctified the temple, and purged the city, and for the remainder of his days he was intent on nothing but to return his thanks to God for his deliverance, and to preserve him propitious to him all his life long. He also instructed the multitude to do the same, as having very nearly experienced what a calamity he was fallen into by a contrary conduct. He also rebuilt the altar, and offered the legal sacrifices, as Moses commanded. And when he had re-established what concerned the Divine worship, as it ought to be, he took care of the security of Jerusalem: he did not only repair the old walls with great diligence, but added another wall to the former. He also built very lofty towers, and the garrisoned places before the city he strengthened, not only in other respects, but with provisions of all sorts that they wanted. And indeed, when he had changed his former course, he so led his life for the time to come, that from the time of his return to piety towards God he was deemed a happy man, and a pattern for imitation. When therefore he had lived sixty-seven years, he departed this life, having reigned fifty-five years, and was buried in his own garden; and the kingdom came to his son Amon, whose mother's name was Meshulemeth, of the city of Jotbath.

The message is that we may be almost certain that NONE OF US SINNED like Manasseh did!
Manasseh repented and his repentance was efficacious. We can do the same!

King Amon of Judah.

[2-Kings 21:19] Amon was twenty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned two years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Meshullemeth the daughter of Haruz of Jotbah.

King Amon only reigned two years. He was a bad man and did not learn from the experience of his father King Manasseh who had repented.
The name AMON is from the root AMN from which we have the word "Amen". This word root connotes belief, faithfulness, and surety. A craftsman is also called an Oman (from the same root) because he has been trained to be sure of what he is doing.
So too, we have "Emunah" meaning "belief", and the famous prayer sequence, "Ani (I) Ma-amin" i.e. I believe.

King Hezekiah the grandfather of Amon had been a very righteous monarch. Miracles happened in his reign. His Menesseh started off as extremely wicked but then after meeting disaster repented. Amon the son of Menseeh was again wicked. The son of Amon, Josiah, was destined to be a great and righteous monarch. And so it continues. We can learn from this. Never give up. Never be too sure of yourself.
Do what you have to do and hope it comes out well. And if it does not know that hope is not lost.

[2-Kings 21:20]  And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, as his father Manasseh had done.

The Book of Chronicles repeats most of what is written here concerning Menesseh but adds a little.
[2-Chronicles 33:23] And he did not humble himself before the LORD, as his father Manasseh had humbled himself; but Amon trespassed more and more.
From this expression the Sages (Sanhedrin 103;b) learned that Amon sinned even more than his father, Menesseh, had done!

[2-Kings 21:21]  So he walked in all the ways that his father had walked; and he served the idols that his father had served, and worshiped them.

[2-Kings 21:22]  He forsook the LORD God of his fathers, and did not walk in the way of the LORD.

[2-Kings 21:23]  Then the servants of
Amon conspired against him, and killed the king in his own house.

[2-Kings 21:24]  But the people of the land executed all those who had conspired against King
Amon. Then the people of the land made his son Josiah king in his place.

We need to remember that all this time the Ten Tribes were already in exile and Judah was subservient to Assyria.

[2-Kings 21:25]  Now the rest of the acts of
Amon which he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?

[2-Kings 21:26] And he was buried in his tomb in the garden of
Uzza. Then Josiah his son reigned in his place.

King Josiah was one of the greatest monarchs who ever lived. He was destined to throw off the yoke of Assyria, uproot idolatry, conquer surrounding territories, and reform the Kingdom. He was also to connect with the Scythian Israelites in their places of exile and encourage them to return. During the reign of King Josiah colonies of Scythians were established in areas of Israel that were under the control of King Josiah, as we shall see. Eventually however Josiah was killed by invading Egyptians. The settler-returnee Israelite-Scythians then went back to their places of exile.
This whole episode was first explained in detail in our work "The Tribes. THE ISRAELITE ORIGINS OF WESTERN PEOPLES".
It is one of several research breakthroughs that Brit-Am deserves credit for.

Whatever one thinks of Brit-Am we have merited to do things of great worth. Brit-Am needs to be supported, to be encouraged, and to be enabled to continue.
To Make an Offering to Brit-Am!

After the Death of Solomon:
The Divided Kingdom

The Divided Kingdom
Source of Map:

2-Kings ch.20
2-Kings Contents
2-Kings ch.22