The Khazars. Tribe 13
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The Khazars. Tribe 13
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Foreword   by the Author       1

 Introduction:                          7
Opinions are divided as to who the Khazars were.  The Khazars emerged from the Scythians and Agathyrsi. The Scythians had first appeared on the fringes of the Assyrian Empire in Armenia-Azerbaijan in areas to which Israelites had been exiled. The Agathyrsi were also known as Akatziri and definitely gave rise to a leading element amongst the Khazars. The Khazars first appeared as allies of Byzantium [Eastern Romans] against the Persians. In the beginning the Khazars controlled areas north and south of the Caucasus. They were allied with the Byzantines against the Arabs. The Arabs drove them northwards.
 Chapter 1. Beginnings   20
One of the major centers of the Khazars was at the mouth of the Volga. This had formerly been a center of the Orenburg Culture that reflected Assyrian and Persian origins and used the Aramaic language. Orenburg Culture foreshadowed the Goths who preceded the Khazars. The Khazars were also influenced by the Scythians who had been in the Don River region and from whom they in part derived. The Khazars may be divided into four main groupings: 1. Those that originated South of the Caucasus such as from the Armenian-Azerbaijan area. 2. North of the Caucasus and associated with the Huns. 3. By the Don River and linked to the Agathyrsi and Scythians. 4. By the Volga River and extending to Chorasmia to the east.
Chapter  2.   Armenia and Azerbaijan      43
The areas of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, etc, all had traditions that the Lost Ten Tribes had settled within their boundaries. The Khazars ruled over these regions before the Muslim Era. Armenia was linked with a northern entity of Edom, Seir, and the Land of Uz.  These identifications are important for the understanding of Jewish traditions that trace part of Manasseh and Simeon to them. Exiles from the Land of Naphtali were also recalled from that region. Persians identified the Khazars as Scythians. Iyrcae are also known as White Ugrians, Turcae, and Khazars. They eventually moved to Scandinavia.

 Chapter 3. The Tribes of Simeon and Manasseh in the Land of Khazaria      59
The Israelite Tribe of Simeon according to the Bible in the light of Oral Tradition had gone to the Land of Seir and settled there. They were lead by Princes from the Tribe of Manasseh. The intention is to the northern polity of Edom in the area of Armenia. Jewish and Khazar traditions along with evidence from the Geography of Ptolemy confirms the presence of elements from Manasseh and Simeon amongst the Khazars.
Chapter 4. The Khazars Convert to Judaism         77
Jews were persecuted by Christians and Muslims and fled to Khazaria. The Khazars converted to Judaism in stages. Date of the conversion is uncertain but around 730 CE seems to be generally accepted. The Bible protects the rights of converts. 'Moses is the messenger of God' inscribed on Khazar coin found in Sweden.  Rabbinical Judaism was accepted.  Conversion of the Khazars was preceded by Judaizing tendencies in the general region: In Thrace amongst the Getae; in Adiabene amongst the Scythian-Sacae; in Tanais on the Don River amongst the Royal Scythians; in Chorasmia.

Chapter 5. Chorasmia-Afghanistan                  96
Jews and Israelites were reported of in the east. One section of the Khazars had originated in Hara. The Afghans and others claim to be descended from the Ten Tribes. On the whole these claims are incorrect. Israelites and Jews may have been in the said areas but had left. Present-day Afghans are not on the whole of Israelite origin.
Chapter 6.  Chorasmia-Kwarezm                  115
Choresmia (Kwarezm, Hiva, Havila) is to the east of the northern end of the Caspian Sea. It extended to the south and encompassed Hara. The Naphtalites were in this region as were the Kwalisses also known as Khabars who later moved to Hungary. Many Jews had settled here and there were also local Judaizing movements amongst the natives.

Chapter 7.  Chorasmia Before the Khazars  123
In the past Chorasmia had been the center of a great civilization. The Scythian Ansi (Arsacids) rulers of the Parthians came from Chorasmia; links to the Goths and Scythians and to the Sicambri of Western Europe. Scythian culture derived from the Middle East. Scythian enamel techniques from Ancient Israel and Phoenicia were passed onto the British Celts and to the Anglo-Saxons.

Chapter 8.   Rabbi Iben Shaprut of Spain and the Khazars  130
Moslem Spain ("al-Andalus") became a bastion for the Ummayads who were rivals of the Abbasids in the east. Hasdai Ibn Shaprut in Spain sought to communicate with the Khazars. We still have part of this correspondence. The letters are analyzed. The reply of King Joseph of Khazaria is shown to have originally referred to their Israelite origins.
Chapter  9.        A Record from Khazaria  137
The Schechter Text is a letter from a subject of Khazaria. It relates their tradition of being descended from the Tribe of Simeon and how their conversion came about.
Chapter  10.        Hsiung-nu Huns and Company       144
Khazars in the east are identified with the Kosa of Chinese records. The Kosa confederated with Hsiung-Nu allegedly forerunners of the Huns and Turks. Nephtalites move to Norway. Part of the Huns, Turks, and Alans were in the west long before the Hun Invasions. Khazars also originated in the west, i.e. by the Don River-Caucasus area. Gog and Magog may have encompassed Gok Turks and Goguryeo Empire of Korea. Western Gok Turks honored by being named Onogur meaning the "Ten Tribes".  Dingling of Dan and Hesan (Hushim son of Dan) associated with Kosa-Khazars in the east. Manas (Manasseh) made a legendary hero in the area. The name of Machir of Manasseh also appropriated by the "Magyars" who were subjects of the Khazars and rebelled. The Khazars were influenced by Turkic culture. The Khazars helped Jewish refugees.

Chapter  11.  The Red Jews       167
Lost Ten Tribes equated with the "Red Jews" and with "Gog and Magog". Red hair considered a characteristic of Jews and of the "Red Jews". German tradition considered Ten Tribes a potential menace but the English viewed them favorably. "Red Jews" identified with the Khazars. Many Ancient Israelites had had red hair as do many Jews today as well as a significant proportion of Scots and Irish and many others in the west.

Chapter  12.  Tribes Associated with the Khazars  176
The Sabirs were part of the Khazars. They were also known as "Manse" i.e. Manasseh. Sabirs conquered the Akatziri (Agathyrsi) who re-emerged as the Khazars in partnership with the Sabirs. Other groups may have included the Bashkirs, Hephtalites-Naphtalites, Ugrian-Turcae. Some Bolgars (known as Tartars) associated with Khazars which led to a confusion between the two. Basils may have been remnants of the Royal Scythians. The Alans were prominent in the Khazar federation as well as making a name for themselves in Western Europe including Scotland.
Chapter  13.     The Khazars and Europe   189
The Khazars pursued the Chabars and Magyars to Hungary. Khazars in Hungary, Austria, and Poland. Magyars also known as Maceri after Machir of Manasseh. They took the name in honor of their Khazar overlords who came from Manasseh. Szekely Hungarians in Rumania had a script derived from a Phoenician (Ancient Hebrew) prototype that they received from the Khazars.

Chapter  14.  Ascribing Ancestries to the Khazars: Non-Israelite  194
Some Jewish sources said the Khazars descend from Gomer. The Karaite Firkovitch had an agenda to prove they were of non-Israelite Gentile origin. The Book of Jasher and Josippon are unreliable inventions. Claimed descent from Gomer or the Sons of Gomer does not contradict an Israelite heritage as explained in the Book of Hosea chapters one and two.  Different Gentile sources traced the Khazars to Japhet, Tirash, Thubal, Gog and Magog, or Keturah and Abraham. The Khazars were also associated with Huns and Goths and with Moabites. Modern scholars identify Khazars with Scythians or Slavs or Turkic peoples. The Tats (Mountain Jews) and Scottish connections.
Chapter  15.  Ascribing Ancestries to the Khazars: Israelite  205
Eldad HaDani, himself a Khazar, said they came from Simeon and Manasseh. The Schecter Text, also by a Khazar, mentions an origin from Simeon. The Midrash Ten Exiles says they came from Simeon; so does the Midrash Akton de Mar Yaakov. So too, the medieval Chronicles of Jerahmeel mention Khazar origins from Judah and Simeon; from Issachar, Ephraim, Manasseh and Zebulon. The Cochin Scroll gives the Khazar origin as from Simeon and Manasseh. Historical details from the Cochin Scroll tie in with the Geography of Ptolemy that lists tribes with names of Israelite clans from Simeon and Manasseh in areas where the Scroll says they should be. Arab sources (Ibn Fadlan, Maquadasisi, Ibn Hawkal, Masudi) identify the Khazars as Jews. The Russian Chronicle and Russian folklore also identify the Khazars as Jews.  The Khazars were identified in Germany with the Red Jews meaning the Lost Ten Tribes. The Khazars were located in areas where the Lost Ten Tribes had been exiled to. The Ruling House of the Khazars in Arabic was named the House of Jesse i.e. of David son of Jesse. It was the same dynasty that ruled over the Parthians and Goths.
Chapter  16.  The Khazars in Scandinavia  219
Early Danes fought against Khazars. Archaeological finds of Khazars in Sweden. Anglo-Saxons and company of similar origin to the Khazars. Runic Futhark Script transmitted by the Khazars. The Azerbaijan connection with Scandinavia. Asgard was linked with the Khazars.

Chapter  17.   Scandinavia, Scythia, and the Huns  229
Scandinavia invaded ca. 500 CE. Iyrcae identified with both Scandinavians and Khazars. Nephtalites and "Little Goths". Mass migrations to Norway and Denmark. Links to the Lost Ten Tribes. The Hun occupation of Scandinavia proven through archaeological finds and place-names. Khazars associated with Huns. The Heruli return to Sweden.
Chapter  18.    The As-Aesir and the Huns   246
Angles, Saxons, and Frisians from Lost Ten Tribes and from Khazar areas. The link to Odin and the Aseir who came from Scythia to Scandinavia. Khazar link to rulers of Scandinavia. Agathyrsi, Dacians, and Denmark. Scandinavian links to Scythia and Mongolia.
Chapter  19.    Alans, and As       257
Alans, As,  and Yasses were all one. Named Alban which was also a name for Britain. Alans equated with the Khazars. Alans in Britain.
Chapter  20.    The Khazar Peoples    261
One description of Khazars says they were of two types: One black-haired and white skinned; the other very dark. Another account says they were red-haired, large bodied, and blue-eyed. "White Ugrian" Khazars were red-haired, pale-skinned, and green-eyed. "Cusa" (meaning Khazar) is a term still applied to red-haired men by Tartars. Alans were blond. Khazars looked like Slavs. Mongoloid-eyes suggested. Mainly of European type. Had two rulers. High standards of behavior and fairness. Not all peoples referred to as Khazars really were Khazars. Name Khazars derived from two sources; "Jeezer" ("Ay-ga-zar") and "Caesar". Place-names of Khazars named after Samaria in Israel.
Chapter  21.  Khazars, Varangians, and the End 272
Kinfolk of Khazars were the first to build a settlement (called Sambat) on the site of Kiev. Khazaria attacked and destroyed by enemies. Judaizing tendencies amongst descendants of Khazars. Khazar remnants amongst European Jewry. Place-names; Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, Belorussia, Hungary, Crimea, Kurdistan. General Disappearance. Their only permanent characteristic was their Judaism.
Chapter  22.  The Picts of Scotland and Khazaria      281
The Agathyrsi were Khazars. A portion of the Agathyrsi moved to Scotland and merged with the Picts who were of diverse origins. Different types of Picts. Tradition said that the Agathyrsi had moved from Scythia to Scandinavia and from there to Ireland and then to Scotland. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recalls the Picts origin from Scythia. Similar customs between Agathyrsi and Picts. Agathyrsi recalled alongside Gothic groups in German record. Scottish physical types consistent with a sojourn in Scythia. Archaeological evidence links Picts to Khazar area of Scythia. Scots and Picts considered as descended from the Son of Isaac. Picts linked with Saxons. Pict Brochs traced to Israelite "watch-towers". Aed of the Picts and of British Mythology identified with "Ad" of Arab Mythology who represented the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel and who according to these same sources went to the Isles in the West.
Conclusion                     301
How "The Khazars. Tribe 13" has proven that the Khazars were of Israelite Descent and the implications. Why both the Khazars and the USA may be considered Tribe 13. The USA as Manasseh and parallels with Khazaria.
References                    310
End-Notes to the Chapters        318
Khazars Are Coming" by Edward (Ephraim) Hirsch 370
Bibliography            375
Index                       380

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