Brit-Am Historical Reports

13 February 2012 20 Shevat 5772
1. A Very Brief History of European Christian Anti-Jewish Sentiment by Toni L. Kamins.
2. Isaac Newton: A Summarized Biography from Wikipedia.
3. Archaeology: Brit-Am Version of Explorator 14.43


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1. A Very Brief History of European Christian Anti-Jewish Sentiment by Toni L. Kamins

European anti-Semitism is integral to European culture.


The Crusades of the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries proved to be a watershed for European Jew-hatred. When the Crusaders set out for Jerusalem to free it from the Turks their roads through Germany and France were littered with the corpses of the descendents of the alleged killers of Jesus ' local Jewish residents. In Rouen, Orleans, Limoges and Mainz Jews were portrayed as forces of the anti-Christ and summarily murdered. Oftentimes given the choice of conversion to Christianity or death, many Jews committed suicide rather than submit to forced conversion.

From the beginning of the Crusades onward Jewish civic life in Europe was severely restricted and Jews subject to greater and greater acts of violence and murder. It is in this period that we see the rise of many of the trumped-up stories that were to characterize Jew-hatred and anti-Jewish violence for centuries through to the present day ' the blood libel, lies about a Jewish conspiracy to take over the world, fabrications that Jews desecrate the Host and carry diseases etc. Indeed anecdotes of the Host coming to life when set upon by a Jew were in wide circulation. Many of these were spread by the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), which also established the rules that required Jews to wear distinctive marks or clothing.

The Middle Ages was also a time when rabbis were forced to take part in religious disputations with Catholic clergy to defend Jewish religious texts, such as the Talmud. A verdict of guilty against the Jewish texts was always a given and often resulted in the burning of the books.

Money lending

The Church forbade Catholics to lend money at high rates of interest ' usury ' but it did permit Jews to engage in it. Before the Middle Ages all professions, commerce and agriculture, were open to Jews, but by the end of the Crusades lending money was one of the very few occupations the Church permitted them.

The Reformation

The Reformation proved to be good news and bad news for the Jews of Europe. Jews in countries that remained Catholic were subjected to the same (and worse) anti-Jewish measures as they were before. In Italy and Germany ghettos were established. But some of the new Protestants (i.e. Calvinism) were more lenient toward Jews and Judaism. Some countries, such as the Netherlands, became havens for Jews and would become particularly important during the Spanish Inquisition when Jews were forced to either convert or burn.

 The Enlightenment

Segregation of Jews started to decline in the 18th century when many European intellectuals began to question the orthodoxies of the Catholic and Protestant religious establishments. Secularism and justice were the popular slogans, and philosophers like Montesquieu and Jean-Jacques Rousseau viewed Jews as oppressed people and came to their defense. In 1714, the Englishman John Toland recommended freeing Jews from the restrictions under which they were forced to live. But it was not until 1791 that France became the first European country to remove many of the limitations.

Napoleon Bonaparte became the Jews unlikely champion. Bonaparte hated Jewish practice and theology, but his quest for empire made him determined to bring them into the French mainstream. In 1806 he convened an Assembly of Jewish Notables, the sole purpose of which was to make sure there was nothing about Jewish law that was inherently incompatible with French civil law. There wasn't and soon the physical and legal barriers to Jewish civil rights were falling throughout Europe.

Modern Anti-Semitism

Though anti-Jewish sentiment was far from gone, most legal impediments to civil rights for Jews had been dismantled by the middle of the 19th century. But some, like the More Judaico, the Jewish Oath, remained. The only purpose of this bizarre oath, used during legal disputes between Christians and Jews, was to demonstrate that Jews were untrustworthy. It was common from the Middle Ages through the 18th century, but was still used in France until the mid-19th, and in other countries into the 20th. The oath's wording and administration took different forms in different countries, but usually it involved forcing the Jew to stand on a pig's skin and recite gibberish that included vague references to the Old Testament.

In England, the thrice-elected Baron Lionel de Rothschild could not take his seat in the House of Commons because members of the House were required to swear on “the true faith of a Christian, something to which a Jew could not swear. Many attempts to amend the law failed, but after having been elected for the first time in 1847, Rothschild was finally able to take his seat in 1858.

 Jewish Civil Rights: A Double-Edged Sword

Jewish civil rights made the ghettos, occupational restrictions and identifiable clothing obsolete. It also changed the nature of Jew-hatred. As long as Jews could be easily recognized either by where they lived, their occupation or their dress, in addition to their religion, Jew-hatred was mostly confined to religion. But at the same time as the average Jew’s life was becoming more mainstream, and Jews became physically indistinguishable from Christians, Jew-hatred developed into social and political mistrust, and Jews were charged with contaminating French, German or English life or the German nation etc.

Racial theories, in which Jews were cast as polluters of the pure European races, were promulgated by pseudo-philosophers such as Joseph Arthur, Comte de Gobineau (An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races), Edmond Picard, Houston Stewart Chamberlain (.. 'The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century) and the composer Richard Wagner. These went on to form the basis for Nazism. It has been said by many that it was a very short walk (in terms of years) from open ghetto gates to the gas chambers.

The 19th century also gave us the term anti-Semitism.

Wilhelm Marr (1819-1904) was a vicious Jew hater. His most famous work...The Victory of Judaism over Germandom: From a Non-Denominational Point of View.. laid the groundwork for his League of Anti-Semites. Semitism, according to Marr, was the replacement of German values, ways and sensibilities with Jewish ones. Therefore anyone who opposed Semitism was an anti-Semite. Today the word is used as a catchall for Jew-hatred.

 The Dreyfus Affair

 On October 15, 1894, Alfred Dreyfus, a (Jewish) captain on the French army general staff, was accused of selling artillery secrets to the Germans and arrested for treason. The so-called evidence against him had been forged by anti-Jewish officers who manipulated the anti-German paranoia of the French army and fabricated a case against the one staff member against whom they could get away with making the scapegoat ' the Jew. The real spy was Major Ferdinand Walsin-Esterhazy. High-ranking army general officers colluded with many in the government including Minister of War, General Auguste Mercier, to create a conspiracy so insidious and so deep that the fallout from it ripped France asunder and threatened to bring down the Republic itself. Dreyfus spent several hellish years in prison on Devil’s Island, but was eventually exonerated and restored to military rank. To this day there are those in France who believe Dreyfus was guilty of treason and the whole affair was a Jewish conspiracy.

The Holocaust

 So much has been written about the Holocaust that it is not necessary to go into any detail here except to say that without Europe's long and pervasive history of Jew-hatred the Holocaust would not have occurred. Jew Hatred Today ...It would be easy to blame Europe's Muslims, but that would be a mistake. Although we can say with some satisfaction that many European Christians have finally learned what hatred in the name of religion can lead to, many still have not. Just this week the extremist Jobbik party in Hungary, with 47 seats in parliament, stated that Jews are 'invading' Hungary. And a just-released German-government study revealed that one in five mainstream Germans have anti-Jewish attitudes...

2. Isaac Newton: A Summarized Biography from Wikipedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sir Isaac Newton (1642 '1727), President of the Royal Society, was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."
His monograph Philosophi'Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws, by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution.

The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written, due, independently, to the specific physical laws the work successfully described, and for the style of the work, which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function, and contributed to the study of power series. Newton was also highly religious. He was an unorthodox Christian, and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics, the subjects he is mainly associated with. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism, fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders.[9]

Isaac Newton was born Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. ... Newton was born three months after the death of his father, a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. Born prematurely, he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug ( 1.1 litres). When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey, he never married, being highly engrossed in his studies and work.

From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him. He hated farming.[14] Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student.[15] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome.[16]

Asperger syndrome
[Asperger syndrome, also known as Asperger's syndrome or Asperger disorder, is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that is characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction, alongside restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. It differs from other autism spectrum disorders by its relative preservation of linguistic and cognitive development. Although not required for diagnosis, physical clumsiness and atypical use of language are frequently reported.[1][2]]

Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied".[21]

In the 1690s, Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Later works ' The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) ' were published after his death. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above).

Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701, but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed.[53]

French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[61] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph:

Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night;
God said "Let Newton be" and all was light.

Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676:

If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[62]

In a later memoir, Newton wrote:

I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[65]

Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[66] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[67] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[68]

Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey..The Latin inscription on the base translates as:

Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! ...

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.

Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree.[101] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment,[102] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley, whose manuscript account, published in 1752, has been made available by the Royal Society)[103] do in fact confirm the incident, though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726:

... We went into the garden, & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees, only he, & myself. amidst other discourse, he told me, he was just in the same situation, as when formerly, the notion of gravitation came into his mind. "why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground," thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple, as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways, or upwards' but constantly to the earths centre' assuredly, the reason is, that the earth draws it. there must be a drawing power in matter. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre, not in any side of the earth. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly, or toward the centre. if matter thus draws matter; it must be in proportion of its quantity. therefore the apple draws the earth, as well as the earth draws the apple."[104]

John Conduitt, Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece, also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life:

In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth, but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so, that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit, whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition.[105]

3. Archaeology: Brit-Am Version of Explorator 14.43
From: david meadows <>
A possible clue to the Queen of Sheba's gold wealth:

Leptis Magna is apparently a 'ghost town':

On humans' role in the decline of African rainforests some
3000 years b.p.:
Plenty of coverage that the 'Hill of Jonah' was inhabited some
3000 years b.p.:'int_sec=2&int_new=53483'Modul_id=14'id=256717

Mount Scopus National Park seems to be the latest site of archaeological
controversy in

A new approach to the Nag Hammadi codices:

Dr Leen Ritmeyer's Blog:


Evidence of the Romans using camels ... in Belgium:'csp=34news

Visit our blog:
A 13th century Jewish tombstone from Effurt:

A WWI trench turns up 21 German soldiers 'perfectly preserved' a la Pompeii,

Feature on the good side of Attila the Hun:

Pondering Napoleon's failure in Russia:

Latest theory on the origin of Robin Hood:

Interesting application of Google Earth and Stonehenge:

More on those Viking mercenaries in the guise of tv hype:

Archaeology in Europe Blog:


New Zealand Archaeology eNews:


The Bison:

Mayan 'calendar' worries'


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