Brit-Am Historical Reports
1 February 2011 25 Shevet 5771
1. Archaeology: Brit-Am Version of
2. "The early-medieval use of ethnic names from classical antiquity. The case of the Frisians"
Jos Bazelmans.
3. Extracts from Two Articles Concerning Historical Upheavals and Climate Change.


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1. Archaeology: Brit-Am Version of Explorator 13.41
From: david meadows <>

Excavating a Kingdom of Meroe site in Sudan:

Finds from various periods along Tanzania's coast:
Theory about some 'secret rooms' in the Great Pyramid:

Remains of a Second Temple 'pilgrim road':

... and they've finished clearing a Second Temple water channel/tunnel
spins in the coverage of this one):,7340,L-4019130,00.html

... and I think this is fallout therefrom:

A preliminary report from En Gedi:


Remains of an 'African' soldier from Warwickshire:

but cf:

Visit our blog:


... and the JPost seems curiously positive about the Naked Archaeologist:

The Egyptian jackal is actually a wolf, apparently:

On discovering new species and imperialism:

It wasn't easy being king:

On Genghis Khan and climate change:

Mark Twain's autobiography has apparently created a market for imitators:

Hadrian's Wall:

Dura Europos:

Poetry of Drawing:

The Pergamon Museum has restored a pile of items from the Tell Halaf display
which were
shattered during WWII:

2. The early-medieval use of ethnic names from classical antiquity.

Relevance to Brit-Am:

Article about the Ancient Frisians  some of whom migrated to England. Illustrates the occasional complete displacement of populations
and their movement to other areas. Not all of these migrations are noticed in history. Article shows how historically a certain population base may be identified with another that had occupied the same region before it but was necessarily related to it.

The case of the Frisians
Jos Bazelmans
There is, however, an important reason to doubt this seemingly obvious continuation of the Frisian
name. Place-name, archaeological and possibly linguistic research has revealed that major changes swept
the West and North Netherlands coastal region from the 3rd to the 5th century: in addition to changes
in the material culture, the burial ritual, the construction of houses and settlements and the naming of
places and regions, most striking is the huge drop in population and perhaps even the temporary disappearance
of people in many areas. The reasons for this latter phenomenon are not completely clear, but
deteriorating natural circumstances were probably not decisive, except that some parts of the coastal
region remained uninhabitable in a somewhat later period. In my view the depopulation could also be
the result of intertribal raids on relatively unprotected and small scale societies in an area that was easily
accessible by sea.

3. Extracts from Two Articles Concerning Historical Upheavals and Climate Change.

Relevance to Brit-Am:

Shows the interrelationship of climatic change and historical traumas.

Mongols, Vikings and Romans Connected to Climate
Analysis by Tim Wall

The Mongols conquered one of the largest empires ever starting in the 13th century AD. In doing so they also slaughtered the populations of many entire cities, and even whole civilizations, like the Khwarzm in what is now Kazakhstan.

Without people to farm the land, much of it reverted to forests. Those forests inhaled large amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, according to a paper published in the journal The Holocene. Those forests may have stockpiled 700 million tons of carbon dioxide, as much as the world's current use of gasoline produces in a year.

The current rate and scale of climate change are unprecedented in human history, and another study point out that if humanity does not heed the fate of the Greenland Vikings and the Roman Empire, civilization may be doomed to repeat the chaos of collapse.

Rome rose and prospered during a stable, warm, moist period in climate history, but collapsed during colder, drier, more variable times, according to research by a team of researchers led by Ulf Buntgen of the Swiss Federal Research Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape, which Emily Sohn of Discovery News wrote about recently.

An increase in climate variability from 250 AD to 600 AD, coincided with the spread of the Huns and migrations of Germanic tribes, the researchers said in a recent issue of Science. They studied preserved tree rings from that time to determine climate, a science called dendrochronology. During that period, trees had smaller rings, meaning less yearly growth and harsher conditions.

 Historians corroborate the researcher's work. Edward Gibbon wrote in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire that German tribes crossed a frozen Rhine River on December 31, 406. Others have noted that the freezing of the Rhine was speculation, but the research of Buntgen and his team at least show that the German migrations and invasions coincided with cold weather.

A warm period also coincided with the re-development of organized civilization in Europe, but another cold period in the 14th century may have aided in the spread of the bubonic plague, which thrives in cooler conditions. At the same time, Viking settlements in Greenland disappeared. Cold weather may have made agriculture and rearing livestock impossible on that giant, ice-covered island.

Atlantic Circulation On the Fasttrack for Change

But wait, isn't the problem now that the climate is getting warmer? Shouldn't Europe be happy that the climate is getting balmier? The problem is that warmer average temperatures don't mean warmer temperatures everywhere.

The Sensitive Seasons of Europe

Europe's pleasant climate is caused by an ocean current that brings warm water from the tropics north. But as the waters in the Arctic get warmer, the temperature difference that drives that current is breaking down. Other research has shown a significant decrease just since the 1970's in the strength of one of the currents involved.

"Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it," said the Spanish-American writer George Santayana. These two studies show that the rise and fall of human civilizations are often linked to the climate, and that human activities can affect the climate.

Genghis Khan the GREEN: Invader killed so many people that carbon levels plummeted
By Daily Mail Reporter

Genghis Khan has been branded the greenest invader in history - after his murderous conquests killed so many people that huge swathes of cultivated land returned to forest.

The Mongol leader, who established a vast empire between the 13th and 14th centuries, helped remove nearly 700 million tons of carbon from the atmosphere, claims a new study.

The deaths of 40 million people meant that large areas of cultivated land grew thick once again with trees, which absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.


Genghis Khan

Originally known as Temujin of the Borjigin, Genghis was born holding a clot of blood in his hand. His father was khan of a small tribe, but he was murdered when Temujin was still very young. The new tribal leader wanted nothing to do with Temujin's family, so with his mother and five other children, Temujin was cast out and left to die. Of all those in this list, he is the only one to start with nothing. From the most brutal beginning possible, Genghis survived to unite the Mongolian tribes and conquer territories as far apart as Afghanistan and northern China. He left a mountain of skulls that remained for years in China. Genghis Khan paved the way for his grandson Kublai to become emperor of a united China and founder of the Yuan dynasty. In all, Genghis conquered almost four times the lands of Alexander the Great. He is still revered in Mongolia and in parts of China.

The Carnegie study measured the carbon impact of a number of historical events that involved a large number of deaths.

Time periods also looked at included the Black Death in Europe, the fall of China's Ming Dynasty and the conquest of the Americas.

All of these events share a widespread return of forests after a period of massive depopulation.

But the bloody Mongol invasion, which lasted a century and a half and led to an empire that spanned 22 per cent of the Earth's surface, immediately stood out for its longevity.


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