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21 October 2011, 23 Tishrei 5772.
1. Tore Gannholm: Phoenician Influence in Scandinavia.
2. Margaret Anne Cusack: Phoenicians in Spain and Ireland?
3. Huns in Scandinavia and Germany?


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1. Tore Gannholm: Phoenician Influence in Scandinavia.
Subject: Re: [Germanic-L] Scandinavians in Bronze Age Britain?

With the Bronze Age there is a marked change in grave forms. Its mature stage is characterized by the burial mounds and barrows of impressive dimensions. They are often located near coasts and dominant high points in the landscape. The over-looking location on the mountain summits at coastal strip roads marks the contact with the sea highroad and distant seas. The mighty piles have been designed to capture the seafaring look. We live in a maritime era. Trade, especially amber trade, experience in the Bronze Age, a large bloom. The extensive trade relations conveys influences from outside. From southern cultural centres - Egypt, Crete, Mycenae - spiritual impulses stretched their effects also to Scandinavia. Both the external design of the graves and the lavish burial gifts bear witness to a rich and self-conscious upper class.

The Bronze Age is the most uniform of the pre historic ages. Its object stock is limited and easily transparent. Its principal products are weapons, jewelry and cult objects, while things that represent the working life, everyday world, are scarce. This high culture occurs suddenly and is very similar to Phoenician culture as well as with Mycenaean.

2. Margaret Anne Cusack: Phoenicians in Spain and Ireland?
Phoenician Colonists
From An Illustrated History of Ireland by Margaret Anne Cusack

Spanish historians add their testimony, and claim the Phoenicians as their principal colonizers. The Hispania Illustrata,a rare and valuable work, on which no less than sixty writers were engaged, fixes the date of the colonization of Spain by the Phoenicians at 764 A.C. De Bellegarde says: "The first of whom mention is made in history is Hercules, the Phoenician, by some called Melchant." It is alleged that he lived in the time of Moses, and that he retired into Spain when the Israelites entered the land of promise. This will be consistent with old accounts, if faith can be placed in the inscription of two columns, which were found in the province of Tingitane, at the time of the historian Procopius.[5] A Portuguese historian, Emanuel de Faria y Sousa, mentions the sailing of Gatelus from Egypt, with his whole family, and names his two sons, Iberus and Himerus, the first of whom, he says, "some will have to have sailed into Ireland, and given the name Hibernia to it."

Indeed, so strong has been the concurrent testimony of a Phoenician colonization of Ireland from Spain, and this by independent authorities, who could not have had access to our bardic histories, and who had no motive, even had they known of their existence, to write in confirmation of them, that those who have maintained the theory of a Gaulish colonization of Ireland, have been obliged to make Spain the point of embarkation.

3. Huns in Scandinavia and Germany?
From: faltin2001
 [Germanic-L] Re: St. Olaf the Hun
Hi Ingemar,

there is a very good two-volume book by Bodo Anke called "Studien zur Reiternomadischen Kultur ...". It sets out very nice what cultural traits would identify bearers of the horse nomadic culture of south eastern Europe. One particularly prominent one is the custom of artificial skull deformation/elongation. Anke has the longest and most thorough analysis of this custom I have ever found (pp 124-136).
He shows that this custom originated in central Asia and that it was transmitted to Europe through the Hunnic expansion in the first half of the 5th century. Anke shows that everywhere where members of this Hunnnic federation went you will also find examples of this customs in the grave yards. In south eastern Europe in some burial grounds the share of skeletons with artificially deformed skulls is 80%, including men, women and children.

The frequency of the occurrence declines from east to west. One concentration is found in Moravia, which may be associated with the Herulic kingdom that existed there in the second half of the 5th century. In Moravia, there are also examples of women, men and children.

Other centers are in middle Germany (Thuringia), south Germany and south west Germany, the middle Rhineland and the Rhone area. In these regions, most examples are women and there has been no instance of a child that was subjected to this custom found so far. In other words, these people probably didn't adopt the custom, but received people that did to live and die amongst them.

The people living in these regions, i.e. Thuringians, Burgundians and Alamanni were all mentioned to have fought with the Huns at the battle of the Catalaunian fields. In any way they were somehow linked to the Hunnic empire.

If Lotte Hedeager claims that the Huns established some kind of direct rule also in Scandinavia, she will probably have to show that grave yards there also contain examples of skeletons with artificially elongated skulls, either representing people who practiced this custom directly or as a population that received people who had previously lived in some close relationship with the Hunnic empire on the continent.

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