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17 May 2011, 13 Iyar 5771.
1. Ancient Scots mummified their dead, reveals study
2. Joseph
Crary: Migratory Movements from  the Steppes to the West.
3. Interesting Extracts Available re Ethnogenesis of Franks and Alamans.
4. Claimed
Tojan (Anatolian) Origin for Aesir (Ashkenaz) Ancestors of Scandinavians.
by Keo Ghettson
5. Books Received.


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1. Ancient Scots mummified their dead, reveals study

Sept 17 : Prehistoric Scots mummified their dead, a recent study in this month's Antiquity Journal has revealed.

The researchers said the Egyptians probably didn't influence the Scots, but that mummification arose independently in the two regions.

Initial evidence for Scottish mummies was first announced in 2005, when archaeologists unearthed three preserved bodies ' an adult female, an adult male and an infant ' buried underneath two Bronze Age roundhouses in South Uist, Hebrides, at a site called Cladh Hallan.

The bodies date to between 1300 and 1500 BC.

'Distinctive microscopic and chemical changes in the bones showed that the bodies had not been placed in the ground immediately after death, but had been subject to conditions that may have enhanced their preservation,' said University of Sheffield archaeologist, Andrew Chamberlain, who worked on both the 2005 and the more recent investigations.

Chamberlain said microscopic and chemical analysis has also determined that the bodies were subjected to an acidic environment that enhanced preservation.

'That finding, and the arrangement of the bones, suggests the dead individuals were first wrapped tightly and then immersed into a peat bog. The bodies were then removed and carefully buried under the roundhouses, where individuals resided,' Discovery News quoted Chamberlain as saying.

'Arranged stones marked the graves, which surprisingly were located right inside the entrance to the house. This would be like homeowners today having small cemeteries in the entry halls of their homes.

'The floor above the burials was kept clear of debris from craft activities, cooking, etc. so it seems that the occupants of the house were aware of the presence of the bodies buried under the floor,' Chamberlain added.

Bodies preserved in peat bogs have been found throughout Britain. With oxygen blocked, the bodies basically ferment in what has been described as a 'slow cooking process' that causes them to tan and then darken. (ANI)

2. Joseph Crary: Migratory Movements from  the Steppes to the West.

And that of course, would be the oscillation from a warm-and-wet to cool-and-dry regime, within a 650'50 year reoccurring cycle, but as noted above, not all the data is in yet. Still, from what there is, I think it may have begun sometime in the 1st century BC.

Re: When was Rome doomed?
It doesn't seem all that strange or provocative, tbh. I mean, what you are describing would be more of an ultimate cause rather than a proximate cause, of which economy, poor leaders, external pressure, etc. fall under. It could be (and probably was) a major reason why various tribes up and migrated en masse. Or more like the climate changes on the steppe say, which causes Ye Olde Steppe Horde to head further south and west, generally, which beings them into conflict with local tribes/states, which triggers THEIR migration which pushes them further west and/or south, bringing them into conflict, et cetera et cetera, until the cross the borders of the Roman Empire and interact with them, peacefully or not (usually not). ...
Also looking at the geography could possibly provide an answer. For those starting to migrate from the Siberian tundra, continuing to head west is far more viable than trying to go thru the Caucasus mountains and their not-likely-to-be-friendly natives. As one proceeds further west you get the option of raiding south towards Greece but that is broken terrain with a bunch of not-to-be-trifled-with entities and later, the eastern half of the Empire, an even more daunting challenge. So you keep heading west, or one should say the people Ye Olde Steppe Horde has displaced are now heading west, between the Alps and not-agriculturally-friendly Germany (not yet, at least), leaving you with the fertile land of France and the Western Roman Empire.

3. Interesting Extracts Available re Ethnogenesis of Franks and Alamans.
Franks and Alamanni in the Merovingian period: an ethnographic perspective
 By Ian Wood'id=yhaSRVnI

4. Claimed Tojan (Anatolian) Origin for Aesir (Ashkenaz) Ancestors of Scandinavians.
Keo Ghettson
Brit-Am Appraisal:
Interesting ideas, no real proofs but worth reading.
Well-written, easy to read despite the obvious non-English speaking upbringing of the author.
Traces early Scandinavians to Troy in Anatolia.
Ashkenaz = Askania - Asia in northwest Anatolia (Turkey) Phrygia- Troy.

In Norse mythology there are two tribes of gods, the Aesir and the Vanir. The land of the Vanir was in Scandinavia. The Aesir migrated to Scandinavia. They came in conflict with the Vanir. ...The Aesir and Vanir are said to have made peace. They exchanged hostages, intermarried and reigned together. After the Aesir-Vanir War the gods are generally referred to collectively as Aesir.

The Amber Road was an ancient trade route connecting northern Europe with the eastern Mediterranean. Several rock carvings in southern Scandinavia depict ships that have been identified as plausibly Mediterranean. Amber found in Mycenaean graves from this period originates from the Baltic Sea. The Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun had Baltic amber among his burial goods.

I think the people that migrated to Sk ne came from northwestern Anatolia. They mixed with the natives and created a creole people, the Proto-Germanic people. The culture that arose in the Nordic Bronze Age probably constituted one supply end of the so-called Amber Road. The Troad was a region in northwestern Anatolia. Troy was an ancient city in the Troad region. Troy was known for its riches gained from port trade with east and west. The people of the Troad probably spoke an Anatolian language.

In Greek mythology Eridanos was a river in northern Europe rich in amber. Hyperborea was a land in northern Europe. The Twelve Olympians were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon. Apollo was the only one among the Twelve Olympians that visited the Hyperboreans. Apollo has Anatolian origins. Apollo comes from the Anatolian god Apaliunas. In Greek mythology Apollo fought on the side of the Trojans during the Trojan War.

In Norse mythology Skadi was a jotunn and goddess associated with bowhunting. Skadi married Njdrer that was a Vanir. She then divorced Njdrer and married Ullr that was an Aesir. This is a metaphor. Ska i represented Scandinavia. Njdrer represented the Vanir that lived in Scandinavia. Ullr represented the Aesir that migrated to Scandinavia. A lot of what we know about Norse mythology we owe to Saxo Grammaticus and Snorri Sturluson. Saxo Grammaticus was a Danish historian born in the 12th century. Saxo Grammaticus wrote Gesta Danorum. Snorri Sturluson was an Icelandic historian/poet born in the 12th century. Snorri Sturlusson wrote the Prose Edda and Heimskringla. According to Snorri Sturluson the Aesir were the people of Troy. The Aesir migrated to the north, where they took wives and had many children.. In Norse mythology Thor was the god of sky and storm. Thor were to slay the serpent Jormungandr at Ragnar k. The Hittite and Luwian name for the god of sky and storm was Tarhun. According to Hittite myth Tarhun slew the serpentine dragon Illuyanka.

...A radical change in climate around 650 BCE brought a much colder climate. The climate change triggered migrations southwards into continental Europe.

According to Saxo Grammaticus Odin was thrown out of Asgard by the other gods. When Odin was exiled, Ullr was chosen to take his place. Ullr ruled untill Odin was called back. Ullr was then slain by the Danes. This mirror a cultural and religious conflict.

Odin was a latecomer to the Norse pantheon. Odin has Celtic origins. Odin comes from the Celtic god Lugus. Both are intellectual gods, commanding magic and poetry. Both have ravens and a spear as their attributes. Both are one-eyed. Loki and Odin were one and the same until the early Norse Period.

According to Snorri Sturluson the name of the Aesir derive from Asia. The word Asia originated from the Ancient Greek word . Originally it was the name for northwestern Anatolia. The area were known to the Hittites as Assuwa. Assuwa means horse.

The Athelweard Chronicle (10th century) tell the history of the Anglo-Saxons. According to the text the Anglo-Saxon kings decendeded from a Langobard king called Scef. According to the text Scef came in a boat as a child to Scani. Scani means Sk ne. In the Beowulf text Scyld Scefing is referred to as the giver of rings. In the eddic poem Atlakvi a there is a line that refer to the rings of Ullr. In Lilla Ullevi north of Stockholm archaeologists have excavated a religious worshiping ground for Ullr. The archaeologists found 65 rings. I think Scyld Scefing and Ullr were one and the same.

Gomer's first son was Ashkenaz. Ashkenazi Jews are descended from the medieval Jewish communities of Germany. Ashkenaz was the Medieval Hebrew name for Germany and German-speaking borderland areas. It was also the Hebrew name for the land of the Phrygians. I think the Jews knew there was a connection between the Germanic peoples and the Phrygians. During the Trojan War the region by Lake Ascania (aka Lake Ascanius) in Anatolia was held by the Phrygians who sent troops to the aid of the Trojans. ... In Greek mythology several Trojans have the name Ascanius.

The Sami people are a Finno-Ugric people that live on the northern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. The earliest Sami yoik texts written down refer to the world as Skadesi-suolo (north-Sami) and Skadesual (east-Sami), probably meaning Skadi's island. ...The goddess Skadi may have once been a personification of Scandinavia.

During the Migration Period Germanic tribes wandered across the European continent. Several of these tribes claimed Scandinavian origins. They called it the womb of nations. According to the Goths their original homeland was Scandza. According to the Langobards their original homeland was Scadan/Scadanan.

5. Books Received.
The Mabinogion. A New translation by Sioned Davies.

The Mabinogi, Translated with an Introduction by Patrick K. Ford.

How the Irish Saved Civilization by Thomas Cahill.

Finnish Magic by Robert Nelson, Ph.d.

The Kalevala by Elias Lonrot translated by Keith Bosley.
Oxford World's Classics.

BARS List of Contents.


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