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10 May 2012, 18 Iyar 5772.
1. Beth-Shean and the Scythians. Evidence from Immanuel Velikovsky.
2. Egyptian Folding Chairs Used in Bronze Age Scandinavia and North Germany.
3. Chronological Revisionism: Conventional Ancient Middle East Dating 150 Years too Early?


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1. Beth-Shean and the Scythians.  Evidence from Immanuel Velikovsky.

Brit-Am Note:
In our works we show how the Scythians took over the Assyrian Empire for a time and attempted re-union with the Kingdom of Judah under King Josiah ben Amon.
These Scythians were Israelites from the Ten Tribes who attempted to re-establish themselves in the Land of Israel. Their center was Beth-Shean in the north. These attempts were not succesful and ended when the Egyptians slew King Josiah at Megiddo. King Josiah had been fighting on behalf of the Scythians.
This is primarily a research finding of Brit-Am and is not widely accepted.
The notes below testify to the presence of Scythians in Beth-Shean during the reign of Psammetichos-1 of Egypt whose reign (664-610) overlapped the Scythian period.

Extracts from:
The End of Nineveh
which is the final chapter of
by Immanuel Velikovsky

Seti, who, as an ally of Assyria, took it upon himself to attend to rebellious Syria, moved with his army along the Esdraelon Valley and came to the city of Beth-Shan not far from the Jordan. A stele of Seti was found in Beth-Shan, the inscription of which reads:

The wretched enemy who was in the city of Hamath, he had collected to himself many people, was taking away the town of Beth-Shan...(1)
The stele further states that the Egyptian army of Ra, called also 'Many Braves,' captured the city of Beth Shan at the command of the pharaoh. The erection of the stele in that place indicates that Seti succeeded in conquering this city-fortress.

Beth-Shan guards the road from Gilead in Trans-Jordan and also from Galilee along the valley of the Jordan; consequently it is an important strategic point at a crossroads, protecting the eastern gate of the Esdraelon Valley against encroachment from the north and east.

In the days of Assurbanipal's father, Esarhaddon, the Scythians came down from the steppes of Russia and, crossing the Caucasus, arrived at the lake of Urmia. Their king went to the help of Assur-banipal when the Medes and the Babylonians marched against Assyria.(2)

Herodotus(3) narrates that the Scythians descended from the slopes of the Caucasus, battled the Medes who were pressing on Nineveh, and, moving southward, reached Palestine. There they were met by Psammetichos, the pharaoh, who for a long time tarried in Palestine.

The Egyptian king, however, succeeded by persuasion in halting their advance toward Egypt. He, like the Scythians, was an ally of Assurbanipal. According to Herodotus, Psammetichos was besieging a city in Palestine when the Scythians reached that country.

The translation of the Seventy (Septuagint) calls Beth-Shan by the name of Scythopolis;(4) so do Josephus(5) and Eusebius.(6) Georgius Syncellus,(7) the Byzantine chronologist, explained that the use of the name Scythopolis for Beth-Shan was due to the presence of Scythians, who had remained there from among the invading hordes in the days of Psammetichos.

As has been said above, Beth-Shan was besieged and occupied by Seti, and his steles and the graves of the Greek mercenaries who served with him were discovered there. Ramses II, his successor, also occupied Beth-Shan for some time, but no vestiges have been found there of Egyptian kings of later times. The conventional chronology compelled the archaeologists of Beth-Shan to conclude that after Seti and Ramses II the city was practically uninhabited until the time of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in the seventh century, although from the Scriptures we know that Beth-Shan was an important city in the days of Judges and Kings.

2. Egyptian Folding Chairs Used in Bronze Age Scandinavia and North Germany.

Forwarded by Craig White.

For your information, following on from the article sent by Isaac, I found the quote below by an author I used to admire years ago.
- Craig

"On one of the reliefs from Sargon's palace'known only from a drawing by Flandin, since the original was lost in the Tigris while being shipped to France'was a scene showing the plundering of the temple at Musasir. This showed shields hanging on the pillars of the facade and in the spaces between them; and "in the middle of them are the heads of dogs with bared teeth." The Assyrians are shown carrying them off as booty, while a record is kept by an official sitting on a folding chair. In front of him stand two scribes, [113] noting down the captured treasures'one of them in cuneiform on a clay tablet, the other in Aramaic script on a papyrus. The next scene shows the booty being weighed and taken away. It is difficult to reconstruct the complicated lock of the temple door as described in the Louvre text, but the excavators of a fortress at Hasanlu, to the south of Lake Urmia, found bronze pins from a lock, decorated with small figures of lions and attached to the door by a chain." (The Ancient Civilization of Urartu by Boris Piotrovsky, p112)

See also A History of Seating, 3000 BC to 2000 Ad: Function Versus Aesthetics By Jenny Pynt, Joy Higgs which shows that folding chairs were used in a number of ancient cultures.


Did Ancient Germans Steal the Pharaoh's Chair Design?
by Matthias Schulz


When Tutankhamen died, his tomb was filled with all manner of precious objects, including two folding chairs. The more attractive one is made of ebony and has ivory inlays.
... The brilliantly simple design consists of two movable wooden frames connected to each other with pins and with an animal hide stretched between -- a kind of ur-camping stool.

Some 20 Nordic folding stools have been discovered so far, most of them north of the Elbe River in Germany. The majority were found by mustachioed members of the educated classes, who burrowed into their native soils in the 19th century in search of "national antiquities." The wood had usually rotted away, leaving only the golden or bronze clasps, rivets and knobs.

The only complete specimen was found in 1891 in Guldh' (Golden Hill) near Kolding on the Jutland peninsula, which forms modern-day mainland Denmark. The chair, made of ash wood and with an otter-skin seat, was found lying in a tree-trunk coffin. Dendrochronologists have dated the specimen, made by a local carpenter, to 1389 B.C.

But folding chairs clearly originated in the Orient. The oldest depiction of one is found on roughly 4,500-year-old Mesopotamian seals. Egyptians were also familiar with folding chairs at any early date. Dignitaries used them as mobile thrones, and the long stretchers at their bases prevented the chairs from sinking into the sand.

Bronze Age Trading Networks

The fact that the design reached so far north led many scholars to posit that northern Europeans developed it independently and in parallel to the Egyptians. But that view has now been challenged. "The design and dimensions of the chairs are too similar," says Bettina Pfaff, an archaeologist from Nebra, near the eastern German city of Halle, who specializes in prehistory. Her colleague Barbara Grodde also finds that there is "a remarkable similarity" between the Egyptian and Nordic models.

In other words, Pfaff says, "they were copied."

Other evidence for such contact has also turned up. In recent years, archaeologists have discovered how far-reaching the trade network had already become in the Bronze Age. Blacksmiths from Germany's Harz Mountains worked with gold from Cornwall, while others imitated Mycenaean swords or looped needles from Cyprus.

Such goods were apparently passed on from tribe to tribe and from region to region in a type of relay. But things were somehow different with the folding chairs. While they were used in the Orient and the far north, none of these folding chairs have been found in a wide swath of land between the two regions, either among the inhabitants of stilt houses in the Alps or among the Bronze Age residents of Italy and France.

Archaeologists have recently concluded that there were long-distance scouts more than 3,000 years ago who brought tin from Germany's Erz Mountains all the way to Sweden. They probably traveled in oxcarts on dirt roads.

Craftsmen copied the exotic chairs down to the last detail. They often used oak or ash for the frame. A particularly fine piece discovered in Bechelsdorf, in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, has elaborate ornamentation, with decorative metal tassels that chime and a deerskin seat.

3. Chronological Revisionism: Conventional Ancient Middle East Dating 150 Years too Early?
Centuries of Darkness
Brit-Am Comment:
A group of academically accepted scholars argue for a reduction in the conventional dating of ancient Near East History by about 150 BCE all along the board.
If accepted this would bring archaeological finds more in line with Scripture.
It would also have repercussions in the history of Western Europe.
Mycenean and Middle East type finds in the British Isles, Scandinavia, etc, would henceforth be dateable to a period after the exile of the Ten Tribes rather than before it.

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