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17 April 2012, 25 Nissan 5772.
1. Anita sends article to Brit-Am: Ancient Lyre Found on Scottish Isle.
2. Scottish and Scotch-Irish Migration: Differences Between Those who Left and Those who stayed!!!
3. Viking Ethnicities: A Historiographic Overview.
4. Codan in Scandinavia another name for Sidon of Phoenicia?
5. Philistines and Minoans of Crete, Possibilities.
Lord of the Flies (Baal Zebub) in Scotland?


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1. Anita sends article to Brit-Am: Ancient Lyre Found on Scottish Isle.

Dear Yair,

I thought you would be interested in this find- of a piece from a lyre- on Skye- dated between 550 and 450 B.C. E (!):
There are pictures of the find and an interesting little video as well.

"Archaeologists excavating the High Pasture Cave on the Isle of Skye have discovered a wooden fragment that they believe came from a lyre or similar stringed instrument. The fragment was burned and part of it broken off, but you can clearly see the carved string notches that identify it as a bridge. It was discovered in the rake-out deposits of the hearth outside the entrance to the cave. The deposits date to between 550 and 450 B.C., which would make the bridge a fragment of the oldest stringed instrument found in Europe.

"Artifacts and organic remains ranging from the Bronze to the Iron Age have been found in the High Pasture Cave. The large cave complex appears to have been put to a variety of uses over hundreds of years, including religious rituals. In 2006, archaeologists discovered a cache of antler and bone points dating to 500 B.C. in a section of the cave known as the Bone Passage. Seven of the pieces had an odd wear pattern at the tip suggesting they had been turned over and over again. Experts speculated at the time that they could have been used as tuning pegs for a lyre. Now they've found evidence of an actual lyre from the same period in the cave, so the speculation looks considerably more solid.

"Not that they're a matched set or anything. They were found in different spots and reconstructions of the bridge suggest it came from a six-stringed instrument which would only need six tuning pegs.)

"The oldest stringed instruments in the archaeological record have been found in what is now Iraq, like the bull-headed lyre found in the Royal Cemetery of Ur which dates to around 2500 B.C. Because stringed instruments are typically made out of wood, they usually rot before archaeologists can find them; in fact the sound box of the Ur lyre had rotted away, but the bitumen-covered front panel and the gold and lapis lazuli bearded bull's head survived.

"Musical instruments from Iron Age Europe were not the luxury models of ancient Sumer nor did they have the advantage of a dry, hot environment to preserve the wood. Even Roman-era instruments are so hard to come by that we have to rely on literature, mosaics and frescoes to learn about them, or carvings on altars like the one unearthed in Musselburgh in 2010 which until now was the earliest representation of a musical instrument ever found in Scotland. Finding a piece of an instrument that is centuries older than any previous discoveries and is so clearly recognizable as a piece of an instrument (the bridge is probably the single most recognizable part of a lyre because of its shape and the string notches) is therefore enormously significant to our understanding of ancient music and poetry in Europe.

"Culture and External Affairs Secretary Fiona Hyslop added: 'This is an incredible find and it clearly demonstrates how our ancestors were using music and ritual in their lives. The evidence shows that Skye was a gathering place over generations and that it obviously had an important role to play in the celebration and ritual of life more than 2,000 years ago.'

"The artifact is being conserved by AOC Archaeology in Edinburgh. There are some nice views and models of the bridge in the following video, and a charming finale in which Dr. Graeme Lawson of Cambridge Music ' Archaeological Research plays a reproduction ancient lyre."

Hope you will find the above article interesting and relevant to Brit-Am.

And that you are enjoying Passover/unleavened bread.... peacefully.

Thanks :-)

2. Scottish and Scotch-Irish Migration: Differences Between Those who Left and Those who stayed!!!
From: Richard Gorrie <rgorrie@UOGUELPH.CA>
Subject: 15th century population of Galloway, population history of Galloway,
and genetics of Scotch-Irish migration

Subject: 15th century population of Galloway, population history of Galloway, and genetics of Scotch-Irish migration
From: Dora Smith <>
Date: 9 April, 2012 12:43:05 PM EDT

I'm also curious about population change in Galloway over a broader period of time. The Isles Scottish haplotype originated about 350 AD, when Galloway was in Roman hands but kept isolated and quiet. It looks to me as if the amount of genetic variation in the Isles Scottish haplotype may have grown like bunnies during approximately the medieval warming period. After that plague and so forth should have tended to reduce the population. I am wondering if something was multiplying McKinstry kin ancestors in the southern lowlands of Galloway and Ayrshire in the 15th century.

One other thing; 80% of the ancestors of the Scotch Irish came from tiny Galloway and adjacent Ayrshire/ Dumfriesshire; the bulk actually came from Galloway. Population pressure was the single most important reason why they left Scotland. Local historians told me that McKinstrys probably left for Ireland to find a bit of land and a girl to marry, as though land was not available closer to hand. If people wandered like that within Scotland seeking land it would be small wonder if Papa Wanderer seems to have been busy sewing his seeds from Ayrshire to the Cree River. Records show that the McKinstrys expanded across Galloway in a circular pattern until they reached the coast of the Irish Sea, and then it looks as if the entire several hundred year old family group got the idea to funnel across the sea at once. Histories tell me that the region barely supported its population and experienced repeated crop failures and famine, and every time that happened a wave of people left for Ireland. The fact that they migrated would have taken the lid off their numbers, causing them to multiply dramatically. They were the majority ethnic group in the 13 colonies at the time of the American Revolution, and most Americans today are descended from them. They are a huge proportion of the populations of several other former English colonies as well.

It isn't necessarily true that those who left Galloway were demographically or genetically representative of the people of Galloway. For instance, the Isles Scottish haplotype today appears to be more common in northeastern Ireland, where it never existed before 1500, then in Galloway, where it was born. The Isles Scottish haplotype is, for instance, far too common for a regional haplotype that only originated in 350 AD, and this McKinstry haplotype is more numerous than it ought to be given its 600 year old age and provinciality. I'm interested in what forces might have selected those who left Galloway.

Dora Smith

3. Viking Ethnicities: A Historiographic Overview
Clare Downham

4. Codan in Scandinavia another name for Sidon of Phoenicia?
Codan is another name for a region of Scandinavia.
Codan seems to be a name given to Jutland (Danish Peninsula) or to Scandinavia in general.
 I think it may have applied to Jutland but cannot be sure.
Sidon was the premier Phoenician-Canaaanite city. It gave rise to Tyre.
The name Sidon in Hebrew is Tsidon with the first letter being a Tsere which has no exact equivalent in English. It is usually given as "Ts" or as "s" or as "Z".
This is why Sidon is sometimes rendered as Zidon.
Tsere could however have also been equated with "C".
This would give us Codan. The Phoenicians were in this region.

Source on the Name Codan.
Codanus sinus is the Sea area between Jutland and Sweden along with the adjoining Baltic Sea.

Wikipedia: Codanus sinus
The Codanus sinus is the Latin name of the Baltic Sea and Kattegat.
According to Pomponius Mela (3.31, 3.54) and Pliny the Elder (4.96), it is an "enormous bay" lying beyond the Elbe". It has "many small islands", the largest one being Scandinavia (the manuscripts of Mela have Codannovia).
The origin of the name is obscure.
The Codanus sinus is the vague area described by Pomponius Mela, as a great bay located to the north of Germany, among whose many islands was one, "Codanovia," of pre-eminent size; this name reappears in Pliny the Elder's work as Scatinavia. Codanovia and Scatinavia were both Latin renderings of the Proto-Germanic *Skathinawio, the Germanic name for Scandinavia.

5. Philistines and Minoans of Crete, Possibilities.
Lord of the Flies (Baal Zebub) in Scotland?

Lord of the Flies (Baal Zebub) in Scotland?
Philistine Religion

A curious parallel may he cited from Scotland. In the account of the parish of Kirkmichael, Banffshire, is a description (Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xii, p. 464) of the holy well of St. Michael, which was supposed to have healing properties:

'Many a patient have its waters restored to health and many more have attested the efficacies of their virtues. But as the presiding power is sometimes capricious and apt to desert his charge, it now [A. D. 1794] lies neglected, choked with weeds, unhonoured, and unfrequented. In better days it was not so; for the winged guardian, under the semblance of a fly, was never absent from his duty. If the sober matron wished to know the issue of her husband's ailment, or the love-sick nymph that of her languishing swain, they visited the well of St. Michael. Every movement of the sympathetic fly was regarded in silent awe; and as he appeared cheerful or dejected, the anxious votaries drew their presages; their breasts vibrated with correspondent emotions. Like the Dalai Lama of Thibet, or the King of Great Britain, whom a fiction of the English law supposes never to die, the guardian fly of the well of St. Michael was believed to be exempted from the laws of mortality. To the eye of ignorance he might sometimes appear dead, but, agreeably to the Druidic system, it was only a transmigration into a similar form, which made little alteration in the real identity.'

Britomartis (cf. Europa) in Philistia''
Britomartis was pursued by Minos from Crete and fled to Greece.

Spenser's "Britomart"
Britomart figures in Edmund Spenser's knightly epic The Faerie Queene, where she is an allegorical figure of the virgin Knight of Chastity, representing English virtue'in particular, English military power'through a folk etymology that associated Brit-, as in Briton, with Martis, here thought of as "of Mars", the Roman war god. In Spenser's allegory, Britomart connotes the Virgin Queen, Elizabeth I of England.

In his retelling of the King Arthur legends, Arthur Rex, author Thomas Berger suggests that Queen Guinevere may have become a powerful female knight known as Britomart after the death of the King.

BARS List of Contents.


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