Brit-Am Research Sources.
A collection of informational leads for further study.

25 January 2012, 1 Shevet 5772.
1. Brit-Am Interpretation of Mahomad Name preceded by Rabbinical Source by Yair Davidiy.
2. The Philistines, the Minoans and the Patriarchs.
3. Minoans in North Germany and Konigsberg now Kalingrad, Russia.


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1. Brit-Am Interpretation of Mahomad Name preceded by Rabbinical Source by Yair Davidiy..
Hosea 9 and Muslim Hatred of All Israelites.

Brit-Am interpreted the Hebrew word "Machmad" in Hosea 9:6 as referring to Mahomad the founder of Islam.

The King James translates Machmad as PLEASANT  PLACES.


The New King James appears to translate  Machmad as "valuables".

Hosea 9:6 For indeed they are gone because of destruction.
Egypt shall gather them up;
Memphis shall bury them.
Nettles shall possess their valuables of silver;
Thorns shall be in their tents.

Brit-Am said that:
# For behold they have gone due to the Robbery of Egypt,
Memphis shall gather them up.
Machmad [i.e. Mohamed] shall bury them for the sake of their silver.
Knettles [or Chemosh] will inherit them in their tents.#

We also said:

We have a clear reference here to Mohammed and Islam and Islam wishing to destroy Israel and Ephraim (Britain and America) for the sake of monetary gain.
The next verse (as confirmed by Maimonides) refers to Mohamed who was known as the Meshuga or Mad Man!

[Hosea 9:7]
## The days of punishment have come;
The days of recompense have come.
Israel knows!
The prophet is a fool,
The spiritual man is insane [Hebrew "Meshuga" referring says Mamonides to Mahomad],
Because of the greatness of your iniquity and great enmity. ##

We equated the word Machmad with Mahomet because:
The following verse according to Maimonides (who knew things) refers to Mahomed  as the mad man.
One form of the name Mahomad is Machmad.
The overall picture taken as referring to Islam fits the context [taking Mahomet as synonymous with Arabic Islam].

This is a quite simple even common sense deduction but it is also a somewhat daring one.
In such cases it always helps if other sources say the same thing.
And we found one. There may well be others.

Rabbi Moshe David Walli
on Hosea 9:6:
#Machmad is the Prophet of the Ishmaelites [i.e. Arabs] who is known as Machmad .. who suckles [i.e. receives sustenance] from the aspect of [misplaced] kindness represented by silver. #

Rabbi Moshe David Walli (Vally; Vali) (1697-1777)  practiced as a physician in Padova (Venice region, Northeast Italy).
He is considered the foremost follower of  the Ramchal (Luzatto) who was a major authority on spiritual mystical matters and an expert in the Hebrew Language.
His work is somewhat esoteric. Though the language is very pleasing the content is somewhat difficult to understand. It is not the type of Commentary I would normally be interested in.
It was through Divine Providence that I came across the book and read through to the relevant verse.

2. The Philistines, the Minoans and the Patriarchs

Posted by BK
March 18, 2006

"So they made a covenant at Beersheba; and Abimelech and Phicol, the commander of his army, arose and returned to the land of the Philistines. Abraham planted a tamarisk tree at Beersheba, and there he called on the name of the LORD, the Everlasting God. And Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines for many days." Genesis 21:32-34.

Bryant G. Wood, Ph.D. of the Associates for Biblical Research has written a fascinating article entitled "The Genesis Philistines" for the March 2006 ABR Electronic Newsletter (no article link available) which investigates the Biblical Philistines and makes a case that the Philistines have been around as a people for a long time and had ties in ancient Canaan very early in recorded history.

First, who were the Philistines and where did they come from? According to the Jewish Encyclopedia,

"The Biblical record states that [the Philistines] came from Caphtor (Amos ix. 7; Deut. ii. 23), that they were Caphtorim (Deut, l.c.), and that they were "the remnant of the seacoast of Caphtor" (Jer. xlvii. 4, Hebr.). The table of nations (Gen. x. 13, 14) names the Philistines and the Caphtorim as descendants of Mizraim. The gist of these references leads one to look for Caphtor as the native land of the Philistines. There is a variety of opinion as to the location of this place. The Egyptian inscriptions name the southern coast of Asia Minor as "Kefto." The latest and with some plausibility the best identification is the island of Crete. The Septuagint makes the Cherethites in David's body-guard Cretans. Others have identified Caphtor with Cappadocia, or Cyprus, or with some place near the Egyptian delta. The prevailing opinion among scholars is that the Philistines were roving pirates from some northern coast on the Mediterranean Sea." (Emphasis added.)

Dr. Wood's article provides the evidence that supports Crete as the ancient home of the Philistines. The article begins by examining the Phaistos Disk -- a "6.5 inch diameter, 0.5 inch thick, baked clay disk with undecipherable inscriptions on both sides (Robinson 2002: 297-315)" "discovered in 1908 by Italian archaeologist Luigi Pernier in the ruins of a Minoan palace in southern Crete." The disk has a depiction of a warrior with a feathered headdress which is "very similar to the depiction of the later Philistines in reliefs on the walls of Rameses III's mortuary temple in Medinet Habu, Egypt (T. Dothan 1982: 22; T. and M. Dothan 1992: 35-36). This is not an isolated find, as identical signs, including frontal views of the feathered warrior, have been found inscribed on an axe found in a cave in Crete (Robinson 2002: 306-307)."

The significance of the Phaitos Disk is that it, at minimum, ties Crete in as a base (if not the home) for the Philistine people. Since a consensus exists that the Egyptian depiction of the warrior in the feathered headdress is a Philistine, the Phaitos Disk coupled with a similar finding of an axe with the same depiction is evidence that Crete was the home of the Philistine people....

So, what else do we know about these ancient inhabitants of Crete' For one thing, we know how scholars generally reference them -- Minoans. However, according to Dr. Wood, there is no reason to believe that the people of Crete called themselves Minoans. That name was given to them by "Arthur Evans, excavator of Knossos, a major site on Crete, based on Minos, an ancient ruler of Crete known from Greek mythology." The Minoans

"engaged in maritime trade throughout the Levant in the Middle Bronze period (ca. 2000-1500 BC). Some of this evidence suggests that they established trading colonies in Syria, Canaan and Egypt. A small, but growing, number of finds in Palestine provide tangible evidence for contacts between Canaan and Crete long before the 12th-11th century Philistines. (Emphasis added.)"

So, were the Minoans the people that the Bible calls the Philistines' The Phaitos Disk and the archaeological research that has provided information about the Minoans and their lifestyles and trading partners suggests that they may have been one and the same.

But were the Minoans present in Canaan' Is there any reason to believe that these Minoans occupied the portion of Canaan attributed to the Philistines' Yes, says Dr. Wood. The account of Isaac's visit with the Philistines in Genesis 26 speaks of the city of Gerar which was the home to the Philistine king Abimelech (who is also mentioned in Genesis 21). Gerar, it turns out, has been "identified as Tel Haror, 17 miles east of Gaza in the western Negev (Oren 1992: 989)." Many archaeological digs have been conducted there, but Dr. Wood focuses on the following major connection between Tel Haror and the ancient Cretes/Minoans:

Of particular interest is a Minoan graffito found in the sacred precinct dating to ca. 1600 BC. Analyses of the sherd determined that it originated in Crete, most likely the south coast (Day et al. 1999; Oren et al. 1996). There are four Minoan signs on the graffito, inscribed prior to firing, which represent a bull's head, cloth, branch and figs (Oren et al. 1996: 99-109). In addition to the graffito, an unusual chalice of Canaanite shape and fabric was found in a room on the east side of the sacred area. What makes the chalice unusual is its high arching handles, a well-known feature of Minoan chalices, but not of Canaanite (Oren et al. 1996: 95, 96; Oren 1993: 581).

Thus, once again, there are signs of connections between the Minoan culture and the city that is identified as the home of the Philistine king in Genesis. Moreover, the existence of the graffito (which is the singular form of "grafitti") from around 1600 A.D. suggests that the Minoans were living in Gerar and had been for a significant time prior to that date (when building a new settlement, painting Minoan reliefs would hardly be among the first tasks undertaken, but would probably only happen after the city has been firmly established).

3. Minoans in North Germany and Konigsberg now Kalingrad, Russia.
Brit-Am Note:
We will show elsewhere that finds associated with the Minoans, Myceneans, Philistines and Israelites were interchangeable to some degree.

(a) Minoans in Konigsberg
From the 1980-ies on, several unknown prehistoric finds have been made in the Kongsberg area. Among these discoveries in the hills and forests, are gravemounds (cairns) , shrines, megaliths and menhirs, ancient backfilled, very primitive mines and a panel with rock carvings and five signs, identified as Cretan-Minoan Linear A characters/syllables, approx. 3700 years old. (See Linear A Minoan Crete.) These remains seem to be connected to each other in one way or another and they are always close to old mines. This can hardly be coincidental. These remains seem to indicate that these mines were exploited as far back as in the earliest part of the Bronze Age.

(b) Minoans in Konigsberg and Norway.
1 Linear A Minoan Crete


The oldest description of Crete and the island's population and culture is presented to us through the works of the Greek poet Homer, who in the 8th century BC wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Homer has handed down to us the legend of King Minos, the wise ruler who governed a mighty seaborne empire from Crete, and the story of his son, the Minotaur and the Labyrinth, which Arthur Evans identified as the Palace of Knossos.

Old Egyptian sources speak of 'Keftiu', in Akkadian (Assyrian-Babylonian) called 'Kaptaru', i.e. 'Land beyond the Sea', obviously meaning Crete. Homer mentions five different speaking peoples living on the island, Achaeans, Kydonians, Dorians, Pelasgians and Eteocretans, that is, 'the real Cretans'. Thus 'Eteocretans' was the name the Greeks employed for the original inhabitants of Crete. Minoan Crete was conquered by the Mycenean Greeks about 1450 BC. The splendid Minoan civilization had vanished so completely that its existence was only brought to light again by the archaeological excavations of Arthur Evans (1851 ' 1941) from 1900 onwards.

Excavating at Knossos, Evans found 3000 clay tablets with an unknown script. Evans named the script Linear A and a modified form of the same script he called Linear B. Since the script was unknown, and consequently the language it covered, it was not known what the people, who had created the script and culture, called themselves. Therefore Evans dubbed them 'Minoans' and their civilization 'Minoan', after the legendary ruler of Bronze Age Crete, King Minos.

Evans never succeeded in deciphering the script, but he was of the opinion that the language was not Greek. But in 1952 the young architect Michael Ventris (1922 ' 1956) was able to identify the language behind the Linear B tablets as Greek, although in a rather archaic form. However, it became clear that the language written on the Linear A tablets was not Greek, since it was incomprehensible even if there was reason to believe that the phonetic values of the Linear B signs, or syllables, were the same as the identical syllables of Linear A.

Obviously the Greek conquerors of the Minoan empire had applied the script of the superior Minoan culture, with some modifications, to their own language. The Minoans themselves, who had not fled Crete, took abode on the hilltops in the rugged interior of the island, where the culture and Minoan language of these Eteocretans survived for some time in the small communities they established under, or far from, Greek (Mycenean) rule.

The American professor Cyrus H. Gordon, who had been studying Linear A tablets since 1956, arrived at the conclusion in 1962 that the Minoan language was Northwest Semitic, belonging to the same language group as Ugaritic, Phoenician and Hebrew. He succeeded in reading parts of some texts, with the support of two short Eteocretan (the old Minoan language) and Greek bilingual texts.

Evidence of Bronze Age connections between Norway and Crete

In 1987 there was discovered, quite unexpectedly, in Kongsberg, 80 kms due west of Oslo, carvings on a horizontal rock panel on the outskirts of the small town. Numerous cup marks among the carvings indicate that the oldest carvings may have been made in the Early Bronze Age (in Norway between 1800 BC and 1000 BC) or even in the later part of the Late Stone Age (Neolithic).

In 1994 Dr. Aartun visited the site at Kongsberg, and on the very spot he recognized the characters as Linear A. (local newspaper Laagendalsposten, 23.9.1994.)

How, then, can the existence of a Minoan inscription at Kongsberg in far away Norway be explained' What may have attracted them to this place'
The explanation may be that at Kongsberg (a name which means 'the king's mines') were huge occurrences of silver, in fact the richest deposits of native and wire silver in Europe, perhaps in the whole world.

The silver deposits were spread over an enormous area, and traces of very old, even prehistoric mining activity, as it seems, are to be found 'everywhere' in the forests and mountains surrounding Kongsberg. Some of these primitive mines have been backfilled in a manner that resembles backfilling of Bronze Age mines in South-Eastern Europe...

These mines at Kongsberg have not yet been archaeologically examined. More than 3500 years ago, there existed a network of mines all over Europe, from the Balkans to Ireland. In the Early Bronze Age copper mines of Mitterberg in Austria, crushed waste material from the separation of the ore outside the mine was transported back into the mine.

The Minoans were the great metal traders of the Mediterranean, as early as 2000 BC. This fact may explain the richness of the Minoan civilization. Before 1500 BC silver was twice as valuable as gold in Egypt and the Minoans maintained close commercial relationship with Egypt. Amber from the shores of the Baltic reached Mycenae and Egypt more than 3500 years ago.
The Minoans built seaworthy ships with keels, which enabled them to sail all over the Mediterranean. A wall painting excavated in the Minoan town of Akrotiri on Thera, destroyed by a volcanic eruption in 1628 BC, shows a flotilla of boats in the harbour. The ships seem to be about 30 meters long, at least, and they may not have been technically inferior to the Viking ships, which sailed from Norway to Palestine, Greenland and North America.

In 2005 two professors of archaeology, Kristian Kristiansen, University of Gothenburg, and Thomas B. Larsson, University of Ume'in Sweden, published a book entitled 'The Rise of Bronze Age Society' (Cambridge University Press) in which they argue, based on a vast amount of evidence, that the rich and spectacular Early Bronze Age of Denmark and Scandinavia can only be explained in terms of a contact between the Minoan-Mycenaean civilization and Scandinavia.

They write (pp. 235-236): 'Mycenaean traders settled in western Mediterranean and established direct trading connections with southern Germany, and thus linked up with the network that reached Jutland and the amber producing areas. Recent archaeological discoveries have completely changed our perception of Mycenaean presence in this part of Europe'. And 'a genuine Mycenaean find appeared in a Middle Bronze Age fortified settlement in Bavaria: a gold diadem made of gold foil of the type found in the shaft graves at Mycenae, together with some raw amber.
(') Mycenaean and south German and even south Scandinavian chiefs had direct personal contacts. (') Moreover, it makes it easier to understand how east Mediterranean prestige goods, such as folding stools and flange-hilted swords of Mycenaean inspiration, could be transmitted so directly to southern Scandinavia. But why this region ' more than other regions in Europe ' adopted a Mycenaean cultural idiom as basis for the new Nordic Bronze Age society remains yet to be explained.' And p. 249: 'However, foreign origins were most consciously demonstrated in the formation of the Nordic Bronze Age Culture from 1500 BC onwards, basing itself on a Minoan/Mycenaean template.'
The authors also point to the fact that a sign or symbol akin to the Hittite hieroglyph meaning 'divine' is among the rock carvings at Fossum in Sweden, associated with images of what could be representations of divinities (p. 342).

Kongsberg could easily be reached from the sea by boats sailing up the Oslo Fjord and Drammen Fjord to Vestfossen. All the way along this route, from Drammen to Vestfossen and Kongsberg, there are big mining areas of other ores, like copper and silver bearing galena (lead), leading on to the Kongsberg mining area.

Minoans, having reached Kongsberg, most likely around 1700 BC, at the heyday of Minoan civilization, when silver could be traded for its double weight in gold in Egypt, and leaving a message on a cult place there, would probably have thanked the gods for what ever riches they had come for. The only reason for their coming to Kongsberg would have been the area's richness in easily accessible native silver.

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