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Scandinavian Connections to the Ancient Middle East
 Scandinavia and the East.

20 March 2011, 14 Adar-Sheni 5771.
1. Scandinavia-Africa.
2. The Rise of Bronze Age Society by Kristian Kristiansen
3. Sea Peoples by Robert Henvill
4. HOMER IN THE BALTIC by Felice Vinci
5. A Mediterranean bronze age trading centre in SE Sweden?  by Nils-Axel Morner and Bob Lind
6. Phoenician trade.
7. Immigration from Egypt to Scandinavia in Bronze Age


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1. Scandinavia-Africa.

2. The Rise of Bronze Age Society
Kristian Kristiansen

3.Sea Peoples

Light long boats that could transport up to 80 people are depicted on rock art at Shagerrak,Sweden;on stone slabs [ca 1300 BCE] in south Sweden and on a Greek Homeric vase.A horned helmut with knobs on the end ,which is similar to the head ware of one element of the Sea peoples,was excavated at Sjaelland Island,Denmark [P Jordan,2004].A HLA-A genetic study by P Deitkiter revealed that migrants from Poland and Scandinavia journeyed to Macedonia and Greece [no date].

Felice Vinci)

A possible key to finally penetrating this puzzling world is provided by Plutarch (Greek author, 46-120 A.D.). In his work De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet ("The face that appears in the moon circle"), chap. 26, he makes a surprising statement: the island of Ogygia, (where Calypso held Ulysses back for a long time before allowing him to return to Ithaca) is located in the North Atlantic Ocean, "five days by ship from Britain".

On this subject, the distinguished Swedish scholar, Professor Martin P. Nilsson, in his works (Homer and Mycenae and The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and its Survival in Greek Religion) reports a series of pieces of archaeological evidence uncovered in the Mycenaean sites in Greece, supporting the fact that the Achaean population came from the North. Some examples are: the existence of a large quantity of baltic amber in the most ancient Mycenaean tombs in Greece (which is not to be ascribed to trade, because the amber is very scarce in later graves as well as in the coeval Minoan tombs in Crete); the typically Nordic features of their architecture (the Mycenaean megaron "is identical to the hall of the ancient Scandinavian Kings"); the "striking similarity" of two stone slabs found in a tomb in Dendra "with the menhirs known from the Bronze Age of Central Europe"; the Nordic-type skulls found in the necropolis of Kalkani, etc. A remarkable affinity between Aegean art and some Scandinavian remains dating back to the Bronze Age has also been noted, with particular regard to the figures engraved on Kivik's tomb in Sweden, to the point that a scholar in the nineteenth century suggested that this monument was built by the Phoenicians!

Another sign of the Achaean presence in the Nordic world in a very distant past is a Mycenaean graffito found in the megalithic complex of Stonehenge in Southern England. Other remains revealing the Mycenaean influence were found in the same area ("Wessex culture"), which date back to a period preceding the Mycenaean civilisation in Greece. A trace of this sort of contact can be found also in the Odyssey, which mentions a bronze market placed overseas, in a foreign country, named "Temese", never found in the Mediterranean area. Since bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, which in the North is only found in Cornwall, it's very likely that the mysterious Temese corresponds to the Thames, named "Tamesis" or "Tamensim" in ancient times. So, following the Odyssey, we learn that, during the Bronze Age, the ancient Scandinavians used to sail to Temese/Thames - "placed overseas, in a foreign country" (Od. I, 183-184) - to supply themselves with bronze.

5. A mediterranean bronze age trading centre in SE Sweden?
Nils-Axel Morner, Paleogeophysics & Geoidynamics (Sweden)
Bob Lind,
Archaeoastronomy (Sweden)
In the Bronze Age, the high-cultures in the Mediterranean had enough copper (from Cyprus) but shortage of tin for the production of bronze. Tin had to be imported, as it seems primarily from Brittany. This implies that long-distance trading was in operation. The bronze was then traded back all over Europe, even to Sweden. At the same time amber (Danish "rav") originating from the south Baltic coasts, and most favourably from the Ravlunda area ("rav") in SE Sweden, started to appear in Mycenae, Knossos and other Mediterranean cities.

The ships depicted in Scandinavian rock carvings resemble nothing known from the local areas. They are very similar to the Minoan and Phoenician ships, however.
In SE Sweden, there are some old and new findings that support the proposal of a Minoan and/or Phoenician trading centre. The Kivik Grave has very special stone carvings, which, already in 1870 made Sven Nilsson propose that we were dealing with a Minoan trading post. In the same area, there are 3 archaeoastronomic observatories (or sun-year calendars and sundials); ...The monument lies just at the present coast and beside a freshwater brook; an ideal place for a harbour. Foundation stones for a possible harbour construction have been observed, and among those stones, a fisherman in the early 20th century, found a piece of old bronze and a pearl that was of Minoan origin according to King Gustav VI Adolphus, who was an archaeologist.

....a successively stronger argumentation seems to emerge for the existence of a strong and important trading centre of the Minoan and/or Phoenician cultures in SE Sweden, which the landing harbour just at the mouth of the Klarbacken Brook at Vitemolla and beside the Heimdall's Stones.

 6. Phoenician trade

The Phoenician trade expanded in the Mediterranean in the beginning of last millennium BC. With them they brought their own time-law characterised by the symbols for the asterisms Hand, sitting Tanit, entwined Serpents and Whale.

7. Immigration from Egypt to Scandinavia in Bronze Age
The fairly new method of DNA could be used if the figures are significant. For instance it tells that people of Scone and part of Lapland has mtDNA in common to around 70 %. Naturally that sets more questions than it solves and is like an enigma. But as a whole the DNA is homogeneous in Scandinavia and it is difficult to se anomalies. Come to think of the review European DNA by Ulf Erlingsson that also mentions Gothenburg and together wit Egypt haplogroup T1 22 %.

Not only that. Around 7 years ago I wrote about the exceptional rock-carvings near Gothenburg in the valley of Gauta Elv. Then I suggested heavy connections to Egypt and that fits the mtDNA as evidence.

The hand tell us that and we know it from Carthage. That means the origin could be Tyre and in the temple of Hazor [Canaan -Israel] we see hands holding the Eastern Moon.

Domestic sword and imported stool found at Jutland [Denmark] is from Egypt maybe?

This sword type draws the spread of the Nordic Bronze Age culture and deep to Europe with some finds here and there. There is also a find in Egypt. They got the skill in handicraft maybe as early as 2000 BC and I guess they sold swords on their trade routes. In that period we have also the trader from Kivik Scone. They got in return a stool that looks like a copy from Tut's tomb. The 14th century lady from Skrydstrup S Jutland has a coiffure seen on the wall paintings in Minoan palaces and some other of clear origin.


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