Tartan and Ulster

The Tartan Coat of Many Colors and Joseph

This is Page 8
Continued from Page 7

8. Tartan in Ulster

Tartan and Ulster
Part One: Welcome to Ulster
The Ethnic Origins of Ulster: The Scotch-Irish and Yair of Manasseh
Ulster: Extracts from
History of Northern Ireland: Extracts from
Linda Merle: DNA Genealogy and the Scots, Irish, and Scotch-Irish

Part Two: Titanic Tartans and Clifford Smyth
Ulster Tartan
Parallels to Highland Dress in Morocco?
Tartan Conveys a Message!
The Sinking of the Titanic and Tartan?
Kosher Jewish Tartan
Designing Twelve New Tartans for Each Israelite Tribe?
Does Tartan Bear an Ancestral Message?

Part One. Welcome to Ulster
The aim of this article is to speak of Tartan and its use in North Ireland otherwise known as Ulster. We have chosen to use this opportunity to give background information concerning Ulster in general since it has an importance worth being aware of.
The Ethnic Origins of Ulster: The Scotch-Irish and Yair of Manasseh
The Protestant inhabitants of Ulster in North America are known as Scotch-Irish. More than 80% of all American Presidents are of predominant Scotch-Irish ancestry.
Their ancestors migrated from Ulster.
[J.F.K. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan, and Bill Clinton however came from Irish Catholic or Southern Irish forefathers as did some others.]

An Irish chieftain from the Ulster area, Sir Neil O'Neil, in a portrait (painted by J. Michael White) dating from 1680

Ulster in Irish (Cuige Uladh) is named after the Ulaid who in ancient times dominated (especially in the east) the region.
The Ulaid were a section of the Erain otherwise prominent in Munster (southwest Ireland). In Ulster and elsewhere the Erain were ruled by the Darin (Daire).
The Erain in general descend from an ancestor named IAR.
The Gaelic name IAR in the Ancient Middle East was a variant of Yair. Descendants of Yair (the IARI) were prominent amongst the eastern sections of Manasseh. Their forefather was actually originally from Judah but had settled amongst Gilead of Manasseh.
The Dal Riada clans from Northern Ulster moved to Western Scotland.
More to the west were other peoples amongst whom were clans associated with Neil that gave rise to dynasties ruling over all Ireland.

Descendants of Neil eventually were to be found in substantial numbers throughout all the former region of Ulster including what is now Protestant Northern Ireland and the predominantly Catholic areas now part of the Irish Republic (Eire).
Later the English conquered Ulster along with the rest of Ireland. At that time the land was sparsely populated and so the English began to encourage immigration from elsewhere.  This became known as the Plantation" system.
These were mainly Protestants though they included some Scottish Catholic Highlanders. Most of the settlers came from Scotland. They came from both the Highlands and Lowlands but the Lowlanders were overwhelmingly predominant. They were joined by immigrants from England, Wales, Holland, France, and elsewhere. A good portion of the local Irish in the course of time by changing their religion or intermarriage were assimilated into the Ulster Protestant community.

Ulster: Extracts from Wikipedia


Ulster (Irish: Ulaidh / Cuige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulster) is one of the four Provinces of Ireland, located in the north of the island.
Ulster is composed of nine counties: Antrim,
Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, and Tyrone are part of Northern Ireland; while Cavan, Donegal, and Monaghan are part of the Republic of Ireland.

The first part of the name Ulster derives from the Irish Cuige Uladh..meaning "Fifth of the Ulaid". In ancient times, the island was divided into five regions, with the Ulaid tribes inhabiting this northernmost region. The latter part of the name derives either from the Irish tir or the Old Norse staor, both of which translate as "land" or "territory".

The Irish word for someone/something from Ulster is Ultach. The Latin word for someone/something from Ulster is Ultonian, which derives from the Latin name for the province, Ultonia.[citation needed] Other words that have been used are Ullish and Ulsterman/Ulsterwoman.

Many unionists refer to Northern Ireland as Ulster,[1] although Northern Ireland includes only six of the nine counties.

Ulster has a population of just under 2 million people and an area of 24,481 square kilometres (9,452 sq mi). Its biggest city, Belfast has an urban area of over half a million inhabitants. Six of Ulster's nine counties, Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry (formerly known as County Coleraine before being renamed and expanded during the Plantation of Ulster) and Tyrone, form Northern Ireland, and remained part of the United Kingdom after the partition of Ireland in 1921. Three Ulster counties, Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan form part of the Republic of Ireland.

The geographical centre of Ulster lies between the villages of Pomeroy and Carrickmore in County Tyrone. In terms of area, County Donegal is the largest county in all of Ulster. The two largest cities in the province are Belfast and Derry. Belfast is Ireland's second largest city, and the largest in Northern Ireland.

Most people in Ulster speak English. Irish is the next most commonly spoken language...Large parts of County Donegal are
Gaeltacht areas where Irish is the first language and some people in west Belfast also speak Irish, especially in the 'Gaeltacht Quarter'[3].
The dialect of Irish (Gaeilge) most commonly spoken in Ulster (especially throughout Northern Ireland and County Donegal) is Gaeilge Thir Chonaill or Donegal Irish, also known as Gaeilge Uladh or Ulster Irish. Donegal Irish has many similarities to Scottish Gaelic. ...Ulster Scots (a dialect of Scots which is also sometimes known by the neologism Ullans) is also spoken in County Down and The Ards, County Antrim, County Londonderry and Donegal[4].

Ulster is one of the four Irish provinces. Its name derives from the Irish language
Cuige Uladh (pronounced "Kooi-gah UH-loo"), meaning "'fifth' of the Ulaidh", named for the ancient inhabitants of the region.

In early medieval Ireland, the Ui Ne l (O'Neill) dynasty dominated Ulster from their base in Tir Eoghain (Eoghan's Country) most of which forms modern County Tyrone. The Domhnaill (O'Donnell) dynasty were Ulster's second most powerful clan from the early thirteenth-century through to the beginning of the seventeenth-century. The O'Donnells ruled over Tir Chonaill (most of modern County Donegal) in West Ulster. After the Norman invasion of Ireland in the twelfth century, the east of the province fell by conquest to Norman barons, first De Courcy (died 1219), then Hugh de Lacy (1176-1243), who founded the Earldom of Ulster based around the modern counties of Antrim and Down. However, by the end of the 15th century the Earldom had collapsed and Ulster had become the only Irish province completely outside of English control.

I's English forces succeeded in subjugating Ulster and all of Ireland. The Gaelic leaders of Ulster, the O'Neills and O'Donnells, finding their power under English suzerainty limited, decamped en masse in 1607 (the Flight of the Earls) to Roman Catholic Europe. This allowed the English Crown to plant Ulster with more loyal English and Scottish planters, a process which began in earnest in 1610.

Counties Donegal, Tyrone,
Armagh, Cavan, Londonderry and Fermanagh comprised the official plantation. However, the most extensive settlement in Ulster of English, Scots and Welsh as well as Protestants from throughout the European continent... occurred in Antrim and Down. These counties, though not officially planted, had suffered de-population during the war and proved attractive to settlers from nearby Scotland. This unofficial settlement continued well into the 18th century....

The Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland excluded most of Ulster's population from power on religious grounds. Roman Catholics (descended from the indigenous Irish) and Presbyterians (mainly descended from Scottish planters, but also from indigenous Irishmen who converted to Presbyterianism) both suffered discrimination under the Penal Laws, which gave full political rights only to Anglican Protestants (mostly descended from English settlers). In the 1690s, Scottish Presbyterians became a majority in Ulster, tens of thousands of them having emigrated there to escape a famine in Scotland.

Considerable numbers of Ulster-Scots just a few generations after arriving in Ulster migrated to the North American colonies throughout the 18th century (250,000 settled in what would become the United States between 1717 and 1770 alone). According to
Kerby Miller, Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America (1988), Protestants were only one-third of the population of Ireland, but they comprised three-quarters of all emigrants from 1700 to 1776; 70% of these Protestants were Presbyterians.

Author (and U.S. Senator) Jim Webb puts forth a thesis in his book Born Fighting to suggest that the character traits he ascribes to the Scots-Irish such as loyalty to kin, mistrust of governmental authority, and a propensity to bear arms, helped shape the American identity.

In the United States Census, 2000, 4.3 million Americans claimed Scots-Irish ancestry, though James Webb suggests estimates that the true number of Scotch-Irish in the USA is more in the region of 27 million.[2] Interestingly, the areas where the most Americans reported themselves in the 2000 Census only as "American" with no further qualification (e.g. Kentucky, north-central Texas, and many other areas in the Southern US) are largely the areas where many Scots-Irish settled, and are in complementary distribution with the areas which most heavily report Scots-Irish ancestry.

In the 19th century, Ulster became the most prosperous province in Ireland, with the only large-scale
industrialisation in the country. In the latter part of the century, Belfast overtook Dublin as the largest city on the island. Belfast became famous in this period for its huge dockyards and shipbuilding and notably for the construction of the RMS Titanic.When the Irish Free State came into existence in 1922, the Northern Ireland Parliament (already in existence) was given the option to 'opt out', which it did.

History of Northern Ireland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Northern Ireland is today that part of the country of Ireland that is within the United Kingdom,[1] having been designated as a separate entity on 3 May 1921, under the Government of Ireland Act 1920.[2]

The new autonomous Northern Ireland was formed from six of the nine counties of Ulster, being four counties with unionist majorities, and Fermanagh and Tyrone two [1] of the 5 Ulster counties which had nationalist majorities. In large part unionists, at least in the north east region, supported its creation while nationalists were opposed. Subsequently, on 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland became an independent dominion known as the Irish Free State but Northern Ireland immediately exercised its right to opt out of the new Dominion. Northern Ireland today remains a divided society with a legacy of civil conflict, at times made obvious through territorial markings such as painted kerbstones and the flying of the British or Irish national flags.

Once the bedrock of Irish resistance to the advance of the English state in Ireland, the Plantation of Ulster by Scottish and English colonists resulted in Northern Ireland following a different economic, religious and cultural trajectory to the rest of the island.

The first years of the new autonomous region were marked by bitter violence, particularly in Belfast. The IRA was determined to oppose the partition of Ireland and the authorities created the (mainly ex-UVF) Ulster Special Constabulary to aid the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) and introduced emergency powers to put down the IRA.

The continuing violence created a climate of fear in the new region, and there was migration across the new border. As well as movement of Protestants from the Free State into Northern Ireland, some Catholics fled south, leaving some of those who remained feeling isolated.

...the unionist establishment
practised what is generally considered a policy of discrimination against the nationalist/Catholic minority.

Emigration to seek employment was significantly more prevalent among the Catholic population. As a result, Northern Ireland's demography shifted further in favour of Protestants leaving their ascendancy seemingly impregnable by the late 1950s.

The following thirty years of civil strife came to be known as the Troubles.
The appearance in 1970 of the Provisional IRA, a breakaway from the increasingly Marxist Official IRA, and a campaign of violence by loyalist paramilitary groups like the Ulster
Defence Association and others brought Northern Ireland to the brink of civil war. On 30 March 1972, the British government, unwilling to grant the unionist Northern Ireland government more authoritarian special powers, and now convinced of its inability to restore order, pushed through emergency legislation that prorogued the Northern Ireland Parliament and introduced direct rule from London.[14] In 1973 the British Government dissolved the Parliament of Northern Ireland and its government under the Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973.

The British government held talks with various parties, including the Provisional IRA, during 1972 and 1973. (The Official IRA declared a ceasefire in 1972, and eventually ended violence altogether, although a breakaway group, the Irish National Liberation Army, continued with a campaign of violence. The Provisional IRA, however, remained the largest and most effective nationalist paramilitary group.)

The worst fear envisaged a civil war which would engulf not just Northern Ireland, but also the Republic of Ireland and Scotland, both of which had major links with either or both communities.

On July 28, 2005, the IRA made a public statement ordering an end to the armed campaign and instructing its members to dump arms and to pursue purely political

On 8th May 2007, home rule returned to Northern Ireland. DUP leader Ian Paisley and Sinn Fein's Martin
McGuinness took office as First Minister and Deputy First Minister, respectively. (BBC).

Linda Merle: DNA Genealogy and the Scots, Irish, and Scotch-Irish
From the point of view of DNA:

Linda Merle says:
 ##...there is no difference between "Scots Irish" and Ulster Irish DNA. Scots Irish DNA IS Ulster Irish DNA. Some people who are Catholic find their ancestors came from Scotland and many people who think their ancestors are Scots find out they are Irish. And of course some will find their Y chromosome's roots are in England, Holland, France, etc.
There's plenty of Scot DNA in all the counties of Ireland, sometimes brought by the Galloglass soldiers in the Middle Ages. Of course their descendents are Catholic, largely, just like them.##

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