|Research, Recognition, Reconciliation|
|Contents by Subject||
Contents in Alphabetical Order
New Book: "The Khazars.
The Lost Ten Tribes were, at one stage, in Scythia, and especially
in the areas east of the Caspian Sea. There were traditions that the
Anglo-Saxons and the Dutch Frisians had come from the same areas where the Lost
Ten Tribes were supposed to be. That in effect, the Anglo-Saxons and the Dutch
Frisians were descended from Israel. In the light of this we should consider the
following notes taken from Andrew Colin Gow, 'The Red Jews: anti-Semitism in an
Apocalyptic Age' 1200-1600 (NY 1995. published by E.J.. Brill:
Josephus (Jewish Wars vii;7;4) says that Alexander the Great used iron gates to close up mountain passes so that the Scythians would not break into the civilized world. Elsewhere (Antiquities 1;b;i) Josephus identifies the Scyths with Magog. From the 1100s CE Gog and Magog were identified as the Lost Ten Tribes. This was based on old traditions: Already in the 300s CE the Latin Tiburtine Sibyl spoke of the anti-Christ being from the Tribe of Dan and of Alexander, the Indian King who shut up Gog and Magog in the far north. Peter Comestor (ca. 1165) identified the Lost Ten Tribes with Gog and Magog whom Alexander had locked up behind iron gates in the mountains. The whole area of Scythia even Georgia in the Caucasus in Medieval writings could be referred to as India. The area of the Ten Tribes was referred to as Caspia. The Ten Tribes were called Red Jews and were described as all having Red Hair. Red Hair in the Middle Ages especially in Germany was considered a negative characteristic and associated with the Jews and with Judas. The Anti-Christ and Judas were depicted as both having red hair and as both coming from the Tribe of Dan. The Jews also believed that Lost Ten Tribes to be in Scythia, in the region by the Caspian Sea. This belief was widespread and lasted up to ca 1600 CE. Gow quotes David Kaufman (1892): The legend of the Ten Tribes as future deliverers of Israel was a faith that was slumbering in the popular Jewish consciousness all through the Middle Ages (JQR, iv, 503-508).
Passau Anonymous (1330): the Jews and many Judaising Christians imagine that this people [i.e. The Ten Tribes] is holy; they would be glad if they were to come, and would join their ranks immediately. In Germany the Jews were believed to be in league with the devil and to be plotting with the Red Jews meaning the Ten Tribes to overthrow Christendom. Luther identified Gog and Magog with the Turks and said they were descended from Tartars or Red Jews. Der Juden Thalmudby Christian Gerson of Reckinghausen (a Jewish convert to Christianity, 1607): many Jews believe that the Ten Tribes whom the king Salmanessar led away are still together and live behind the dark mountains called the Caspian Mountains... many Christians also talk about the Red Jews, whom they have never seen, whence comes the wrongheaded notion, that the Messiah might still be born from the tribe of Judah, from the Red Jews. It should be noted that the Lost Ten Tribes and Gog and Magog were also identified with the Goths most of whom settled in Sweden. Other peoples mentioned in the Scythian area were the Khazars and the Naphtalites and Danites who migrated to Scandinavia and the Hugo ancestors of the western Franks. Red hair is found throughout all European peoples but is said to be more prominent amongst the Scottish and Irish than amongst other peoples.
##Medieval Christianity was not favorably disposed to any Jews... Where does the colour 'red' fit in? Ruth Mellinkoff has shown that a deep-seated prejudice against red hair ran 'like a thread of the same colour through ancient and medieval culture.' People with red hair were thought to be "false, dangerous, tricky, shameless, over-sexed, deceitful, hot-tempered, unfaithful, foolish, war-like, crude, vulgar, low-class and unlucky for those who meet them" . Not surprisingly Judas was often portrayed in medieval religious art as having red hair. The Grimm brothers report that in medieval Germany, red hair and a red beard were signs of a false and duplicitous nature; a 'red man' (ein roter) was a man with red hair and a red beard. Verse 2842 of the poem Wigalois reports that 'it is said of men with red hair and beard that their heart is wicked.'
...The history of German usage leads us to the conclusion that the 'Red Jews' were in physical terms Jews who bore the mark of red hair and red beards because they were morally degenerate. As it happens, the sources support this conclusion.
Jews often were portrayed by medieval illustrations in Christian texts with red hair and in red clothes. ... the illustrations of medieval Hebrew manuscripts ...represent Jews, female and male, with red hair or red hair and beard...There seems to have been a particular link between Jews and the colour red in hair. This is a connection so widely-accepted as to be included prominently in illustrations of Hebrew manuscripts, though in such cases, these depictions presumably lacked or did not evoke the negative associations generally marked by red hair.12
[n.12 In similar fashion, Jewish folklore would later adopt the German term 'Red Jews' as a name for the Ten Tribes of Jewish legend, without adopting the hostile associations that produced and sustained the legend in Christian Germany.]
The Jews by whom these manuscripts were made and for whom they were intended seem to have attached no negative significance to the colour red. Yet as we have seen, Christian iconography `saw red' in connection with Judas. The Metzgers' manuscript illuminations suggest that to Jews as to Christians, Jews were typically red-headed and wore red clothes; it was taken for granted." ...
Only the Jews, who are here [in a 15th century manuscript German Historiated Bible] the Ten Tribes, have red hair and beards...Until the late fifteenth century, the `Ten Tribes enclosed by Alexander' typically appear under the name Red Jews in German-language apocalyptic. However, over the course of the first half of the sixteenth century, the term Red Jews is increasingly applied to the Biblical Ten Tribes, though Alexander's role never entirely disappears. These exotic eastern Jews later come to be represented as allies of the Christians against the Turks, not as apocalyptic destroyers.##
DUTCH-FRISIAN LEGENDARY SOURCES CONFIRM
THE ISRAELITE ORIGINS OF THE FRISIANS, ANGLES, AND SAXONS
The Frisians: Frisians are a people now located in Northern Holland but once spread all along the coast from Scandinavia through Holland, Belgium, and into France. The Angles and Saxons before they, together with other northern peoples, invaded Britain in the 450s CE had sojourned (at least in part) for about 200 years in Holland especially in Frisia. Some of the Jutes had also been in Frisia. The Byzantine historian, Procopius (Gothic War vii; 20) said that the Frisians together with the Angles and Saxons were the invaders of Britain. The name of the Frisiansis traceable to Peres son of Gilead of Menasseh. Frisia and Holland today are identifiable more with Zebulon. According to Ptolemy's Geography (ca.100 CE but based on material from several centuries beforehand) the area of southern Scandinavia and northern Frisia was occupied by the Sabalingoi. From this area peoples moved southward into Holland. The name Sabalingoi means people- (goi)-of-Zebulon (Sabulin). In Biblical times, Tribes such as Zebulon, Issachar, and Asher were closely associated with Manasseh and it would seem that this linkage was repeated after their exile in areas of their re-settlement. At all events the identity of the Frisians must be closely linked with that of peoples who invaded and settled the British Isles. According to a work on Frisian legends and a history of Holland published in 1601 (Jean Francoise LE PETIT, Le Grande Chronicle Ancienne et Moderne de Holland, Zeelande, Utrecht, Frise, Oversyseel; et de Groenungham. Dordrecht) it is apparent that the method of research used by us and the results obtained are consistent with ancient traditions of the peoples examined.
Frisian-legends related that a certain King Adel was a descendant of Shem. King Adel in India had three sons: Friso, Bruno, and Saxo. Le Petit says that Friso, Bruno, and Saxo lived in India. The term India, however, did not always mean the place known today as India but rather was more synonymous with Cush which term was applied to areas east of the Caspian Sea in present-day Central Asia (as well as to other places) and is probably the Cush (i.e. Ethiopia) mentioned in Genesis 2;13. Similarly, Le Petit located the Indiahe spoke of in the region of the Emodian Mountains which according to Ptolemy was in the area adjoining the Caspian and Aral Seas, in east Scythia to the north of Afghanistan and India proper. In this land east of the Caspian archaeologists have found the ruins of an extensive civilization whose inhabitants spoke Aramaic. Some of the Israelite Tribes had apparently spoken Aramaic even before their exile and the language was used as an official tongue in the Assyrian Empire and is believed to have been the most commonly used one. Phillip Lozinski (1953) showed how from this region east of the Caspian came the Barbarian peoples whom he believed to have been at least partly Semitic and who invaded Europe beginning from around the 200s CE. In The Tribes and our other works additional proof is given showing that the invaders must have come from that region. These invasions and migratory movements were often connected with activities of the Huns who themselves were a mixture of various peoples. The Huns from this vicinity caused other nations to flee westward. N.C. Lukman (Copenhagen, 1943) showed how in Nordic Mythology the name Adel (meaning Noble) was often used as a euphemism for Attila the Hun and for the Huns in general. In the Frisian legends, King Adel was the father of Friso, Bruno, and Saxo. The Anglo-Saxon and related invasions of western Europe were coeval with and directly resulting from the Hun invasions. Scientific Linguists have concluded that the Northern Barbarians who entered Europe had the later Germanic aspects of their languages imposed upon them by an external force. They had originally spoken a non-Indo-European language. Professor Terry Blodgett has proven that the tongue of these invaders was dominated by Hebrew characteristics and that Hebrew vocabulary was still traceable in at least one third of the language spoken by them. The legends speak of the three brothers (Friso, Bruno, and Saxo) being descended from Shem and having been in Jerusalem at the time of its destruction by the Babylonians.
In the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnessar (586 B.C.), 3 brothers - Friso, Bruno, and Saxo with [their] wives, children, and relatives fled out of the country, encouraged to do so by announcements of the Prophets concerning the fall of the town. According to this legend the Frisians, Saxons, and Brunswickian Angles Angles were therefore originally Israelites or Jews F. Koeslag points out that In legends...events of several eras may be concentrated around famous historical figures - as you see with Charlemagne. The legend therefore reflects a tradition that the three brothers were related to the Jews which is consistent with their belonging to the Lost Ten Tribes who had been exiled from their own lands in Israel at least 140 years before the actual fall of Jerusalem. The legend contains the recognition that the three brothers had left the Land of Israel (identified as Jerusalem or the Land of the Jews) before Nebuchadnessar took it as the northern Israelites had indeed done. The Lost Ten Tribes had been re-settled in Assyria and in lands ruled by Assyria.
The three brothers went to India. The legends relate how while still in India. Friso married Hilla daughter of Agathocles, king of Thrace. They were driven out of India and sailed to Greece where Friso became a student of Plato (427-374 BCE) and then joined the army of King Phillip of Macedon Macedon and afterwards of his son Alexander the Great. [Alexander from Macedonia and Greece advanced into Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and from there continued into Persia, Bactria, the area east of the Caspian Sea and northwest India. In the east Alexander reformed his army and took into his special forces mainly peoples belonging to the Sacae-Scythian Tribes. From the Sacae descend the Anglo-Saxons and company.]
Le Petit also says that the three brothers served under Alexander. A strong early tradition existed in Europe that the Saxons had been soldiers in Alexander's armies. This tradition was mentioned in the time of Charlemagne, King of the Franks (768-814 CE. Other traditions and evidence connect the Anglo-Saxons with the ancient Sacae-Scythians some of whom really had been in Alexander's forces. Numerous proofs show the Scythian-Sacae to have been Israelites from the Lost Ten Tribes who had in part been re-settled in the Caspian Sea region. Jewelry and artifacts from this area are the same in stylization as those later produced by the Anglo-Saxons and Scandinavian Vikings, as noted by Lozinski and others. The Northern Barbarians had traditions that they came from these areas and similar Tribal names to their own are recorded by Ptolemy and others as having been found there.
Northwest Europe had previously been almost unpopulated before the Suebi, Franks, Angles, Saxons, Goths, Vandals, and related peoples suddenly entered it in large numbers. The lands they had left were east of the Caspian Sea and had once been heavily populated but now lay almost deserted due to extreme climatic changes and warfare. In other words: In Area-1 a numerous and widely spread population disappeared and shortly afterwards in Area-2 waves of new peoples arrived as if from no-where bearing the same or similar names as those of the peoples that had been in Area-1, using the same jewelry and appurtenances as those that had been used in Area-1, with the same customs as Area-1, having the same physical appearance, and with claims that they had come from Area-1, and additional evidence also confirms the truth of these claims.