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Brit-Am Now no. 1750.
Movement of the Ten Tribes of Israel.
13 September 2011, 14 Elul 5771.

1. Cristian Sildan: Historical Anecdote from Romania.
2. Question  about the name America and the Hebrew "Ha-Machiri", first-born son of Manasseh.
3. Correspondence with the anti-Missionary Organization "Jewish Israel".
Exchanges Leading to Clarification?


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1. Cristian Sildan: Historical Anecdote from Romania

Peace Yair,
Long time no talk.
But I've read somewhere that the Jewish traveller Benjamin of Tudela came once in the Balkans to visit, and he spoke of the southern Romanians (Vlachs/Aromanians who call themselves Armanis and live in northern Greece). He wrote of them that they chase away the foreigners from their lands, except for the Jews whom they regard as brothers.
This doesn't prove in itself an Israelite identity for the Romanians but it shows a familiarity of some Bakanian populations with the Israelite origin.
All the best,

2. Question  about the name America and the Hebrew "Ha-Machiri", first-born son of Manasseh.
... I would like to take this opportunity and a moment of your time to verify with you what you are saying about this and confirm your sources, because as you know there is conflicting info. about the name of America and where it came from. Some claim it came from the GERMANIC name, HAIMIRICH, (see below) while others think it derives from an old Gothic name, AMALRICH. (see below)

I personally believe that your assertions are correct but I just want to double check so that I state them in my research correctly.

Below are just two of the prevalent theories out there, that I mentioned above, as to the historical founding of the name "AMERICA":

Here is the first one:

Americus Vespucius is the Latinized version of the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci's name, and America is the feminine form of Americus. Amerigen is explained as Amerigo plus gen, the accusative case of the Greek word for 'earth', and meaning 'land of Amerigo'.[25] (See etymology.) Amerigo itself is an Italian form of the medieval Latin Emericus (see also Saint Emeric of Hungary), which through the German form Heinrich (in English, Henry) derived from the Germanic name Haimirich.[26] 

ALso, I found this as well....

Vespucci was born in 1454 in Florence, where he was baptized, according to the official record, "Amerigho" ? not, as Carew asserts, Alberigo. The use of the form Amerigho for Amerigo is an instance of the orthographic anarchy that existed in the spelling of proper names. The name Amerigo derives from an old Gothic name, Amalrich. In all its forms found in Europe (Greek "Aimulos," Latin "Aemelius") the underlying meaning was that of work. Amalrich, which literally meant work ruler, or designator of tasks, might be freely translated as master workman. Old German forms of the name were Amalrich, Almerich, Emmerich; the Spanish form was Almerigo; in England it was Almerick, or Merica in old families in Yorkshire. It appeared in feminine forms in Amelia and Emily; its masculine forms were Amery, Emeric, and Emery. But as Charlotte Mary Yonge wrote in her History of Christian Names (1884), it was "the Italian form, Amerigo, which was destined to the most noted use ? which should hold fast that most fortuitous title, whence thousands of miles, and millions of men, bear the appellation of the forgotten forefather of a tribe of the Goths ? Amalrich, the work ruler; a curiously appropriate title for the new world of labor and of progress."

Some Hungarian scholars believe Vespucci was named after Saint Emeric (c. 1000?1031), son of the first king of Hungary. He was known in Latin as Sanctus Americus, after being canonized for his pious life and purity. As a further reflection of national pride, a theory native to Hungary holds that the European explorers of the New World, or their priests, named it after this popular saint, in the old tradition of bestowing place names in honor of saints. However, no proof of this etymology exists. Concerning Vespucci, he actually was named after his grandfather, as indicated in the baptism register of his church in Florence: "Amerigho et Matteo di ser Nastagio [his father] di ser Amerigho [his grandfather] Vespucci." His grandfather's burial stone there is inscribed with the elder's name as Amerigo Vespuccio.

As you know, there are always a plethora of "theories" out there, some more credible than others, so as I am preparing to present next week, I am wanting to clarify with you what your sources are for Amerigo being a latinized version of HaMachir.  Any help in this matter would be greatly appreciated as I find you to be a very knowledgeable and trustworthy source.

Also, I am very intrigued by your work on the GREAT SEAL of AMERICA and it's connection to the emblems of the tribe of Menasseh, namely the OLIVE BRANCH and the SHEAF of ARROWS. Can you point me in a direction to do more research on this as well because I find so many conflicting ideas about this. For instance, some say that the "emblem of Menasseh" is a unicorn: (The following comes from
Joseph's stone was an onyx and the color of his flags were jet black; the embroidered design thereon for the two tribes descending from Joseph,Ephraim and Menasseh, was Egypt, because they were born in Egypt. On the flag of Ephraim was embroidered a bullock, in allusion to the verse, "His firstling bullock" (Deuteronomy 33:17), which refers to Joshua who came from the tribe of Ephraim. On the flag of the tribe of Menasseh was embroidered a unicorn, in allusion to the verse, "And his horns are the horns of the re'em" (ibid.), which alludes to Gideon son of Joash who came from the tribe of Menasseh.     (

So, as you can see, there is much in the way of conflicting ideas and facts out there and I am just trying to get it straight becuase, it would make sense that, as you say, Menasseh's emblems would be emblazoned on the GREAT SEAL in the form of an OLIVE BRANCH AND A SHEAF OF ARROWS....but according to, the emblem of Menasseh is a unicorn????

Again, any help you can offer in clearing this up would be great!

Thank you so very much for your time!

God BLess You!
Amberli Nelson

Brit-Am Reply:

It may be that the Germanic name Haimirich or the Gothic Amalrich could have given rise to a form of Amerigo.
You can see by the differences of opinion that the experts are not as certain as it would seem.
Do they have any documented evidence for such permutations?
Or is it all speculation?

Arthur J. Zuckerman, "A Jewish Princedom in Feudal France, 768-900?, New York 1972,  does have documentary evidence.
He shows how the Hebrew name "Machir" or the diminutive (nick-name form) Ha-Machiri (which in Biblical Hebrew would mean "The People of Machir") became in Latiinized forms
the following:
Al Makhiri  (Ha Makhiri) came to be known as "Aymeri" (p.375), as "Maghario," or "Magharius"(p.180), as "Aymeri, , and as "Aimerico", and "Aimericus" (p.121 n.16).
At the least, whatever other opinions hold, we can say Americo was accepted as a Latinized equivalent of the Hebrew Ha-Machiri.
Whatever other names (Germanic, Gothic, etc) could also be popularly pronounced in the same way is not necessarily that relevant!
The original Aimerico was a Jewish Prince appointed by the Kings of France as local ruler with a good deal of autonomy.
This was in recognition of services rendered.
Zuckerman claims he married into the family of the Kings of France and they into his!
Aimerico (Ha-Machiri) was celebrated as a hero in local chansons (folk songs). He was considered both a great knight and also a Christian saint!!
In some versions he made out to be a Christian though his keeping of Jewish Laws was often still recognized.
Americo Vespucci was both in Florence in Northwest Italy which is not that far from the Province of Narbonne in southeast France over which Machir had ruled.
Therei s no reason why Amerigo Vespoucci should not have been named after the Jewish noble _Ha_Machiri" or Aimerico!

The emblem of Manasseh was a unicorn according to the Midrash Rabah (Bamidbar 2:5)

There is no conflict.
There was Joseph in general and his two sons Menasseh and Ephraim.
 The Midrash Rabah (Bamidbar 2:5) implies that joseph was represented by a picture of Egypt on a black background and then proceeds to tells us that Manasseh was represented by a unicorn and Ephraim by a bull.
The Classical Commentary to Midrash Rabah Maharoz (Zeev Wolf Einhern) explains that both Ephraim and Manasseh had a picture of Egypt on their standard as well as a bull on the standard of Ephraim and a unicorn on that of Manasseh.
A picture of Egypt to my mind means a pyramid.  When you see a pyramid you immediately think of Egypt.
The Great Symbol of the USA is full  of symbolism concerning Joseph.
This was probably unconscious and not intended.
Nevertheless it exists.

I hope this helps.

God bless you
Yair Davidiy.

See Also:

In addition there is a
A whole chapter in our work
 "Joseph -The Israelite Destiny of America"
dedicated to this subject.

3. Correspondence with the anti-Missionary Organization "Jewish Israel".
Exchanges Leading to Clarification?
(a) Background.
(b) Brit-Am Letter to Jewish Israel.
(c) Reply from Romy Leibler on behalf of Jewish Israel.
(d) Brit-Am Reply to Letter from Romy Leibler.

(a) Background.
For Background to the exchange below see:
Is Brit-Am a "Guardian"
Replies to Critics of Brit-Am and of Proposed "Ephraimite" Settling in Israel.
Some Negative Reports (for a change) about Brit-Am.

(b) Brit-Am Letter to Jewish Israel.
We wrote to Jewish Israel:

You wrote an article mentioning us.
 We were not contacted.
 We feel we were misrepresented.
 Yair Davidiy,

All truth passes through three stages: First it is ridiculed.
Second, it is violently opposed.
Third, it is accepted as being self-evident.

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860).

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