1. Question Concerning the Completeness of the Exile
1 Chronicles 9:3 mentions Ephraim and Manasseh in Jerusalem amongst the
returnees from Babylon. This would seem to be a clear refutation of that
statement that only people from Judah, Benjamin, and Levi returned.
The verse says,
[1-Chronicles 9:3] AND IN JERUSALEM DWELT OF THE CHILDREN OF JUDAH, AND OF
THE CHILDREN OF BENJAMIN, AND OF THE CHILDREN OF EPHRAIM, AND MANASSEH.
[1-Chronicles 9:4] UTHAI THE SON OF AMMIHUD, THE SON OF OMRI, THE SON OF
IMRI, THE SON OF BANI, OF THE CHILDREN OF PHAREZ THE SON OF JUDAH.
Here people from Ephraim and Manasseh are recalled alongside those of Judah
and Benjamin and then the passage continues giving the list of names and
recalls people from Judah and then from Benjamin (1-Chronicles 9:7) and so
on. Throughout the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah lists of names of those who
returned are given and they are all from the Tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and
We see however from verse 1-Chronicles 9:3 that there were there people from
This is explained best by Nachmanides (Book of Redemption, chapter one)
<<They said in the Midrash Seder Olam, <Of those who came into the
the time of Ezra the whole community together numbered 42,360. The total
whose names are recorded however only numbered 30,360. What happened
therefore to the missing 12,000? These were those from the other Tribes who
came up with Ezra...
<<Those from the Tribes of Ephraim and Shimeon from Israel that were
(2-Chronicles 35;18) with Judah were they who dwelt in the Land of Judah or
perhaps to some degree also those who had dwelt in their own territories
adjoining Judah and had fled to Judah. They are referred to in a general
sense as “from Israel” (in 2-Chronicles 35;18) and not by their specific
tribes since they represented only a small portion of their tribe.
These are they who returned under Ezra with the Jews from Babylon. They were
not expressly mentioned by their tribes since they were attached to Judah.
They all settled in the cities of Judah. There was no Redemption for the Ten
Tribes who remained in exile… <<...in the time of the Second Temple a few
refugees from the other tribes also came up. They did not come from all of
the other tribes but only from Ephraim and Menasseh. [Another authority
however, Tosefot in Arakin 32;a, says that, “from each and every tribe a few
returned”]. These few were not enough to be termed a tribe in their own
right or even part of a tribe. Due to their minority position they were
included amongst the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin and dwelt in their
cities. This Second Redemption was not meant for the other tribes…
<<When did they [the Ten Tribes] come back and when were these enormous
exiled groups ingathered to inherit the cities of Ephraim and Samaria? When
did saviours go up on Mount Zion to judge the mount of Esau? In the time of
Ezra only a few returned as pigeons to their dovecotes. It says, “the
kingdom shall be the LORD's” [Obadiah 1:21]. At that time everyone will
openly acknowledge the Kingdom of God. “And the LORD shall be King over all
the earth” (Zechariah 14;9). This too will happen in the future. The general
principle concerning these and all similar verses concerning the Redemption
of Israel and the fall of Edom and the like is that it is all for the
That about sums it up.
There are amongst Judah people from ALL the Tribes of Israel.
Nevertheless Judah is dominated by the Tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and Levi
which receive their Tribal expression through Judah.
Members of the other Tribes in Judah actually belong to Joseph but they are
in Judah for representative purposes and they are subordinate to Judah.
Their Tribal expression achieve with the greater body of their own Tribe in
Exile amongst the Lost Ten Tribes.
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3. Black Irish Article
4. Robert Jones: Ancient Hebrew History
From: Robert Jones <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: Asiatics migrating to Egypt
I wanted to respond to Mr. Hendrickson's question about Potiphera and
<<My question is
this: Ephraim and Manasseh's mother was the daughter of an of Potiphera,
priest of On, by the name of Asenath. Was she not of non-Semite ancestry?
Since not all Hamites are of the same skin color, she could have been light
skinned or black skinned, however, my main point is she was of African
The term Asiatic tends to be a bit nebulous. In Asia Minor you find
Canaanite Hittites or Hattu, you had the Hurrian people which were Semites
and you have a mixture of Assyrian and other groups around the Tigris and
Euphrates area at the dawn of Abraham¢s migration out of Ur(fa). However
the nation that displaced most of the Canaanites and other people along the
Lebanese coast was the Hurrian People. For whatever reason possibly over
population they began to move both south and west creating a domino effect
throughout the Middle East.
Two authors that help give a better clue to this migration is Cyrus Gordon
in his books about the Ancient Near East, and David Rohl in the Lords of
Avaris. They give a detailed conclusion on who these immigrants were that
settled in northern Egypt. One, the Egyptians worshiped many gods, but Ra
the sun god was always supreme. When the "Asiatics" descended upon northern
Egypt in the 1900 - 1800 BC, they brought with them their gods from Syria
and Lebanon. One of these was the Bull worship called by many names IE - Mt
(Mose) or Thor-El; the second was Anath the Virgin warrior goddess. Asenath
was named after this goddess.
The other indication they were Semites, is their connection to Crete. As
mentioned in earlier emails, the Creti or Minoans were involved with the
Hebrews in Avaris in trade and other influences such as architecture. This
Bull god was one of their main gods. At some point the Caphtorites were
pushed out of the Ugarit area into Cyprus and possibly Crete. One of the
Caphtorite gods that was left over in Ugarit was (Kothar and Hasis), the
artisan god. Semites or Hurrians eventually displaced them. For two hundred
plus years the Hurrian people that included Abraham, the Chaldeans and
others began migrating south and west. As they pushed west to the Levant
coast, this created a domino effect. Some of these Semitic Hurrians sailed
on to Crete and Northern Egypt. Some settled in Canaan. The Jebusite city
(Jerusalem) was ruled by a king who had a Hurrian name.
The Mizraim or Hamitic Egyptians had gradually lost control over northern
Egypt to "Asiatics" (most likely Semitic/Hurrians) and were living in middle
and upper Egypt. This migration to northern Egypt coincides with Semitic or
Asiatic people settling in Crete. Most likely the Egyptian Dynasty that
made Joseph his first Minister was Asiatic and not Egyptian. It wasn't
until the rise of the 18th Dynasty that the Hamitic Egyptians took back
control of the north and forced the Hebrews into slavery and those allied
with them. Some of these sailed back to Crete and further north to escape
enslavement or death.
David Rohl points out that pottery from Minoan Crete all but disappears and
now there begins to appear pottery from Cyprus. Cyprus was a Philistine
center made up of primarily Caphtorites and Casluhites, Hamitic people who
would naturally ally themselves to Egypt's 18th Dynasty.
Personally, I see the hand of God bringing these Semitic Hurrians into
northern Egypt. The Mizraim Egyptians would have never allowed Joseph or
any other "Asiatic" to rise to power in their nation let alone to grow into
a great multitude. Joseph's family would have been sent packing at the
first sign they were much more than just "sheep herders".
Brit-Am Note: The above information is useful.
For information on related matters concerning the period in question and
perhaps a more comprehensive perspective see our article on the Hyksos
http://www.britam.org/Hycsos.html and also our book, "Lost Israelite
Identity. The Hebrew Ancestry of Celtic Race"
5. SCOTLAND'S PAST LINKS WITH ANCIENT EGYPT