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Brit-Am Now no. 1133
Date 17th April 2008, 12 Nissan 5768
Contents:
1. Answer in Reply to Brit-Am's Challenges to Ephraimites:
The Rabbis and the Talmud
2. Question on Male Lineage and the daughters of
Zelophehad
3. Brit-Am and the Khazars


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1. Answer in Reply to Brit-Am's Challenges to Ephraimites: The Rabbis and the Talmud.
We challenged Ephraimites as to why they do not support Brit-Am more, why they are against Rabbinicial Opinion in Principle, and why they do not spread Brit-Am type identity information more.
Concerning our Challenge about respecting Rabbinicial Opinion somebody sent us a long list of quotations form an anti-Semitic site purporting to be from the Talmud and saying things that Gentiles who are unfamiliar with the subject matter might consider offensive.

In Reply:
First of all by the Brit-Am Challenge for Ephraimites in interpreting the Law to take consideration of Rabbinicial Opinion
http://britam.org/now/1132Now.html#Challenges
we did not mean that they should study the Talmud or accept the Talmud.
We meant more that in trying to understand a specific law and its practical application they should see how the Rabbis interpreted the HEBREW verses and take their interpretation into account in a positive manner.  They should want to be able to accept the Rabbinical Interpretation and not the opposite as sometimes seems to be the case.
When it comes to reconciliation between Judah and Joseph there is no need to be contrary just for the sake of it.

Concerning the Talmud in general we do not recommend that non-Jews study it since it is pertinent more to those who keep the Law.
[Out of curiosity however it should be noted that a right-wing nationalist English politician, Enoch Powell, would now and again quote positively from the Talmud  in support of his ultra-Conservative opinions.]
We are not trying to convert Ephraimites to Judaism and in most cases would dissuade them from such a step.
It is not the task of Brit-Am to explain or defend Judaism or the Talmud.
We are not qualified for it nor do we have a desire for it.
Nevertheless,
Concerning criticisms against the Talmud it should be noted that the Talmud  is equivalent in size to the Encyclopedia Brittanica and on nearly every page there are several different opinions and the recording of free-for-all discussion and sometimes fierce debate.
To quote a single sentence out of context is not fair.
You sent a long list of misquotations from the Talmud.
Some of these quotations are opinions stated in discussion before the conclusion is reached which is the obligatory decision and often the DIAMETRICAL OPPOSITE of the opinion quoted!

I study the Talmud every day attending regular classes and have at the very basic level some familiarity with a good portion of it having read much of it through at least once.
Quite a few (in fact nearly all to some degree) of the quotations you listed are BLATANT MISTRANSLATION.
Others are statements taken out of context.
Often the quotations quoted are actually opinions stated that are the opposite of the final legal decision. 
In several cases all three aspects of this deliberate dishonesty are apparent, i.e. a mistranslation, taken out of context, and an opinion expressed in discussion but the opposite of the legal decision reached.

For a FURTHER reply to some of the accusations against the Talmud see:
http://www.angelfire.com/mt/talmud/



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2. Question on Male Lineage and the daughters of Zelophehad
Stephen Allen  wrote:
 

Shalom Yair,

I enjoyed reading your note about how Ephraim seems to bend over backward to find a way to disagree with the rabbis. How true, but in the end, Ephraim will overcome this too.

I have a question regarding something that you said about being Jewish. You wrote, "It does not
affect which Tribe one belongs to or which Tribal Inheritance one is to receive or whether or not one can claim  to be a direct descendant of King David through the male line since if there was female there this would be a bit difficult."

You state that it would be difficult (but not impossible?) to claim legal descent from David through a female. Under what conditions would it be possible? Does the precedent regarding the daughters of Zelophehad have anything to do with it, that for an inheritance to pass through a female to the next generation (when no male sons exist in that certain generation) that the female would have to marry within the tribe (in this case, Judah)?

Stephen





Brit-Am Reply: What  we said was,
"It [i.e. being Jewish because of having a Jewish mother] does not affect which Tribe one belongs to or which Tribal Inheritance one is to receive or whether or not one can claim to be a direct descendant of King David through the male line since if there was [a] female there this would be a bit difficult."
By the expression, "if there was [a] female there this would be a bit difficult" we were being sarcastic.
This is a sense of humor that Yair Davidiy is afflicted with and some people have trouble getting used to.

Concerning the daughters of Zelophehad,
The whole incident affirms Tribal Lineage through the male line.
It was commanded that if a man had no sons then his inheritance should pass to his daughters.
If one of these daughters married a man from another Israelite Tribe and they had sons then the inheritance would pass to them. It would therefore happen that part of the Tribal Inheritance would end up belonging to people from another Tribe.
It was therefore decided that in the case of the daughters of Zelophehad (from the Tribe of Manasseh) that they should marry their cousins thus ensuring that the inheritance remain with the Tribe.

[Numbers 36:1] AND THE CHIEF FATHERS OF THE FAMILIES OF THE CHILDREN OF GILEAD, THE SON OF  MACHIR, THE SON OF MANASSEH, OF THE FAMILIES OF THE SONS OF JOSEPH, CAME NEAR, AND SPAKE BEFORE MOSES, AND BEFORE THE PRINCES, THE CHIEF FATHERS OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL:                
 
[Numbers 36:2] AND THEY SAID, THE LORD COMMANDED MY LORD TO GIVE THE LAND FOR AN    INHERITANCE BY LOT TO THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL: AND MY LORD WAS COMMANDED BY THE LORD  TO GIVE THE INHERITANCE OF
ZELOPHEHAD OUR BROTHER UNTO HIS DAUGHTERS.                  
 
[Numbers 36:3] AND IF THEY BE MARRIED TO ANY OF THE SONS OF THE OTHER TRIBES OF THE CHILDREN  OF ISRAEL, THEN SHALL THEIR INHERITANCE BE TAKEN FROM THE INHERITANCE OF OUR FATHERS, AND SHALL BE PUT TO THE INHERITANCE OF THE TRIBE WHEREUNTO THEY ARE RECEIVED: SO SHALL IT BE TAKEN FROM THE LOT OF OUR INHERITANCE.                  
 
[Numbers 36:4] AND WHEN THE
JUBILE OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL SHALL BE, THEN SHALL THEIR INHERITANCE BE PUT UNTO THE INHERITANCE OF THE TRIBE WHEREUNTO THEY ARE RECEIVED: SO SHALL THEIR INHERITANCE BE TAKEN AWAY FROM THE INHERITANCE OF THE TRIBE OF OUR FATHERS.                
 
[Numbers 36:5] AND MOSES COMMANDED THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL ACCORDING TO THE WORD OF THE LORD, SAYING, THE TRIBE OF THE SONS OF JOSEPH HATH SAID WELL.                  
 
[Numbers 36:6] THIS IS THE THING WHICH THE LORD DOTH COMMAND CONCERNING THE DAUGHTERS  OF
ZELOPHEHAD, SAYING, LET THEM MARRY TO WHOM THEY THINK BEST; ONLY TO THE FAMILY OF  THE TRIBE OF THEIR FATHER SHALL THEY MARRY.                  
 
[Numbers 36:7] SO SHALL NOT THE INHERITANCE OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL REMOVE FROM TRIBE TO TRIBE: FOR EVERY ONE OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL SHALL KEEP HIMSELF TO THE INHERITANCE OF THE  TRIBE OF HIS FATHERS.                  
 

[Numbers 36:8] AND EVERY DAUGHTER, THAT POSSESSETH AN INHERITANCE IN ANY TRIBE OF THE  CHILDREN OF ISRAEL, SHALL BE WIFE UNTO ONE OF THE FAMILY OF THE TRIBE OF HER FATHER, THAT THE  CHILDREN OF ISRAEL MAY ENJOY EVERY MAN THE INHERITANCE OF HIS FATHERS.                   
 
[Numbers 36:9] NEITHER SHALL THE INHERITANCE REMOVE FROM ONE TRIBE TO ANOTHER TRIBE; BUT EVERY ONE OF THE TRIBES OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL SHALL KEEP HIMSELF TO HIS OWN INHERITANCE.                  
 
[Numbers 36:10] EVEN AS THE LORD COMMANDED MOSES, SO DID THE DAUGHTERS OF 
ZELOPHEHAD:

This Law was only applied to the Generation that Came out of Egypt and conquered and divided the land of Canaan.
Why this is so is not clear to us since we have not studied it.

At all events, the whole incident concerning the Daughters of Zelophehad affirms Tribal Lineage through the male line.  



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3. Brit-Am and the Khazars
On our web site we have a few articles about the Khazars:
http://www.britam.org/KhazarIndex.html
We have also prepared a short but important book on the subject which we may publish quite soon.
The Khazars were basically of Israelite stock and are a connecting link between the Lost Ten Tribes, the Scythians, Anglo-Saxons, Finns, and peoples of Scandinavia.
A few sites of interest (that we have probably mentioned before) include:




The Khazars and the Scythians
Vladimir
Pomakov

http://www.fantompowa.net/Flame/khazar_history.htm
This site links Khazars with Scythians but also mistakenly connects them with the Cossacks, Huns, and Bulgarians. Quite short. Worth reading but not agreeing with. Some good points.




Beyond the Mountains of Darkness
Immanuel
Velikovsky
http://www.varchive.org/ce/baalbek/khazars.htm
Says that the Lost Ten Tribes were taken directly to Scythia north of the Caucasus and there became the Khazars.
Brit-Am understands that the Lost Ten Tribes first were taken to North-west Iran, Azerbaijan, etc and from there moved to the north.  There may however be some truth in both concepts.
There was a once-widely quoted Assyrian inscription that was understood to describe Assyrian trading activity in the "northern" Eurasian regions.

Extracts:

It appears that the places to which the Ten Tribes were removed by the Assyrian kings must have been far more remote than northeastern Syria.

Assyria, with its capital cities of
Nimrud (Calah), Dur Sharrukin (Khorsabad), and Nineveh -all on the Tigris- expanded greatly in the days of its warrior kings Tiglath-Pileser, Sargon, and Sennacherib. Repeatedly, the Assyrian kings led their troops across the Caucasus northward. Not satisfied with the passage along the coastal road of the Caspian Sea, they also explored the mountainous passes. Sargon, the conqueror of Samaria, wrote in his annals:

I opened up mighty mountains, whose passes were difficult and countless, and I spied out their trails.

Over inaccessible paths in steep and terrifying places I crossed . . .(5)


The descriptions of Tiglath-pileser and Sargon of their campaigns in the north lead us to recognize that they passed the mountains of the Caucasus and reached the steppes between the Don and the Volga. When the barrier of the mountains was overcome, they could proceed northward in a scarcely populated area barren of natural defenses, where they would have met less resistance than in the foothills of the mountains. It is unknown how far they may have let their armies of conquest march across the steppes, but probably they did not give the order to return homeward until the army brought its insignia to some really remote point: it could be as far as the place of the confluence of the Kama with the Volga, or even of the Oka, still farther north. The middle flow of the Volga would be the furthermost region of the Assyrian realm.

The roads to the Russian steppes along the Caspian and Black seas were much more readily passable than the narrow path along the river Terek and the Daryal Canyon that cut the Caucasus and wind at the foot of Mount Kazbek, over sixteen thousand feet high.

The fact that the "confluence of the river
Gozan" is considered a sufficient designation suggests that it must have been a great stream.

A large river in the plain behind the crest of the Caucasus is the Don, and a still larger
river, the largest in Europe, is the Volga. If the Assyrians did not make a halt on the plain that stretches immediately behind the Caucasus and moved along the great rivers without crossing them to conquer the great plain that lies open behind the narrow span where the rivers Don and Volga converge, then the most probable place of exile might be reckoned to be at the middle Volga. The distance from Dur Sharrukin to this region on the Russian (Scythian) plain is in fact much less than the distance from Nineveh to Thebes in Egypt, a path taken by Assurbanipal several decades later.

But Assyrian occupation of Scythia is not a mere conjecture: it is confirmed by archaeological evidence. "The earliest objects from Scythia that we can date," writes a student of the region's antiquities, "referred to the VIIth and VIth centuries B.C., are under overwhelming Assyrian influence. . ." (6)

(6). Ellis H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1913), p. 263.





The Real Scythians of Messopotamia
Fred Hamori
based on a work by Gyula Mezios
http://users.cwnet.com/millenia/scytha.html
Extracts:
The real Scythians, however lived first in Anatolia before the 7th century BC, then moved in large numbers to the Kuban Region in early 6th century BC, then to the Pontic Steppes and later to eastern Europe and to Turkestan. Before this time they must have conducted long term trade with the region also. They greatly influenced the culture of the peoples they interacted with including the so called Finnougrians in the north and also the Hunic-Turkic peoples in the east and probably also some Indo Europeans.

First of all a comparison of early Scythian customs, art forms, religious beliefs and even their first historic mention is all from Anatolia and Northern
Messopotamia. First in Assyrian documents. The early Greek writers confirm this also. Therefore they were not a northern people at all ! Nor an eastern one from Central Asia. Plinius writes of their origins "Ultra sunt Scytharum populi, Persae illos Sacas in universum appellavere a proxima gente, antiqui Arameos." They came from an area in Northern Messopotamia often called Arameos, which is but a name of Urartu whose first king was called Aram. Later the term was also applied to Syria where another colony of Scythians & Hati-Hittites (2000BC to 714BC) settled after the collapse of their old empire in Anatolia. Indeed this was but one of the reasons for the spreading of Anatolian people to the north also. Both Assyrian and Mede attacks forced them to look for new lands to settle./Meszaros

Herodotus also tells of the origin of the Scythians from the area of eastern Anatolia watered by the Araxes River (modern Turkish Aras) and not the Amu Darya which the historians of Alexander invented to enlarge their own conquests. Herodotus writes: "The nomad Scythians living in Asia (once only the near east) were attacked by the Sarmatians and were forced to cross the Araxes and wander to the land of the Kimmerians." 

Hesiod, 7th Century BC, writes: The inventors of bronze working were the Scythians. The early Messopotamian name of the metal Zubur, indicates that the northern Messopotamian Subartuan's or a people of the region were indeed the inventors of the process. The Scythians also of this region were therefore but a different designation of such people that the Greeks associated with them.

The Greeks also associated the invention of iron working with the Scythians. This again is a northern
Messopotamian and Anatolian invention and being Anatolian in origin the Scythians also had some great iron working tribes like the Kalybs tribe which gave steel its name in many early European languages. In time they became absorbed by the Sarmatians and Yazig. They must have also been remembered by the Yazig cavalry taken by the Romans to early Britain and were the foundation of the King Arthur myths of Ex-Calibur, and the sword myths which are all early Anatolian traditions. These traditions were also found in Hun and Magyar traditions and mentioned by Herodotus amongst the early Scythians.

Besides bronze and iron they are credited by the early Greeks to have invented the bellows used for metal smelting. The invention of the pottery wheel and the boat anchor. Products of a very early civilization.

Therefore when
Justinius II writes that the Scythians are one of the most ancient races in the world, older than the Egyptians, He cannot be talking of simply the late Scythian immigrants to the Pontic steppes but the early northern Messopotamian cultures. Similarly he cannot be talking of the Iranian tribesmen which spread into Central Asia. Nor is he talking of the later Hun tribes for sure, since they were hardly known for a such a long time in the west.

It is
Deodorus Siculus who talks of the death and disappearance of the true Scythians at the hands of the Sarmatians, who could not have been their relatives, and therefore not real Scythians. The early Scythian art style is an extension of Messopotamian art, a fact which cannot be denied any longer.







Brit-Am is the "still small voice" that contains the truth.
[1-Kings 19:12] AND AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE A FIRE; BUT THE LORD WAS NOT IN THE FIRE: AND AFTER THE FIRE A STILL SMALL VOICE.

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