Corruption amongst the leadership and connivance at violence and robbery bring about the downfall of Ephraim. The leaders are betrayed by their followers who lay in wait for an opportune moment to betray them. Ephraim will assimilate amongst the Gentiles. He will loose his strength and be betrayed by the foreign allies he trusted in. Despite being visited by calamities Ephraim does not repent. The exile of the Ten Tribes and an outline of why they are to be identified as part of the Cimmerian, Scythian, and Gothic coalition is given.
The Book of Hosea
[Hosea 7:1] WHEN I WOULD HAVE HEALED ISRAEL, THEN THE INIQUITY OF
EPHRAIM WAS DISCOVERED, AND THE WICKEDNESS OF SAMARIA: FOR THEY COMMIT
FALSEHOOD; AND THE THIEF COMETH IN, AND THE TROOP OF ROBBERS SPOILETH WITHOUT.
This and the following passages are based on incidents in the lifetime of the Prophet, or shortly before or after his time.
Prophets below the level of Moses had to extrapolate from their own experiences. The Divine Inspiration that was given to them had to remain to a degree within the confines of their own understanding.
They could understand something that would happen as an outgrowth of conditions in their own time and this is what they prophesied about. These prophesies were then written down since the specific events described were prototypical of what would take place in the End Times.
See What Are Prototypical Prophesies?
This present verse speaks of a stage in the Return from Exile when the Almighty was prepared to heal Israel then the presence of violent robbers amongst them and evidently socially connived at by them prepvent the Almighty enabling their rehabilitiation.
In Western Societies todays organizations like the Mafia, and traders in human misery like drug dealers often receive respect, especially if they are wealthy.
"WITHOUT": Hebrew "chutz" which can also mean "market-place" (Daat-Mikra).
[Hosea 7:2] AND THEY CONSIDER NOT IN THEIR HEARTS THAT I REMEMBER ALL
THEIR WICKEDNESS: NOW THEIR OWN DOINGS HAVE BESET THEM ABOUT; THEY ARE BEFORE MY
Not only do they not realize that the Almighty remembers all their past wickedness but even at present before HIS face they continue to do evil.
it happens to some of us that at times we have bad experiences or go through negative stages. When we look back or are just coming out of such situations we may sometimes realize that what happened to us was (at least partly and at least in some cases) due to our own bad deeds.
If we can put these deeds and attitudes that caused them away from us we are on the way to being healed. It is no good continuing bad habits, blaiming these habits on bad luck or bad influence, and then expecting to avoid the consequences. The choice, to some degree, is often in our hands and with a little effort we may begin a succesful journey to reovery.
This is what the Almighty through HIS Prophet is telling us.
The name "Hosea" in Modern Hebrew is pronounced as "Hoshea". It means, "God will save" or "God is our salvation".
[Hosea 7:3] THEY MAKE THE KING GLAD WITH THEIR WICKEDNESS, AND THE PRINCES WITH
Not only do the Powers-that-be not prevent the evil-doers but they rejoice in their success. Daat Mikra (Yehudah Kiel) quotes opinions that the expression "MAKE THE KING GLAD" actually means "appoint the king". Similar expressions of gladness were associated with the coronation of King Saul:
AND ALL THE PEOPLE WENT TO GILGAL; AND THERE THEY MADE SAUL KING BEFORE THE LORD IN GILGAL;
AND THERE THEY SACRIFICED SACRIFICES OF PEACE OFFERINGS BEFORE THE LORD; AND THERE
SAUL AND ALL THE MEN OF ISRAEL REJOICED GREATLY [1-Samuel 11:15].
According to this explanation, Not only do the evildoers do evil
but they appoints the governors and officials who will rule over the people.
Oil companies today take exorbitant prices for their products which are vital for transporation and industry. They hamper the development of alternate energy sources, prevent the propagation of sane ecological doctrines, and they promote anti-Israeli policies. In addition to all that it may be due to oil interests that nothing serious is being done to counter the Saudi-subsidized "holy war" again the west.
"Dr. George Friedman: Why Did the US Invade Iraq? The Saudi Problem".
It should be noted that quite a few leading parties in the present US Administration as well as amongst the Opposition Democrtatic Establishment have close family ties to the oil industry.
[Hosea 7:4] THEY ARE ALL ADULTERERS, AS AN OVEN HEATED BY THE BAKER, WHO CEASETH
FROM RAISING AFTER HE HATH KNEADED THE DOUGH, UNTIL IT BE LEAVENED.
In Hebrew the word for "adulterer" is "Mina-af" whereas the word translated here as "baker" is "Me-ofeh". The two words share the same letters, look similar, and the sound of one reflects on the other. One explation of this verse is that "adulterers" here refers to workers of treason who are waiting for the right moment to replace the monarch just as a baker waits for the dough to rise.
[Hosea 7:5] IN THE DAY OF OUR KING THE PRINCES HAVE MADE HIM SICK WITH BOTTLES
OF WINE; HE STRETCHED OUT HIS HAND WITH SCORNERS.
IN THE DAY OF OUR KING: This verse can also be understand to read, "In the day we apppoint a king, the previous king has been made sick with alcohol, he has been celebrating with those who mock him [intend to get him drunk, and kill him]. See "Daat Mikra".
[Hosea 7:6] FOR THEY HAVE MADE READY THEIR HEART LIKE AN OVEN, WHILES THEY LIE
IN WAIT: THEIR BAKER SLEEPETH ALL THE NIGHT; IN THE MORNING IT BURNETH AS A
[Hosea 7:7] THEY ARE ALL HOT AS AN OVEN, AND HAVE DEVOURED THEIR JUDGES; ALL
THEIR KINGS ARE FALLEN: THERE IS NONE AMONG THEM THAT CALLETH UNTO ME.
Most commentators describe the above as
concerned with an incident of the history of Israel before the exile. Maybe. It
describes drunkenness, plotters of treason waiting for the right moment, an ambush, assassins waiting all night long for the
day of "coronation". This chapter and the previous ones deals with the murder of kings, rulers, and independence. The trusting of
foreigners who betray us and the involvement of Assyria and Egypt. See the extract
adapted from "The Tribes" at the end of this chapter. We have
more information concerning all of our claims. They all check out well. If they
did not we would say so and change or modify our beliefs. If in the future we
find that we may have been mistaken we will also say so. In the meantime everything
indicates that we were more correct than even we thought.
We say what we believe.
We give the sources.
We explain the logic and share the knowledge that enabled us to reach our conclusions.
If it is wrong, it should be easy to counter.
So far, it has not been.
If anybody thinks our beliefs will eventually be proven wrong they are strongly advised not to hold their breath.
[Hosea 7:8] EPHRAIM, HE HATH MIXED HIMSELF AMONG THE PEOPLE; EPHRAIM IS A CAKE
EPHRAIM, HE HATH MIXED HIMSELF AMONG THE PEOPLE: In Hebrew this says, "Ephraim be-amim hu Yitbolel" or literally:
"Ephraim shall be assimilated amongst the Peoples", -"peoples" in Hebrew "amim" is in the plural. Ephraim will loose his identity and be considered by himself and others as part of the Gentile Nations.
Rashi: He will be assimilated in Exile amongst the Gentile nations.
A CAKE NOT TURNED: Over-baked on one side and unbaked on the other with the resultant product not fit for anything. In English we have the expression "half-baked" for someone who is unbalanced.
[Hosea 7:9] STRANGERS HAVE DEVOURED HIS STRENGTH, AND HE KNOWETH IT NOT: YEA,
GRAY HAIRS ARE HERE AND THERE UPON HIM, YET HE KNOWETH NOT.
[Hosea 7:10] AND THE PRIDE OF ISRAEL TESTIFIETH TO HIS FACE: AND THEY DO NOT
RETURN TO THE LORD THEIR GOD, NOR SEEK HIM FOR ALL THIS.
TESTIFIETH: Hebrew, "ve-anah" which can also mean "be downgraded, oppressed". The Commentary "Metsudat David" explains it to mean that the Pride or Glory of Israel will be downtodden in his own eyes but despite this Israel does not repent.
[Hosea 7:11] EPHRAIM ALSO IS LIKE A SILLY DOVE WITHOUT HEART: THEY CALL TO
EGYPT, THEY GO TO ASSYRIA.
They ask help of their enemies who never wanted their good. Instead of turning to the God of Israel who wants to help HIS people they turn to do those who want the destruction of his people.
This is similar to the Americans turning to the Saudis and other such reprobates to help them fight terrorism when it is the Saudis themselves who actively cause much of it!
[Hosea 7:12] WHEN THEY SHALL GO, I WILL SPREAD MY NET UPON THEM; I WILL BRING
THEM DOWN AS THE FOWLS OF THE HEAVEN; I WILL CHASTISE THEM, AS THEIR
CONGREGATION HATH HEARD.
[Hosea 7:13] WOE UNTO THEM! FOR THEY HAVE FLED FROM ME: DESTRUCTION UNTO THEM!
BECAUSE THEY HAVE TRANSGRESSED AGAINST ME: THOUGH I HAVE REDEEMED THEM, YET THEY
HAVE SPOKEN LIES AGAINST ME.
The Commentators rend this verse something like the following:
Woes unto them for they distanced themselves from ME who could save them from the disaster that otherwise would come upon them.
They are being robbed by others while sinning against ME who would protect them. I would redeem them as I have done in the past but they speak bad things about me and thus nullify the goodness I otherwise would bestow on them.
[Hosea 7:14] AND THEY HAVE NOT CRIED UNTO ME WITH THEIR HEART, WHEN THEY HOWLED
UPON THEIR BEDS: THEY ASSEMBLE THEMSELVES FOR CORN AND WINE, AND THEY REBEL
[Hosea 7:15] THOUGH I HAVE BOUND AND STRENGTHENED THEIR ARMS, YET DO THEY
IMAGINE MISCHIEF AGAINST ME.
After the Exile of the Ten Tribes God will have delivered them, made them rich and powerful. They had a second chance to do right. They abuse the opportunity given unto them.
[Hosea 7:16] THEY RETURN, BUT NOT TO THE MOST HIGH: THEY ARE LIKE A DECEITFUL
BOW: THEIR PRINCES SHALL FALL BY THE SWORD FOR THE RAGE OF THEIR TONGUE: THIS
SHALL BE THEIR DERISION IN THE LAND OF EGYPT.
The heathen will despise them because of their infidelity.
THE EXILE (adapted from "The Tribes")
The original Twelve Tribes of Israel
had split into two kingdoms. Two tribes comprising "Judah" were in the south,
while the Ten Tribes of "Israel" were in the north. The Ten Northern Tribes were
entirely taken away by the Assyrians to places in northern Mesopotamia, to the
Caucasus area and to eastern Iran.
The Bible says that,
"The King of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and
placed them in Hala,
and in Habor,
and in the cities of the Medes" (2-Kings 17;6). The Bible also mentions "Hara"
(1-Chronicles 5; 26) in eastern Iran as a place of exile. The Talmud and
archaeological findings enable the identification of these places of
re-settlement. Shortly after the exile and re-settlement every one of the said
places became a centre for a group of peoples who then appeared for the first
time. They are known to history as the Cimmerians, Scythians, and
or Goths. It will be shown that these entities were (at least in part) the Lost
Ten Tribes of Israel!
The bulk of the Israelites had been exiled in the period 730-710, or earlier. In
about 707 b.c.e.,
a people named "Gimirae"
were reported from the region of Mannae10. These are the Cimmerians. They were
referred to as "Outcasts" by the Assyrians11. The Prophet Amos had said that the
northern tribes would be "cast-out" (i.e. outcast) to the Mountains of
Apart from their being in Mannae,
the Cimmerians were also reported as at first centered in the region of
Iberia13 in the Caucasus. The Cimmerians killed the king of
(Ararat) and overran his land. They also defeated and killed Sargon, king of
Assyria, in 705. Sargon was replaced by Sennacherib (705-681) who beat off the
Cimmerians after which a portion of them invaded the Land of Phrygia in
The Cimmerian king was called by the Assyrians "King of the
[i.e. Cimmerians], king of the Sakae [Scyths]
means "People [Umman]
of Menasseh" -since
in Aramaic, Persian, and other northern dialects at that time the Hebrew
"s" sound was often changed for "d", thus
The Cimmerians and Scythians were essentially different branches of the one
people and both could be referred to as
by the Assyrians at that time. Later the Babylonians would misapply the term to
the Medes who were to settle in regions formerly occupied by the Scythians and to a degree took over the former Scythian role in international affairs. The Cimmerian king was also termed
"King of the Amuru"
by the Assyrians and the Cimmerians were referred to as "Amuru".
means Amorite but in Assyrian usage the expression meant "Dweller of the Land of
Israel" or "Previous Dweller of the Land of Israel and/or Syria". We find Cimmerians being called "Ameru" in juxtaposition to "Syrians" (Achlamu)
who are explicitly spoken of separately as adversaries of the "Amuru". Since "Amuru" means Israelite or Syrian and the Cimmerians are termed "Ameru" in a context explicitly excluding the Syrians they must have been considered as Israelites!
As we mentioned above, a portion of the Cimmerians had invaded Phrygia . These were soon driven out of Anatolia and
crossed the Bosporus into Europe. Jerome (on
10:11), the translator of the Bible into Latin, had heard from Jewish sages the
tradition that Israelites, exiled by the Assyrians, had reached the Bosporus and
from there headed north, i.e. into Europe. These Cimmerians, via the Balkans and
Danube valley, eventually reached Gaul, the British Isles, and Scandinavia. They
became the major factor in "Celtic" civilization.
Meanwhile, those other of the Cimmerians who had not been driven into Phrygia
but had remained on the fringes of the Assyrian Empire managed to recuperate. By
the end of Sennacherib's reign they had gained control of
They posed a serious challenge to Sennacherib's successor,
at first beat the Cimmerians, some of whom joined his forces15. In about 676 a
new element, known as " Ishkuza"16 emerged from the Cimmerian ranks. These are
identified with the Scythians whom the Persians and Babylonians referred to as
The terms "Ishkuza"
are both forms for the name "Isaac". Abraham the patriarch had been promised:
"In Isaac will your seed be called" (Genesis 21:12). After their first
appearance, the Scythians and Cimmerians are recognizable as distinct entities
though, in effect, both bodies were combinations of Scythians proper, of Goths,
and of Cimmerians in varying proportions.
In 673 Esarhaddon
slew the Scythian king who was replaced by
became the Scythian ruler and entered into alliance with the Assyrians, which
entailed marrying Esarhaddon's
daughter. The Assyrian Empire at that stage was troubled by rebellious
Cimmerians, and others. The Scythians from allies of the Assyrians progressed to
hold the Assyrians in some type of subservience for 28 years17. For a period
they took control over much of the Assyrian Empire. According to
they ruled it. They established a center at Beth Shean18 in the former land of
northern "Israel". Archaeological finds testify to their presence throughout the
Israelite region19. They attacked Egypt and raided the
city of Ashkelon.
At this stage the Jews of Judah in the south who had not been exiled but had
remained on part of their own land centered around Jerusalem were ruled by king
Whilst the Scythians were taking over control from the Assyrians and setting
themselves up in Beth-Shean
and over portions of the former land of Israel, King Josiah of Judah was also
extending his influence into that very same area! King Josiah had made himself
independent of Assyria, smashed idols which represented Assyria's authority20,
and established colonies in northern Israel, at Megiddo, in the north near Beth-Shean,
and in Philistia
on the coast21. He also had a presence in Beth-Shean
(which was considered the Scythian headquarters) itself!
The Scythians, as well as king Josiah, attacked
and later also maintained a presence there22 in addition to the
colonies in that place. In other words, the Scythians and Judeans of King Josiah
were in the same areas, undertaking the same activities, and must have been
working hand in hand23. Also at this time, in eastern Iran (in the region of
Hara and Bactria),
there arose a religious reformer named
(ZOROASTER) whose original doctrine was monotheistic and even Biblical in
character24. After Zoroaster's death, his religion was
by the Median tribe of Magi, even though the original message had been Hebraic.
Zoroaster, according to Iranian tradition had been taught by the prophet
Jeremiah or by one of Jeremiah's pupils25. Zoroaster himself had Scythian
familial connections26 yet some reports identify him as an Israelite27.
Zoroaster is an additional indication that the historical Scythians were to a
significant degree of Israelite origin.
Eventually, after enduring Scythian subjection and witnessing the partial
disintegration of their Empire, the Assyrians attempted to re-assert themselves.
At this stage, ca. 616 BCE,
the Medes and Babylonians were in open revolt. About two years later, in 614 the
Medes began to besiege Nineveh, the Assyrian capital. The Assyrians were
supported by part of the
Mannaeans and by Egypt. At first,
the Scythians seemed more inclined to support Assyria versus her besiegers than
to be against her. The Medes, Babylonians,
(Cimmerians), and others were combined against Assyria. Scythians from
and from the city of Ecbatana were called to Assyria's help.
in Media was THEN a Scythian center but later became the capital of Media. When
the Scythians arrived at NINEVEH they were somehow persuaded to change sides and
to join the besiegers28. According to a Babylonian inscription, Nineveh was
taken and sacked by the allies with the
(meaning in this case, the Scythians) taking the leading role. Shortly
afterwards all of the other Assyrian cities received similar treatment. The
Assyrian Empire was destroyed.
Meanwhile, an Egyptian army under
had been marching to the aid of Assyria. King Josiah of Judah attempted to stop
the Egyptian progress but was killed fighting
at Megiddo. The Egyptians continued northward, only to be defeated at
Carcamish29. King Josiah of Judah had died fighting on the Scythian behalf.
After having defeated the Assyrians and the Egyptians, the Scythian leaders were
invited by the Medes to a feast. The Medes got the Scythians drunk and then
massacred them30. After this the Medes and Babylonians divided the former
Assyrian Empire between each other. The Babylonians conquered Judah and exiled
its inhabitants to Babylon. Later, the Medes lost
to their allies, the Persians. Cyrus the Persian king conquered Babylon and
allowed the Judeans to return to their land. Medes, Babylonians and Persians
were to progressively drive the Scythians out of the Middle East area and into
the north. From the north the Scythians were eventually to continue westward
PARALLELS BETWEEN SCYTHIANS AND
Were The Israelites Scythians?
Talmudic sources and connected
Commentaries state that King Josiah
of Judah sent Jeremiah the prophet to bring back the Lost Ten Tribes. They say
that SOME FEW OF THEM DID IN FACT RETURN TEMPORARILY31! They later left
according to the report and returned to their places of exile31. A religious
reformer known as Zoroaster had appeared in Scythian areas in the time of
What Spake Zarathustra?
The message of Zoroaster was originally Hebraic but after his death the Iranian
it. Tradition held that Jeremiah had taught Zoroaster. During the reign of King
Josiah of Judah and in the time of Jeremiah the Scythians had settled for a time
in the Land of Israel and had made it a center of theirs. King Josiah of Judah
died fighting on the side of the Scythians. After
death the Scythians departed from the Land of Israel.
The Scythians bore Tribal names similar
to Israelite ones, they identified their ancestor with JOSEPH of Israel, and
their artwork was of Israelite-Phoenician origin.
The events of the Scythian-Assyrian epoch were also echoed in Biblical Prophecy.
The prophets largely predicted events that in their fullness will occur in the
Messianic era. Nevertheless, they often presented their account of the future in
the description of events happening in their own time or not so long afterwards
and thus history may be considered to repeat itself32. There are a few Biblical
passages concerning the fall of Nineveh, the Assyrian capital, which are also
apposite to the Scythian-Judean symbiosis in the reign of King Josiah. The fifth
chapter of the Book of Micah, for instance, speaks of a ruler coming out of Beth
and King Josiah was a descendant of David, who came from Beth
"The remnant of his brethren" returning unto the Children of Israelis is spoken
of (Micah 5:3) and refers to the partial (and temporary -then) re-settlement of
Israelite Scythians in the former Land of northern Israel. The important verses,
for our consideration, are Micah 5:5-8:
"And this man shall be the peace, when
the Assyrian shall come into our land: and he [i.e. Assyria] shall tread in our
palaces, then shall we raise against him [i.e. against Assyria] seven shepherds,
and eight principal men."
"And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of
in the entrances thereof "....
"And the remnant of Jacob shall be in the midst of many people as a dew from the
"And the remnant of Jacob shall be among the GENTILES in the midst of many
people as a lion among the flocks of sheep..."
Again, the main point of these passages
may be applicable only to the Messianic era yet it is also descriptive of our
explanation of the Israelite-Scythian equation. The Assyrians, at first, came
into the land of Israel and trod it down, including the Royal palaces, as
archaeological excavations of Samaria have proven. They then exiled all of the
surviving inhabitants. From their places of exile, the Israelite-Scythians made
peace with Assyria, then became "Shepherds" i.e. allies and protectors of
Assyria, and after that graduated to be the effective rulers of the Assyrian
Empire, i.e. "eight principal men". Finally the Israelite-Scythians destroyed
the Assyrian cities and wasted "the land of Assyria with the sword", just as
Similarly, the Talmud says (Shabbat 147)
that the Lost Ten Tribes came to a calamity because of the "Wine of Phrygia33"
and perhaps the reference is to the same drunken feast that caused the Scythian
leaders to be killed and to lose control of the Assyrian empire. Other parallels
can be drawn between descriptions of the exiled Israelites and the Scythians but
for the moment the point has been made.