Tripoli, North Africa, Stone Henge, The Chronicles of Eri, being the history of the Gaal Sciot Iber, or the Irish People, A Critical Review and Update of Robert Graves "The White Goddess">
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Venneman holds a complex of far-reaching notions concerning the
ethnic and linguistic population of Western and Northern Europe.
In effect he says that at a very early date a group of people who spoke a Semitic language arrived via the Sea and combined with the locals. These "Semites" merged with groups that spoke "Vasconic" (Basque-type) dialects and later adopted "Indo-European" languages.
The "Semities" influenced much of the language and culture of early
Europe and were also responsible for construction of the Megalithic Monuments.
This "Semitic" element was later reinforced by "Carthaginians" who settled in
the north from the 500s to 100s BCE.
Our impression is that his theory is well known of in academic linguistic circles. It is not conventionally accepted but it is considered a viable alternative that to some degree may be used to explain certain known anomalies.
(1. b) Summary of the Venneman Theories [Brit-Am words of explanation in square brackets  ].
Theories on the prehistory of European languages
Vennemann's controversial claims about the prehistory of European languages include the following:
A language family [which he calls "Vasconic"] ancestral to Basque [Northwest Spain] is a substratum of European languages, especially Germanic, Celtic, and Italic.
Vennemann claims this could be evidenced by various loan words, toponyms [place-names, etc], and structural features such as word-initial accent.
The so-called Old European hydronymy [River-names etc], traditionally considered as Indo-European, is classified as Vasconic [i.e. Basque-type] by Vennemann.
Vennemann thinks that numerous toponyms that are traditionally considered as Indo-European by virtue of their Indo-European head words are instead names that have been adapted to Indo-European languages through the addition of a suffix.
Punic, the Semitic language spoken in classical Carthage [Phoenician-Canaanite settlement in North Africa], is a superstratum [additions added on] of the Germanic languages. According to Vennemann, Carthaginians colonized the North Sea region between the 6th and 3rd centuries BC; this is evidenced by numerous Semitic loan words in the Germanic languages, as well as structural features such as strong verbs, and similarities between Norse religion and Semitic religion. This theory replaces his older theory of a superstratum of an unknown Semitic language called "Atlantic".
[ In Vennemans writings the terms "Atlantic" and "Semitid" (i.e. Semitic") are interchangeable. This can be confusing.]
Semitic is a substratum of the Celtic languages, as shown by certain structural features of Celtic, especially their lack of external possessors.
The Runic alphabet is derived directly from the Phoenician alphabet used by the Carthaginians, without intervention by the Greek alphabet.
The Germanic sound shift is dated to the 6th to 3rd centuries BC, as evidenced by the fact that some presumed Punic loan words participated in it, while others did not.
Atlantiker in Nordwesteuropa: Pikten und Vanen Reference
The Picts of Britannic prehistory and the Vanir of Germanic mythology contribute to the theory of an Atlantic, i.e. Hamito-Semitic origin of the Megalithic culture. The matriliny of both the Picts and the Vanir points neither to an Indo-European nor to a Vasconic [Basque] source but makes an Atlantic [i.e. Semitic] basis plausible. This view is supported (1) by the Pictish name Nehton and its phonological correspondent Neptune, god of the sea and, identified with the Greek Poseidon, according to Plato founder of the Atlantic empires, (2) by the Old Gaelic word maqq 'son', which is otherwise only attested in Germanic, e.g. as Goth. magus 'son (of maternal lineage)', (3) by Pictish art and Northumbrian art which has been apparently influenced by it, both showing stylistic connections with the art of the Near East, and (4) by the tale of Tristan, the Pictish Drust, the Welsh Drystan son of Tallwch, lover of Essylt, the wife of his uncle March son of Meirchiaw, protagonists of a romance featuring an exceedingly non-Indo-European adulteress.
The Germanic Vanir are recognized not merely as fertility deities but as a fully functional family of gods and goddesses. Their maritime (Mediterranean) and Semitic origin is shown by a number of features, chief among them the following: (1) Njordr's residence Noatun 'Ship-Town', (2) Freyr's ship Skidbladnir, (3) marriages between sisters and brothers such as Njordr's earlier marriage, (4) Freyja's and Freyr's incestual relationship (as insinuated by Loki), (5) Freyja's harnessed team of "cats" (i.e. lions), (6) the notion of dying gods (also on the Aesir side, where the most Vanir-like Baldr resembles the Semitic god Baal, both in function and in the form of his name), (7) Freyja's equivalence with the Babylonian goddess Ishtar and the Palestinian [i.e. Canaanite] goddess Astarte as a goddess both of war and of love and sexual life, (8) the pig as an attribute both of Freyja and of Freyr. The military conflict and subsequent peace of the Vanir and the Aesir is assumed to echo the historical clash of Atlantic and pre-Germanic North Indo-European populations and cultures and thereby to reflect the Germanic ethnogenesis.
The Theories of Venneman as at present formulated cover a lot of
ground. They are based on linguistics. From what we have seen relatively few
examples seem to be adduced as evidence but those that are receive exhaustive
treatment. The linguistic explanations are supplemented with historical
information which is used quite sparingly.
Venneman at present holds that the Carthaginians ruled over
Northern Europe from 500 to the 100s BCE.
This is a new aspect of Venneman's world view having not (to my knowledge) previously been publicized.
It helps resolve certain problems associated with an early dating of the Megalithic Monuments. The "Semitic" culture that introduced these monuments was obviously still exerting "fresh" influences recently derived from the Middle East at a late date in historical terms.
Venneman therefore has resolved these contradictions by introducing the Carthaginians who "refreshed" the "Semitic" influx first made apparent in megalithic times.
There may however in fact be some small justification for this.
Diodorus Siculus says that Hercules planted several colonies in northern Europe and there may be some connection between the settlements of Hercules and a Phoenician presence.
Nevertheless the two "Semitic" events described by Venneman took place at the same time and were carried out by the same people and they all occurred after 700 BCE!
Just to put matters into perspective the Carthaginians were Phoenicians from Tyre in Lebanon who settled in what was now Tripoli.
They founded Carthage which at one stage had a great maritime Empire of its own and seriously challenged Rome.
The Phoenicians and Carthaginians identified themselves as of Canaanite stock.
Israelite tribes (e.g. Dan, Asher, Naphtali) were sometimes confused with them.
Stephen Collins identifies the Carthaginians as basically Israelites but we think otherwise.
We attribute the Phoenician and Middle Eastern influence in Northern Europe in the period after 700 BCE mainly to Israelites from the Ten Tribes.
The researcher Robert Graves also apparently attributes Semitic influence to Irish and Welsh and the Picts of Scotland and gives examples. The source quoted is "The White Goddess" by Robert Graves which we have not read but we did read other of his works on Mythology and found them useful.
An apparently anonymous (?) review of "The White Goddess" quotes from Venneman and also from the DNA expert and historian Stephen Oppenheimer author of "Origins of the British". Oppenhiemer agrees with Venneman and quotes other sources in his support.
The review in question http://www.well.com/~mareev/portal/
also quotes from
"Lost Israelite Identity", by Yair Davidy especially our summarization of:
"The Chronicles of Eri, being the history of the Gaal Sciot Iber, or the Irish People,
A Critical Review and Update of Robert Graves "The White Goddess" - An Investigation (Page 4)
Concerning the Picts we agree with Venneman and Graves, that they were Semitic specifically Israelite, and we discussed them at some length in our work
which is part three of
"Lost Israelite Identity. The Hebrew Origin of Celtic Races"
In Summary, Professor Theo Venneman proposes scenarios that fit the facts and are the same as those of Brit-Am in many ways.
His terminology is a little different: What he calls "Semitic" we refer to as "Hebrew" and "Israelite".
That which he attributes to the Canaanite Carthaginians we ascribe to Exiles from the Ten Tribes of Israel.
We too say that there were two major pathways of Migration: (1) One by way of the Sea and via Spain and the Atlantic coastal areas and (2) the other overland through Turkish Anatolia and the Scythian regions of Southern Russia.
Venneman attributes the Germanic Sound Shift to Semitic influence and so does Terry Marvin Blodgett who is a supporter of Brit-Am and whose work is promoted by us.
Venneman says that the Megalthic Monuments were built by Semites who arrived by way of the Sea. This is true. The so-called "Semites" were Israelites and they arrived in the west after 700 BCE as we have described in detail.
The Movement by Ship of Exiled Israelite Tribes to the British Isles.
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