Ten Tribes Tribal Report no.35
28 March 2010 13 Nissan 5770
1. Scotland
'Energy bonanza'
to power 750,000 homes
2. Finland: Finnish Descent from Europe,
Sami Genetics: Distinct
3. Scotch-Irish
The Most Politically Successful


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1. Scotland
'Energy bonanza' to power 750,000 homes
By Jenny Fyall
SCOTLAND has taken a world-leading role in the emerging multi-billion-pound marine energy industry by approving ten projects with the potential to power almost a third of the country's homes.

In the first initiative of its kind in the world, companies were granted leasing rights for schemes that could result in up to 1,000 wave and tidal energy devices being installed in the sea off the north of Scotland.

The leasing round attracted interest from global utilities firms that will invest an estimated '4 billion attempting to bring the 1.2-gigawatt schemes to fruition. If successful, the power of the sea in the Pentland Firth between Caithness and Orkney could provide electricity for 750,000 of Scotland's 2.3 million homes by 2020.

First Minister Alex Salmond said Scotland could "rule the waves", as he unveiled the seven winners of a fierce two-year competition for leases that attracted applications from 20 companies worldwide. It is estimated the projects could create as many as 5,000 jobs in Scotland.

Today, the UK government will unveil its latest energy strategy, which includes more funding to drive forward the low-carbon industry.

Experts claimed the schemes would have four times the peak output of the former Dounreay nuclear power station, and a similar amount to an existing nuclear plant, such as Torness.

Mr Salmond told an audience at Our Dynamic Earth in Edinburgh that Scotland had the potential to become the "powerhouse of Europe", adding: "We can say in a real sense that Scotland rules the waves."

He went on: "Leading international energy companies and innovators continue to be drawn to Scottish waters, which boast as much as a quarter of Europe's tidal and offshore wind resource and a tenth of the continent's potential wave capacity."

Max Carcas, business development director at Leith company Pelamis, one of the winners, said Scotland had a genuine opportunity to play a leading role in the development of the emerging wave and tidal technology sector.

Whereas Scotland missed out to the likes of Denmark in building wind turbines ' a global industry now worth '18bn ' marine renewables could provide thousands of jobs and become an "export-led industry", he said.

"We have a lot of challenges and it's early days, but if we can deliver, the potential is huge," he said.

He added that, whereas the British wind industry was dependent on foreign suppliers and the nuclear power sector used mainly French technology, this gave the opportunity for Scotland to become the leader in building, and eventually exporting, wave and tidal devices.

He went on: "This ticks the box environmentally. It ticks the box in terms of security of supply. There's no risk of the price of the fuel doubling or tripling, because it's free (from the wave or tides], and it also ticks the box of economics because it could create an export-led industry."

At least four of the ten schemes will use devices designed and built by Scottish companies ' Pelamis and Aquamarine Power, both based in Edinburgh.

Even companies such as utility giant ScottishPower Renewables, which plans to use a device designed in Norway for a 100-megawatt site at Ness of Duncansby, are likely to build the machines in Scotland, so they can easily be transported to the Pentland Firth. However, yesterday's optimism came with warnings of huge challenges: from providing the necessary grid infrastructure to developing the expertise needed.

The investment needed for the ten projects would be, at about '4bn, similar to the cost of a new nuclear reactor. This will have to be funded entirely by the companies that won the ten leases, which also include Scottish and Southern Energy and E.on, bringing a likely cost to the consumer.

Meanwhile, one of the fathers of wave power, Professor Stephen Salter from the University of Edinburgh, said the potential of the Pentland Firth had been hugely underestimated.

"That area could generate more than the whole of the UK's needs," he said. "We should be putting huge amounts of effort into developing renewables there. It could be enormous, but what will probably happen is we will screw it up in the same way we did with wind and it will all be done in China.

"We have got to get cracking now. If we had worked steadily from the Seventies, we could have got the wave thing working very well now, but we wasted an awful lot of time."

THE process of taking the ten wave and tidal projects destined for the Pentland Firth from the drawing board to reality is riddled with difficulties, experts have warned.

Installing up to 1,000 machines in the fierce waters off the north of Scotland, and then transporting the electricity to towns and cities many miles away, will require huge expertise, developments in infrastructure and billions of pounds of investment.

Even if 1.2 gigawatts of electricity was generated from the seas between Orkney and Caithness, there is currently no grid network to transport it to the mainland.

And once it got to shore, the existing electricity grid is so full that energy generators currently have to wait in a queue for up to a decade to get permission to connect.

The Beauly to Denny power line upgrade will provide greater capacity, but it has faced fierce opposition.

2. Finland: Finnish Descent from Europe
Sami Genetics: Distinct

Finns and Laplanders speak related languages distinct from Indo-European. Linguists have naturally supposed that both the Finns and the Sami hail from that region between the Ural Mountains and the Volga River which is the believed place of origin for the Finno-Ugric language family. But recent genetic studies suggest otherwise. Finns, it seems, are more closely related to the Germans, English and Italians than to the Sami, and thus they probably came to Finland from the south, not the east.

Molecular geneticists Antti Sajantila of the University of Helsinki and Svante Paabo of Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich found that Finns were more likely to share identical "micro-satellites" - receptive DNA sequences - with other Europeans than with the Sami. Meanwhile, more than one third of the Sami in the study group carried three specific genetic "motifs" that were found in only one in fifty Finns and in none of the other Europeans studied.

Sajantila believes that Finns colonized the land from the south some 2,000 to 4,000 years ago, adopting a proto-Sami tongue in the process. He points out that the Finns may not always have been in the majority.

"We know from history that the Finns have been pushing the Sami northward," says Sajantila. "So it seems that the Finns were more powerful. But if it's true that the Finns have changed their language and obtained it from the Sami, it shows that the power game was not necessarily so simple or that the Sami were always the underdogs.

The Sami speak several mutually nonintelligible languages and have different current subsistence patterns. They are thus linguistically and culturally diverse, and it may be asked to what extent the mitochondrial gene pool is homogeneous among Sami. As shown above, two mitochondrial lineages, common among Sami but rare or absent elsewhere in Europe, exist in all Sami groups studied. Furthermore, the mean pairwise difference among mitochondrial sequences in the Sami groups (with the exception of the Inari Lake Sami) varies between 3,08 and 3.19 whereas that between other European groups varies between 3.49 and 4.72. Thus the Sami not only have a history distinct from that of other Europeans but share this history among themselves.

Studies of the nuclear genes in the Finnish population suggest that Finns have gone through a substantial bottleneck in size. This is indicated by 30 recessive autosomal diseases that have high carrier frequencies in Finns but are almost absent in other populations including, as far as we know, the Sami. Conversely, some common recessive diseases that have high carrier frequencies in other European populations, such as cystic fibrosis and phylketonura, are virtually absent in the Finns. Furthermore in phylogenetic trees based on protein and blood group analysis, Finns appear as outliers. In stark contrast, when mitochondrial linkages are analyzed, the number of shared lineages between the Finns and Indo-European speakers is high, and the distance between the groups no greater than between other European populations, although the frequencies of particular lineages may vary in the populations. Thus the analysis of mitochondrial lineages may reflect the affiliation of the Finnish population to other European populations prior to the founder effects that caused gene frequencies to change.

........from Genes and Languages in Europe: An Analysis of Mitochondrial Lineages, Sajantila, Lahermo, Anttinen, Luuka, Sistonen, Savontaus, Aula, Beckman, Tranebjaer, Gedde-Dahl, Issel-Tarver, DiRienzo, P'bo, reprinted from "Genome Research," 1995, and anthologized in "Samerna-en gentiskt unik urbefolkning: fyra decennier gentiska studier av svenska samer-fr' blodgrupper til mitokondriellt DNA" (The Sami-a unique indigenous population: four decades of genetic studies of Swedish Sami - from blood types to mitochondrial DNA) Lars Beckman, Ume'University, 1996.


Sami and Australian Indigenous People - Aboriginals, maintain their virility longer than men from other ethnic groups. The reason is probably that even though these groups live very far away from each other, they have a very similar lifestyle. According to the Stockholm newspaper, Dagens Nyheter. A Finnish research team from the University of 'o found a special hormone among male Sami. This hormone, called LH, is active until the male is way up in years, and the same hormone is found among Australian Aboriginals.

3. Scotch-Irish
The Most Politically Successful People
March 23, 2010 by guywhite

Despite being 1.2% of the population, half of all Presidents, 22 out of 44, have significant Ulster ancestry.

Twelve Presidents are predominantly Scotch-Irish: Andrew Jackson, James Polk, James Buchanan, Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, Chester A. Arthur, Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson and Richard Nixon.

Other than politics, Scotch-Irish seem to be most successful in entertainment.

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