Ten Tribes Tribal Report no.29
6 September 15 2009 17 Elul 5769
Irish History, Hibernian Hypocrisy, Orde Wingate and Heroism
1. Modern Irish Historical Background
2. The Irish Were Harsher to their Own People than Israel is to the Arabs!
3. Britain. The Zionism of Orde
Wingate: A Complex Origin
by Aaron Eitan
1. Modern Irish Historical Background
There were five provinces of Ireland (Ulster, Connacht, Leinster, Munster
and Meath), but Meath was absorbed by Leinster so that makes four. These
provinces are divided into counties. The island of Ireland consists of 32
counties of which 24 became the Irish Free State later known as the Irish
Republic or as Eire. The remaining eight became Ulster i.e. Northern Ireland
which remained part of the U.K.
Formerly Ireland was ruled by the British.
The Irish were strongly Roman Catholic and had their own culture whereas the
British who had ruled over them were Protestant.
Arthur Griffith in the period 1905-08 set up the Sinn Fein that demanded
independence from Britain.
They set up their own Parliament in Dublin. It was headed by Earmon de Valera, a
US citizen with an Irish mother and unknown father.
The British attempted to suppress this movement which lead to the War of
Independence of 1919-21. The Irish forces were led by Michael Collins.
In December 1921 an Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed and 26 counties gained
independence as the Irish Free State. Six Ulster counties had been granted their
own parliament in Belfast in 1920 and remained within the United Kingdom.
The Treaty gave Ireland independence but retained for an interrum period limited
ties to Great Britain.
Ireland would recognize the British Monarch, remain in the Commonwealth, Britain
would have the use of certain ports in time of war, and Ulster would have the
right to refuse membership, which right it exercised.
The establishment of the Free State was followed by a civil war between the new
Government (under Michael Collins) and those who opposed the Treaty lead by de
The new Irish Free State government defeated the anti-Treaty remnant of the
Irish Republican Army (de Valera) but Michael Collins had been killed.
In 1932 Eamon de Valera's Fianna Fail won the general election.
Under De Valera Ireland was neutral in WW2.
# Harsh policing measures
including military tribunals and internment were employed to entirely stamp out
the activities of the IRA.#
Ten of thousands of Irishmen served in the British Forces (in fact most of the
Irish Army went AWOL to do so) and many more crossed the sea to work in British
Nevertheless there were also pro-German elements even in the Government of De
The former Chief Rabbi of Ireland (later Chief Rabbi of Israel) Rabbi Isaac
Herzog, claimed to have saved the life of De Valera several times when de Valera
had been on the run from the British.
Even so, during the Holocaust de Valera refused to give refuge to any Jews apart
perhaps from seven (sic. 7!) Jewish dentists who may never have even existed!
Flags of the Four Irish Provinces:
Ulster, Munster, Leinster, Connacht
2. The Irish Were Harsher to their
Own People than Israel is to the Arabs!
To be read in conjunction with the above
#1. Modern Irish Historical Background
The article below by Tom Carew compares the Irish experience with dealing with
its own people with that of the State of Israel dealing with the Arabs.
It finds that the Irish were much worse to each other than Israel is to the
Palestinians even though Israel suffers from worse provocations than the Irish
authorities ever did!
Ireland is a small country (population about the same as Israel) but
Irish statesman, politicians, and activists take a leading role in condemning
Israel and supporting the Palestinians.
Their motivations are idealistic, anti-Imperialistic, liberal socialist, along
with much basic anti-Semitism though they are often insulted if one says that to
The Irish of Ireland have kith and kin of Irish descent or partial Irish descent
in North America and Australia.
These numbers tents of millions.
The Irish as a group have often been considered backward but in fact frequently
produce individuals of very great ability
especially in the fields of Military Science, Soldiering, Music, Sport, the
Arts, Social Activism, and Literature.
People of Irish descent are often found in the fields of Law Enforcement,
education, and the Catholic Ministry as nuns and priests, etc.
For these and other reasons the Irish are important far in excess of what one
would suppose from the size of their population.
Subject: FW: Comparing Irish, British & Israeli styles of Low-Intensity,
Here is another excellent article by Tom Carew in Dublin. Please send it to the
media, especially the "Israel-bashers".
From: Tom Carew [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org]
Sent: Tuesday, September 01, 2009 1:49 PM
Comparing Irish, British & Israeli
styles of Low-Intensity, Internal Security Ops
During a conversation on Saturday with visiting Hebrew University epidemiologist
D Richter, the Irish experience of war was mentioned. The contrast with Israel
is striking - and not necessarily encouraging from an Irish perspective.
The former O/C of our Army's regular 5th Field Artillery Regt in
O'Farrell, after 3 earlier books, in 1997 published a study of the violent
deaths in 1916 to 1923 [ *Who's Who in the War of Independence and Civil War,
1916 - 1923* ].
He said 918 Anti-Treaty [ *Irregular* ] Volunteers were killed in the June 1922
to April 1923 savage Civil War, with 81 executed - in only 11 months.
This latter figure for executions contrasts with the total of only 24 executed
by the British Administration during the Jan 1919 to July 1921 War of
Independence - in 31 months.
9.5 times the monthly rate of executions by the British.
The British by the end of that war, had detained about 4,000 [ either sentenced
or interned without trial or charge ], also drawn from all 32 Counties,
averaging 129 per month, but the new Irish
had about 11,000 men and 400 women detained by the end of the 11-month Civil War
in April, 1923 - averaging 1,036 monthly - and that from only the 26 Counties.
A monthly rate of detention 8 times the British rate - or 12 times higher if you
also adjust for lower population level.
The new Free State also had
mobilised over 50,000 troops, in
57 Battalions, again deployed only in the 26 Southern Counties, which was vastly
more than the British had deployed to cover all 32 Counties - they had at most
only 40,000 troops, in 40 Battalions, by 1921.
That 1923 Free State Army level was also much more than we had in our regular
Army in 1942, which was close to 40,000, and that 1923 troop level was nearly 2%
of the then population of the State. The same 2% of the population was also
reached at the height of the recent Northern Ireland Troubles - but only if you
count both part-time forces [ UDR
Reserve ] along with the 3 Brigades of full-time regular British troops.
Another 122 Officers and 370 Other ranks, or 492 in total, were identified by
O'Farrell as among Free State Army killed, but he declared that that list was
incomplete, and it also excluded accidental shootings and suicides.
The executed, plus KNOWN combat dead,
thus total 1,491.
Israel by contrast, had a 24-hour Civil War,
no more than 15 dead in 1948 [ *Altalena*
incident ], while before their August 2005 total Gaza
they deployed on Internal Security Operations within Gaza, with its 1.4m people
or half the population of the South in 1922-23, only one Division of 2 Brigades,
perhaps 8,000 troops, compared with [ pro-rata ] an Irish 1923 troop-level
equal to 25,000 in Gaza.
The Irish 1923 troop level thus being 3 times the Israeli Gaza *occupation*
The heavy, indeed the ruthless and
unrelenting response of Collins in 1922, and his successors, including De
in 1939-1946, in confronting their own former comrades in arms, worked - unlike
the far softer Israeli response within Gaza, or the British response in Ireland
in 1919 to 1921. There was no question with Dev or with Collins and
of any mere *containment,* or of any *acceptable level of violence* [ to quote
one British Minister, Reginald Maudling ], much less any *exit strategy* -
except the total exit of their totally routed former comrades.
Which they achieved.
The Northern Ireland
in its 51 years from 1921 to 1972, executed only 1 IRA member - in WW II, and
that for murdering a Catholic RUC
Constable on the Falls Road in Belfast.
executed 6 IRA in W II when that gang had murdered as many of our
[policemen]. And Cosgrave
in 1922-23 executed 81 IRA - a total of 87 in the South, versus only 1 in the
And Israel has no death penalty except for Holocaust genocide - only
was ever executed in Israel.
The level of Israeli detention of Arab
suspects is also low - by Irish Civil War levels. If some 11,000 are held, that
is drawn from a total Arab population in the Territories of perhaps 4.2m, or
about 50% more than in the South in 1923, thus giving an Israeli rate of
detention per head about 66% of the 1923 Irish one.
And Israel, which lost about 1% of its population in its 1947-1949 War of
Independence, has over 22,000 on its Roll of
The pre-state *Haganah*
Jewish volunteer citizen army had *Havlagah*
[ self-restraint ] as its guiding principle - the record since shows that by
Irish or British standards, not to mention those of the French in Algeria,
Israel has continued that ethos of self-restraint - perhaps at the price of
suffering the enduring presence and threat of
elements dedicated to its ultimate and total destruction.
3. Britain. The Zionism of
Wingate: A Complex Origin
by Aaron Eitan Meyer
From: Middle East Forum <email@example.com>
Subject: Meyer in Covenant magazine: "The Zionism of Orde Wingate"
Middle East Forum
September 3, 2009
The Zionism of Orde Wingate
A Complex Origin
by Aaron Eitan Meyer
While it may seem strange to suppose that the year 1936 was in any way
beneficial to the Jewish people, considering the state of affairs in Nazi
Germany, and the dawning of the Arab Revolt in the British Mandate of Palestine,
that year did also bring with it the beginning of a relationship that continues
to benefit the Jewish people to this day. It was the year when Orde Charles
Wingate Scottish eccentric, military gennius, visionary and one of the most
passionate Zionists of his day was assigned to a British Army Intelligence poost
in the British Mandate of Palestine, a move that would eventually make Wingate a
hero of the Yishuv. And yet, while his assistance to the Zionist cause is
well-known and appreciated in Israel, the origins of his commitment to the
Jewish State are by no means clear, even to his biographers. Critics are apt to
dismiss his Zionism with off-handed references to his Old Testament-heavy
Christian upbringing or his affinity for the underdog as 'the' reason, but his
real motivations are far more complicated. This essay sketches out the
complexities that brought about Wingate's Zionism, while attempting to refrain
from the amateur psychoanalysis that plagues too many biographies of the man.
Before delving into the psyche of the man, it is worth mentioning the effect he
continues to have in Israel. Traveling through Komemiyut in Jerusalem, at the
intersection of Jabotinsky and David Marcus, one will see Kikar Orde (known also
as Kikar Wingate). There are Wingate Streets in Be'er Sheva, Tel Aviv and
Herzliya as well. In the Carmel Mountains, just south of Haifa, there is the
Yemin Orde Wingate Youth Village, which serves hundreds of disadvantaged,
at-risk and immigrant children from around the world. Israel's national sports
and health education institute in Netanya is fittingly named Machon Wingate, the
One might be wondering why so much was named after this man. In his book on the
history of the Israeli army, Ze'ev Schiff called Wingate "the single most
important influence on the military thinking of the Haganah." While a
complete analysis of that influence would constitute an article of its own,
Samuel M. Katz put it succinctly. "Wingate had a profound impact on the molding
of Israeli military doctrine. Defense, when fighting a numerically superior
enemy, meant offense, and offense meant fighting deep inside enemy territory
where the opposition was most vulnerable." To this day, that concept remains
the core of Israeli military strategy. And with that admittedly abbreviated
digest, the focus may turn to the man himself.
Wingate's Background Prior to 1936
Beginning with Christopher Sykes' authorized biography of Wingate, entire
chapters have been devoted to Wingate's life prior to his years in the Mandate
and later distinguished service in restoring Haile Selassie to the throne of
Ethiopia and Chindit operations in Burma. While that degree of detail is not
possible here, a brief sketch is essential to framing the question of his
eventual adherence to Zionism.
Orde Charles Wingate was born in Naini Tal, India, in 1903 to parents who were
members of the Plymouth Brethren, a Puritan offshoot. He was raised to believe
that an individual owed a duty to God, though he would never prove to be a
religious man in any regular sense of the term. During his initial military
service in the Sudan, the young Wingate wrote in his Letter-Journal to "Serve
God not self." Wingate's religious upbringing involved consistent study of
the Old Testament. (Later, such study would amaze Jews in the Yishuv who were
impressed by Wingate's encyclopedic geographical knowledge of Israel). But
during his formative schooling years, including his military schooling, he felt
alienated from his family's religion. Indeed, as his lifelong friend Derek
Tulloch pointed out, while Wingate was at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich,
he was in the midst of a rebellion against the religion he'd been brought up in,
and that turmoil led to his not presenting "a very likable front to his fellow
After graduation from Woolwich as a member of the artillery corps, Wingate
sought the advice of his 'Cousin Rex', Sir Reginald Wingate, Sirdar of the
Sudan, regarding where he should get assigned. Unsurprisingly, he would find
himself in the Sudan, where his native troops would bestow on him the title 'His
Worship the Judge' in recognition of his erudition. Perhaps of greatest
importance for the purposes of this paper is the fact that prior to leaving for
the Sudan, Wingate learned (and displayed a considerable aptitude for) Arabic,
the ability that would eventually send him to the Mandate of Palestine, and his
During his stay in Britain after returning from the Sudan, Wingate met and fell
in love with the brilliant, though considerably younger, Lorna Paterson, whom he
would marry. No analysis of Wingate's life could hope to be adequate without
mention of the woman in whom Wingate found his intellectual equal, sounding
board, and wife. Lorna Wingate herself became as passionate a Zionist as her
husband, continuing to advocate for the Jewish Agency even after his death.
Indeed, it was Lorna Wingate who, in response to the utter lack of command-level
officers available to Israel in 1948, convinced Ben Dunkelmann, a Canadian Jew,
to fight for Israel, castigating him by stating that "Were my husband alive, he
would not take no for an answer. He would demand that you go to Palestine and
volunteer your services!"
Upon the completion of his service in the Sudan, and a fruitless quest for the
lost oasis of Zerzura, then-Captain Wingate found himself without an expected
appointment to Staff College, which was at the time practically the only means
for advancement in the military. After confronting the Chief of the Imperial
General Staff with his complaint (and a copy of a published report on his quest
for Zerzura), Wingate found himself given a post as an Intelligence Officer in
Wingate in the Mandate
In the fall of 1936, Wingate arrived in Haifa, an Intelligence Officer chosen
for that role in large part due to his fluent Arabic. Up to this point in his
life, he'd had extremely limited contact with Jews, and virtually no knowledge
of or affinity for Jewish issues. As he would later express it, "In 1938 in
spite of my natural sympathy with the Arabs and my understanding of their
position I became during my official studies convinced that the Imperial,
Jewish, and Arab interests all lay in in [sic] one direction."
Had Wingate's interest been so limited to utilizing the Yishuv as war loomed,
the matter might be settled there. However, Wingate did not merely see the Jews
as a resource to be used however essential they may be as a tool of British
policy. He became such a committed Zionist himself that it never failed to amaze
the leaders of the Yishuv.
But what actually led to that conviction? It is not only his critics who point
to his early Bible-intensive education as a primary source. Yigal Allon referred
to Wingate's "extraordinary Zionist ardour inspired by the Bible " while
Shabtai Teveth cited Haganah archives as describing Wingate as "an eccentric, a
genius, a man more religious than rational, given to great pathos, a firm
believer in the Bible, and fired with a sense of the special mission of the
Jewish people." While describing Wingate as having a genius for "grasping
and using new mechanical techniques," Lowell Thomas did not argue against the
conception that Wingate was also "a Scripture-reading crusader."
However, the complexity that formed the foundation for Wingate's remarkable
genius does not readily coincide with the notion that his Zionism was simply
based upon the Bible. As Luigi Rossetto wrote, "Wingate had one quality which
stands out above all others and that was his ability to examine the situation
objectively and to draw on that part of his experience which applied while
rejecting that which did not."
Perhaps the most objective and complete assessment of Wingate at that time was
made by Derek Tulloch, who broke down the oft-noted facets of Wingate's psyche
One side effect of Wingate's unhappy experience at Woolwich was to incline him
to take sides, invariably, with the underdog. He never forgot the sensation of
all men siding against him. . . . The discovery, however, of this quasi-biblical
cause in his life, which opened before him just at a time when he was expecting
a cause to appear to justify his existence and fulfill his destiny explains his
decision to take up the challenge. 
Tulloch set forth three components that, in his opinion, led Wingate to embrace
the Zionist cause. In addition to the "quasi-biblical" nature of the cause,
Tulloch added Wingate's inclination to side with the weaker party, and Wingate's
need at the time for a cause in which his destiny could be attained. While the
Biblical aspect is intriguing on its own accord, the latter two components call
for further examination.
Wingate and the Underdog
From his early years, Wingate felt himself to be up against significant odds,
and that this self-perception played a role in his world view is scarcely
questionable. While serving in Ethiopia after being banished from the Mandate,
he exhorted that "The right of the individual to liberty of conscience, the
right of the small nation to a just decision at the tribunal of nations, these
are the causes for which we fight."
However, it is by no means a simple matter to state that Wingate's affinity for
the weaker side compelled him to the cause of the Yishuv, much less Zionism
itself. Again, Tulloch provided the key element. "Had he found the Arabs were
being oppressed and considered their cause to be just, he might well have
directed his energies on their behalf."
Far from Wingate's motivation being a case of perception feeding his underlying
inclination for an underdog, it was through his intensive study of "the history
of Palestine and the yishuv" that he would emerge as a committed Zionist.
As Wingate wrote in a letter to Sir Reginald Wingate in early 1937:
We are in for a war sooner or later no hope now of avoiding that after the
Abyssinian fiasco for pitys [sic] sake let us do something just and honourable
before it comes. Let us redeem our promises to Jewry and shame the devil of
Nazism, Fascism, and our own prejudices.
The preceding is particularly illuminating for two reasons. First, in contrast
to his official and semi-official communications, Wingate's letters to his
cousin were not intended to be left for posterity. Second, and perhaps more
importantly, is the global reach of the forces Wingate presented as arrayed
against the Jews. The rising powers of Nazism and Fascism, coupled with his
perception of British prejudice against the Jews represented considerable
opponents indeed. Coupled with this was his deeply held conviction that Islam
itself in fact cared "little for the Arabs of Palestine" and "would be prepared
to accept a fait accompli."
However one may wish to question the accuracy of Wingate's view on the matter,
the fact is that his view of the Jews as not only the weaker party, but
deserving of justice on their own merits, is clear. Indeed, he would later frame
the issue by praying that, "God give it to us to slay the enemies of the Jews,
for the enemies of the Jews are the enemies of all mankind."
Wingate's identification of the Yishuv (and Jewry in general) as the weaker side
was made on the basis of his direct observations and study of the situation,
including widespread, and indeed institutionalized, British antipathy towards
the Jews in the Mandate. When combined with the innate justice of the Zionist
Dream, it may be said that the Jews became in a sense the underdog incarnate for
And yet the matter cannot rest there. Though Wingate would find himself drawn to
another powerless individual in Haile Selassie, when he later found fame and
glory in Burma there is no evidence of a similar attachment to the downtrodden
Burmese. And so we must turn to the third part of Tulloch's analysis, Wingate's
need for a destiny.
Wingate and the Need to Find His Destiny
As previously stated, Derek Tulloch identified the components that comprised
Wingate's need for destiny, a driving need to justify his existence and a means
to fulfill the destiny demanded by that justification. As Sykes put it, "He was
convinced he was a dedicated being, though dedicated to what he did not know,
and he lived in continual fear that he never would know."
Rex King-Clark, who served under Wingate in the Special Night Squads, was of the
belief that, "it seems to me that his destiny, in truth, was to burn himself out
for a cause even, with Scottish perverseness, forr a lost cause."
In combining the need to attain one's destiny with the will to act on it,
Wingate may firmly be linked to Theodore Herzl's immortal declaration that "if
you will it, it is no dream." As Wingate put it to a prominent Jew, "I count it
as my privilege to help you fight your battle. To that purpose I want to devote
Nor was Wingate's pondering a shallow or single-track thing. Colonel Philip
Cochrane, co-leader of the First Air Commando, who supplied Wingate's Chindits
with transportation and supplies during the second Chindit expedition, explained
that, "He made you feel that here was a man who could look into the future and
tell what was going to happen tomorrow."
In short, Wingate found his destiny in Zionism at just the time he needed it
most, and based on many of the same factual reasons that he was able to see the
Jews as worthy underdogs. It is no secret that to the end of his days, he firmly
believed that his destiny was to see a Jewish state arise, and that he would
lead it in its battle for existence. Even though he died in a plane crash in
Burma on a clear night in March of 1944, it can easily be argued that his
destiny continued to be attained when the Haganah utilized his military
doctrines in 1948.
The sub-heading for this section is somewhat misleading. Indeed, if this paper
has demonstrated anything, it is that the complexity of Wingate's psyche makes
it utterly impossible to state a conclusion with certainty as to why he truly
became a Zionist. His mother-in-law, Alice Ivy Hay, was convinced that his only
reason was that he believed it right for the Jews to have a homeland, and that
that would bring about the fulfillment of biblical prophecies. Rex
King-Clark highlighted Wingate's need to find destiny in a cause. Still others
have stressed his affinity for the weak and the powerless.
In the end, one must turn once more to the observation of Derek Tulloch. After
appreciating the complexity of a man such as Wingate, the combination of various
facets of his mind must be found to have led to his passionate Zionism. Wingate
identified the Jews as the underdog, was convinced of the essential rightness of
the Zionist cause, found it supported by the Bible, and foresaw his own destiny
intermingled with the Jewish State. One cannot eliminate any link in that chain
and still hope to even begin to comprehend why Wingate embraced Zionism. And
yet, by attempting to encompass the totality of Wingate's Zionism one may indeed
begin to understand the multifaceted and deep conviction that Wingate felt,
despite the knowledge that a precise and limited answer isn't possible.
Aaron Eitan Meyer recently received his Juris Doctor degree from Touro Law
Center, and is currently assistant director of the Legal Project at the Middle
East Forum, legal correspondent to the Terror Finance Blog, and a member of the
Association for the Study of the Middle East and Africa. His interest in Wingate
began while he was an undergraduate studying Middle East Politics and History,
and has led to over six years of research on Wingate's life and work. He
maintains Orde Wingate Remembrance Society groups on popular networking sites,
such as Facebook, MySpace, and Friendster.
 Ze'ev Schiff, A History of Israel's Army (New York: MacMillan,
1985), p. 13.
 Samuel M. Katz, The Elite (New York: Pocket Books, 1992), p. 12.
 Christopher Sykes, Orde Wingate (Cleveland and New York: The World
Publishing Company, 1959).
 Orde Charles Wingate, Letter-Journal entry dated April 12, 1931. This and
other unpublished papers cited herein are part of the Wingate Archive of the
Steve Forbes Churchill Collection (WA), which were generously made available to
 Even Teddy Kollek, who had limited direct experience with Wingate, recalled
Wingate's intimate knowledge of the land. Teddy Kollek, For Jerusalem (New York:
Random House, 1978), p. 35.
 Major-General Derek Tulloch, Wingate in Peace and War (London: Futura
Publications Limited, 1972), p. 20.
 W. G. Burchett, Wingate Adventure (Melbourne: F.W. Cheshire.Pty. Ltd.,
1944), p. 49. For an excellent article on Wingate's Sudanese service, see Simon
Anglim, "Orde Wingate in the Sudan Formative Exxperiences of the Chindit
Commander," RUSI Journal, Vol. 148, No. 3 (June 2003), p. 96.
 Ben Dunkelmann, Dual Allegiance (New York: Crown Publishers, 1976), p. 153.
 Even Wing-Commander Ritchie, who filed a Report calling for Wingate's
banishment from the region, noted that "He is an exceptional linguist." Both the
Report and Ritchie's typewritten notes on file, WA.
 Letter, Orde Charles Wingate to Wing-Commander Ritchie dated June 27, 1939,
p. 12. WA.
 Yigal Allon, The Making of Israel's Army (New York: Universe Books, 1970),
 Shabtai Teveth, Moshe Dayan: The Soldier, the Man, the Legend (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1972), p. 100.
 Lowell Thomas, Back to Mandalay (New York: Greystone Press, 1951), p. 71.
 Luigi Rossetto, Major-General Orde Charles Wingate and the Development of
Long-Range Penetration (Kansas: Sunflower Press, 1982), p. xvi.
 Tulloch, Wingate in Peace and War, pp. 45-46.
 David Shirreff, Barefoot and Bandoliers: Wingate, Sanford, the Patriots and
the Part They Played in the Liberation of Ethiopia (New York: Radcliffe Press,
1995), p. 181.
 Tulloch, Wingate in Peace and War, pp. 45-46.
 Michael B. Oren, "Orde Wingate: Friend Under Fire," Azure, No. 10 (Winter
5761/2001), p. 38.
 WA. Dated January 12, 1937, the letter was written well before Wingate
became intimate with the leadership of the Yishuv.
 Sykes, Orde Wingate, p. 167.
 Ibid, p. 86.
 Rex King-Clark, Free for a Blast (London: Grenville Publishing Co. Ltd.,
1988), p. 204.
 Tulloch, Wingate in Peace and War, p. 46.
 Thomas, Back to Mandalay, pp. 79-80.
 Alice Ivy Hay, There Was a Man of Genius (London: Neville Spearman Ltd.,
1963), p. 64.
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