Y Haplogroup I
Y Haplogroup I
Y Haplogroup I
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Y Haplogroup I
World and Europe Haplogroup Maps
Introduction: Largely derived from relevant areticles in Wikipedia
Haplogroup F* (Y-DNA)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In human genetics, Haplogroup F* (M89) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
This haplogroup first appeared in Africa some 45,000 years before present. It is believed to represent the "second-wave" of expansion out of Africa.
Haplogroup F* is an ancestral haplogroup to Y-chromosome haplogroups G (M201), H (M52), I (M170), J (12f2.1), and K (M9) along with its descendant haplogroups (L, M, N, O, P, Q, and R).
Groups descended from Haplogroup F (GR)
The groups descending from haplogroup F are found in some 90% of the world's population, but almost exclusively outside of sub-Saharan Africa.
Haplogroup G originated in the Middle East or Caucasus, or perhaps further east as far as Pakistan some 30 kya....
Haplogroup H probably ocurred in India ...and remains prevalent there, spreading westwards in historical times with the gypsy migration. Haplogroup K probably originated in southwestern Asia and spread widely to Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.
Haplogroup G (M201) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup G has an overall low frequency in most populations but is widely distributed in Eurasia. It is most frequent in the Caucasus, and is also found in Asia Minor, the Middle East, the Balkans, Italy, with decreasing frequency in other parts of the world...is believed to have originated ...along the eastern edge of the Middle East
Haplogroup H (M52) is found at a high frequency in India and nowhere else.
Haplogroup J is believed to have arisen between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago in the Near East. It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup F*.
The Cohen Modal Haplotype falls in haplogroup J.
It is subdivided into two haplogroups, haplogroup J2, defined by the M172 marker, and haplogroup J1, defined by the M267 marker. There are also some haplogroup J Y-chromosomes that belong to neither J1 nor J2, and are said to be in paragroup J*(xJ1,J2). This means that haplogroup J* includes all of J eXcept[sic] for J1 and J2.
that I and J are especially connected and are considered to have had a common origin.
"The mutation of IJ corresponds to a second Out of Africa wave some 45 kya that subsequently spread into Europe (Cro-Magnon)."
Haplogroup I (Y-DNA)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In human genetics, Haplogroup I (M170) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup I (pronounced "eye") is native to the Middle East and Europe. It can be found in most European populations, most commonly in Scandinavia and Croatia.
Haplogroup I is a branch of haplogroup F*. According to current theories, Haplogroup I first arrived in Europe around 20,000-25,000 years ago from the Middle East. It is believed to be associated with the Gravettian culture.
The highest frequency of the I Haplogroup can be found in Scandinavian and Croatian populations. This lends support to the hypothesis that the Adriatic region of modern-day Croatia served as a refuge for northern populations during the last glacial maximum. The hypothesis states that after the LGM there was a migration from the north east by the people whose offspring today form a significant portion of the Scandinavian populations. These groups seem to be the ancestors of about 38% of modern day Croats (75% of Bosnian Croats).
There are also indications that this haplogroup is tied to the Celtic culture. The spread of the I group in western Europe could be consistent with the Celtic expansion that occurred in the mid-first millennium BC.
Population Varieties within Y-Haplogroup I and
Comments, questions, or corrections are encouraged to
their Extended Modal Haplotypes
--------------------- Ken Nordtvedt ------------------------
Rootsi et al have found a small fractional population of I1a1 haplotypes among the I1a population of Eastern Europe. A good sized (old) I1b2 = I1b1a population is found in Sardinia and parts of Iberia, with tiny amounts spread elsewhere in Europe. And I1b2a1 with the derived M284 state has been confirmed from a few British Isles haplotypes as well as a laboratory specimen with stated Basque origins.
Description of Haplogroup I Varieties
I1a-AS (AngloSaxon) is the most populous form of I1a that is found. It must be considered the major core haplotype variety of I1a; it acquired its nickname (AngloSaxon) because it reaches its highest percentages of population in areas of continental Europe where the Anglo-Saxons are said to have originated --- Netherlands, northwest Germany, Denmark. It is also found in good amount throughout modern Germany, but falls to about half the fraction of total population by the time you get to south and eastern Germany. Southern Sweden also has a good amount of this basic I1a variety. A good amount of this I1a variety has been brought to the British Isles; the most plausible scenario is that the Anglo-Saxon invader/immigrants brought it. Regional studies in the Isles such as that of Capelli show this I1a variety reaching highest densities in those lsles locations where Anglo-Saxons and later immigrants of the Danelaw settled.
I1a-N (Norse) is far and away the most populous form of I1a found in Sweden and Finland, and is a close second in Norway. It is found in only small quantities in continental Europe south of the Baltic and North Seas, and takes second place to I1a-AS in Denmark.
I1a-uN (ultra-Norse) reaches its peak density in Norway where it is the most numerous form of I1a as seen in the YHRD database and journal papers. Its core haplotype motif differs from Norse I1a by a shift at DYS385b --- 14 to 15 --- then taking the form 14,23,(14-15) at DYS19,390,385a,b. It is the third most populous in Sweden and Denmark after the Norse I1a-N and Anglo-Saxon I1a-AS forms. ... I1a-uN is very close to totally absent south of the Baltic and North Seas.
I1b1-Din (Dinaric) is the main component of (old) I1b. It obtained its name from a mountain range in the Balkans near where this haplogroup reaches its most dense presence. It has also spread out through much of Eastern Europe. Because the main extended haplotype databases such as SMGF and Ysearch are somewhat concentrated in their sampling to Northwest Europe, their I1b1 populations are relatively weak. ...
I1b1-West (Western) is a variety of (old) I1b, P37.2+, found more in Western Europe, and particularly in a swath across Germanys Baltic and North Sea coastal areas, and then into the British Isles.
I1b1-Isles is a recently discovered, small variety of I1b1 which seems to mainly reside in the British Isles.
I1b1a, (old) I1b2...This subclade of I1b1, M26+, represents a very large fraction of the males of Sardinia, an island in the Mediterranean Sea west of Italy, and it is a sizeable contributor to the population in regions of the Iberian peninsula, but only a small amount is found in more northerly Europe. Its unusual modal 12,12 at DYS385a,b helps to identify it with short haplotypes, but with extended haplotypes all varieties of I1b1 are readily distinguished from each other. I1b1a seems to divide into multiple varieties, and DYS19 = 17 seems to be more common in Mediterranean regions than in Northern Europe.
I1b2a-Cont (Continental), (old) I1c, is the main variety of haplogroup I1b2a. The area of its most dense presence is Northwest Germany and Netherlands, then up into Denmark, and even Southern Sweden and Norway. A good amount is also found in the British Isles, perhaps brought there by the Germanic and Scandinavian invader/immigrants in the historic era. I1b12a-Cont tends to have the high repeat values at DYS389i,ii, it is modal 23 at DYS390; 14 at DYS437; 10 at DYS445; and 21 at C4. There are two varieties of Continental I1b2a. With the new SNPs downstream of M223+ which defines I1b2a --- P78, P95, M379 --- these parts of Continental I1b2a could be connected with separate SNPs, but more testing is needed. Recentl testing did find one Continental I1b2a haplotype as P78+.
I1b2a-Isles is found almost exclusively in the British Isles, and heavily from Scotland at that. In the SMGF database there were no haplotype pedigrees of this variety originating on the continent.
Recently, however, a few Isles I1b2a haplotype were found M284+ which is downstream of M223+; so they are I1b2a1 subclade. My original M284+ dna sample came from a male with stated origins in the Basque population. Examination of Portugese databases also suggests haplotypes which could be of the M284+ subclade. Testing of key haplotypes from this Iberian region are needed. I1b2a1 is a candidate haplogroup which may have arrived in the British Isles in pre-Roman times, and perhaps directly from more southwesterly Europe instead of Anglo-Saxon or Scandinavian sources.
I1b2a-Root is an unusual variety of I1b2a .. It is found spread throughout Western Europe from Iberia and Italy up through Denmark. Root I1b2a splits into two varieties based on four of the markers.
I1b2*, (old) I1(x), is a robust variety within haplogroup I which now has its own place in the tree....This variety is also found well-dispersed in continental Europe from Italy and Iberia, in France and Germany, and up through Denmark; and it actually splits into two varieties based mainly on the marker DYS448.
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