The First Book of Kings


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The First Book of Kings
Chapter Three

The Daughter of Pharoah is Wed to Solomon: Batya and Mered
Did Neal Marry Scotta Daughter of Pharoah?
The Egyptian Wife of Solomon
Some Ancient depictions of Egyptian Women
High Places and the Tabernacle at Gibeon
God Appears to Solomon in a Dream
The Judgement of Solomon



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1-Kings 3
The Daughter of Pharoah is Wed to Solomon: Batya and Mered
  [1-Kings 3:1] AND SOLOMON MADE AFFINITY WITH PHARAOH KING OF EGYPT, AND TOOK PHARAOH'S DAUGHTER, AND BROUGHT HER INTO THE CITY OF DAVID, UNTIL HE HAD MADE AN END OF BUILDING HIS OWN HOUSE, AND THE HOUSE OF THE LORD, AND THE WALL OF JERUSALEM ROUND ABOUT.
 
Daughters of Pharoah played an important part in the History of Israel.  A daughter of Pharoah found Moses who had been placed in ARK OF  BULRUSHES (Exodus 2:3). She recognized that the infant was one of the Children of the Hebrews and saved him, having him brought up by his own mother in the regal palace. Her name according to tradition was Batyah.  The name Batyah means "Daughter of God".
She is identified with Batyah (transliterated as BITHIAH in the KJ) who was the wife of Mered. 
  THESE ARE THE SONS OF BITHIAH THE DAUGHTER OF PHARAOH, WHICH MERED TOOK [1-Chronicles 4:18].                     
Mered according to tradition was another name for Caleb from the Tribe of Judah.
 
In Jewish legends the daughter of Pharaoh whom Solomon married is sometimes also referred to as Batya.
Nial who was the ancestor of part of the early kings of Ireland and Scotland according to one version married Scotta daugher of Pharoah. Other versions says it was Goidel Glas (another of the early Gaels) who married Scotta.
 
 Did Neal Marry Scotta Daughter of Pharoah?
Extract from, "The Milesian Legends"
In some http://members.aol.com/lochlan6/mlegend.htm
 Nel, the son of Feinius Farsaid, king of Scythia, went to Egypt and married Scota, the daughter of Pharoah.  In others a later descendant also went to Egypt and married Scota, the daughter of pharoah.  In some versions the Gaedil went from Scythia to Egypt, back to Scythia then on to Spain.   In others they went from Scythia to Egypt and back to Scythia; then from Scythia to Egypt yet again before sailing to Spain.  In at least one version they never went to Spain at all!  In some versions the sons of King Milesius were the last to invade Ireland; in others the last invasion was led by a Simon Breach.

The Egyptian Wife of Solomon
Quite a bit has been said concerning the Daughter of Pharaoh whom Solomon married.
Wikipedia has an article about it. 
This article mentions the legend (supported by Scripture)  that the marriage of Solomon to the Daughter of Pharoah  was ultimately the cause of the Ten Tribes separating themselves from Judah.
 

  Pharaoh's daughter (wife of Solomon)
           
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh's_daughter_(wife_of_Solomon)
Extracts from Wikipedia
Pharaoh's daughter who was the wife of Solomon is a figure in Hebrew scriptures who married the king of the United Monarchy of Israel to cement a political alliance with Egypt. Out of his vast harem, she is the only wife singled out, although she is not given a name in the texts. Her influence on Solomon is seen as the downfall of his greatness.

While there is no archaeological evidence of a marriage between an Egyptian princess and a king of united Israel, claims of one are made at several places in the Hebrew Scriptures.
1 Kings 3:1 says,
"And Solomon became allied to Pharaoh king of Egypt by marriage, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the Lord, and the wall of Jerusalem round about."

The fact that Pharaoh's daughter has been singled out in the accounts of Solomon is significant as similar treatment is not given to his "seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines" (1 Kings 11:3). Some scholars believe this unique example was because this marriage in particular "demonstrates the wealth and power of the Hebrew monarchy, for Pharaoh's daughters did not ordinarily marry outside of their own family, and perhaps indicates the weakness of the Egyptian kingdom at this time."[1] Another scholar points out that marrying Pharaohs daughter is significant in light of the story of Exodus, "A descendant of former Egyptian slaves now became Pharaoh's son-in-law".[2] Most scholars believe the alliance was a result of the reputation of Solomon's father, "Under David, Israel had become a factor to be reckoned with in Eastern politics, and the Pharaoh found it prudent to secure its friendship."[3] The marriage alliance is seen by scholars as the reason for the reported increase in trade with Egypt at 1 Kings 10:28-29.[1]

 City of
Gezer as dowry

Location of city of
Gezer  (to the west of Judah).



The Hebrew scriptures relate that the
Cannanite city of Gezer had never fallen before the Israelites from Joshua to David.
Joshua 16:10 "And they drove not out the Canaanites that dwelt in
Gezer; but the Canaanites dwelt in the midst of Ephraim, unto this day, and became servants to do taskwork."
Judges 1:29 "And Ephraim drove not out the Canaanites that dwelt in
Gezer; but the Canaanites dwelt in Gezer among them."
2 Samuel 5:25 "And David did so, as the Lord commanded him, and smote the Philistines from
Geba until thou come to Gezer."

This situation changed when the Egyptian army invaded the city, ethnically cleansed the populace and Pharaoh turned it over to his daughter as a wedding gift, whereby it became the property of Israel.
1 Kings 9:16
"Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up, and taken
Gezer, and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the city, and given it for a portion unto his daughter, Solomon's wife."

1 Kings 9:17 shows that
Gezer was now rebuilt and made a fortified city of Solomon.

The historian Josephus gives a similar account in his Antiquities of the Jews,
Bk 8, Ch 6, Sec. 1.

According to 1 Kings 9:20-23, Solomon enslaved, "All the people that were left of the Amorites, the Hittites, the
Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites" and he had members of "the children of Israel...rule over the people that wrought in the work." The slaves produced many structures for Solomon including a palace for Pharaoh's daughter.

The Talmud states that Pharaoh's daughter played a role in why Jeroboam was found worthy of becoming ruler of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. At Sanhedrin 101b it says "Why did Jeroboam merit sovereignty? Because he reproved Solomon. And why was he punished? Because he reproved him publicly. As it is written, And this was the cause that he lifted up his hand against the king: Solomon built
Millo, and repaired the breaches of the city of David his father. He said thus to him: Thy father David made breaches in the wall, that Israel might come up [to Jerusalem] on the Festivals; whilst thou hast closed them, in order to exact toll for the benefit of Pharaoh's daughter.."

Rashi explains that Solomon sealed up a place that was in Jerusalem, enclosed by a low wall and was filled with dirt called the Millo (mentioned in 1 Kings 11:26-32). He did this "to build within it houses for her manservants and maidservants. Concerning this Jeroboam admonished him, saying: Your father left it open for the pilgrims, and you enclosed it to make a labor force for Pharaohs daughter. ...the Millo he did not build for any greatness, for his father had left it for the pilgrims to pitch their tents therein, but since Pharaohs daughter had gone up to her house, and the Millo was adjacent to that house, then he built up the Millo."[5]

Some Ancient depictions of Egyptian Women














See also:
Pictures of Ancient Egyptians

High Places and the Tabernacle at Gibeon
[1-Kings 3:2] ONLY THE PEOPLE SACRIFICED IN HIGH PLACES, BECAUSE THERE WAS NO HOUSE BUILT UNTO THE NAME OF THE LORD, UNTIL THOSE DAYS.
HIGH PLACES. Hebrew "bamah" which can connote some type of elevation possibly man made.
 Before the Temple was built there was a main place of worship centered around the Tabernacle. At first the Tabernacle was in Shiloh but the Philistines destroyed it. After that the Tabernacle was moved from one place to another.  When  Solomon  came to rule it was in the Benjaminite city of Gibeon close to Jerusalem.  When the Tabernacle had been in Shiloh (in the territory of Ephraim) it was the only place were sacrifices were permitted.  After Shiloh all public sacrifices were carried out wherever the Tabernacle was located but private sacrficies were permitted elsewhere.  Private sacrficies evidently requyired the erection of a "bamah" or high place".                
 
[1-Kings 3:3] AND SOLOMON LOVED THE LORD, WALKING IN THE STATUTES OF DAVID HIS FATHER: ONLY HE SACRIFICED AND BURNT INCENSE IN HIGH PLACES. 
This affirmation of the piety of Solomon comes almost straight after the account of his marriage to the daughter of Pharoah.  Even though according to tradition the marriage was to have negative effects that was because of the personbality of the bride and the culture she came from. There was nothing intrinsically wrong with the marriage itself. 
           Brit-Am is in favor of "Israelites" doing what it takes for the sake of their families and people.
We have been accused of being ambivalent on the question of inter-marriage etc and maybe we are.
Nevertheless,
Brit-Am has very popular articles on Racial Types and Pictures of Ancient Hebrews.
We also have the article entitled,
"The Black Woman.
Color Prejudice Condemned by the Torah"
http://www.britam.org/CushiteWoman.html
This article is accessible from our front page and is quite prominently displayed.
Its message is also quite clear.
This article tells us   what the Bible message is on this matter.
In addition,
Without going into details if it was not for certain "colored" individuals who helped Yair Davidiy personally and the organization Brit-Am on several occasions we would have been in serious trouble.     
 
[1-Kings 3:4] AND THE KING WENT TO GIBEON TO SACRIFICE THERE; FOR THAT WAS THE GREAT  HIGH PLACE: A THOUSAND BURNT OFFERINGS DID SOLOMON OFFER UPON THAT ALTAR.

God Appears to Solomon in a Dream
[1-Kings 3:5] IN GIBEON THE LORD APPEARED TO SOLOMON IN A DREAM BY NIGHT: AND GOD SAID, ASK WHAT I SHALL GIVE THEE.    
God appeared to Solomon, the King of Israel in honor of his father David and on behalf of all Israel.                
 
[1-Kings 3:6] AND SOLOMON SAID, THOU HAST SHEWED UNTO THY SERVANT DAVID MY FATHER GREAT MERCY, ACCORDING AS HE WALKED BEFORE THEE IN TRUTH, AND IN RIGHTEOUSNESS, AND  IN UPRIGHTNESS OF HEART WITH THEE; AND THOU HAST KEPT FOR HIM THIS GREAT KINDNESS, THAT THOU HAST GIVEN HIM A SON TO SIT ON HIS THRONE, AS IT IS THIS DAY.                     
<<UPRIGHTNESS OF HEART. Hebrew "Yishrat  (Uprightness) Levov (Heart)".  Levov here means heart but it is also used as a verb, e.g. Song of Solomon 4:9 we find from the same word-root the expression "Livavtini" (spelt LiBaBTINI) translated as  "THOU HAST RAVISHED MY HEART".
 
THOU HAST RAVISHED MY HEART (Livavtini), MY SISTER, MY SPOUSE; THOU HAST RAVISHED MY HEART WITH ONE OF THINE EYES, WITH ONE CHAIN OF THY NECK (Song of Solomon 4:9).
From this root "Lev" meaning heart and "Levav" meaning  "draw the heart out" or "make to like" we get the English word "love".
 
 
[1-Kings 3:7] AND NOW, O LORD MY GOD, THOU HAST MADE THY SERVANT KING INSTEAD  OF DAVID MY FATHER: AND I AM BUT A LITTLE CHILD: I KNOW NOT HOW TO GO OUT OR COME IN.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:8] AND THY SERVANT IS IN THE MIDST OF THY PEOPLE WHICH THOU HAST CHOSEN, A GREAT PEOPLE, THAT CANNOT BE NUMBERED NOR COUNTED FOR MULTITUDE.
God chose the People of Israel. The Israelites are the chosen People. This applies to boyth Judah and Joseph. We should not forget this. Each section of the Israelite People has its own tasks.  The task of Joseph is discussed in our works especially,
Joseph - The Israelite Destiny of America
http://britam.org/bkjoseph.html
and
 "Role to Rule. The Task of Joseph"                   
http://www.britam.org/Role.html
 
[1-Kings 3:9] GIVE THEREFORE THY SERVANT AN UNDERSTANDING HEART TO JUDGE THY PEOPLE,  THAT I MAY DISCERN BETWEEN GOOD AND BAD: FOR WHO IS ABLE TO JUDGE THIS THY SO GREAT A PEOPLE?                     
 
[1-Kings 3:10] AND THE SPEECH PLEASED THE LORD, THAT SOLOMON HAD ASKED THIS                      THING.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:11] AND GOD SAID UNTO HIM, BECAUSE THOU HAST ASKED THIS THING, AND HAST NOT ASKED FOR THYSELF LONG LIFE; NEITHER HAST ASKED RICHES FOR THYSELF, NOR HAST ASKED THE LIFE OF THINE ENEMIES; BUT HAST ASKED FOR THYSELF UNDERSTANDING TO DISCERN  JUDGMENT;                     
 
[1-Kings 3:12] BEHOLD, I HAVE DONE ACCORDING TO THY WORDS: LO, I HAVE GIVEN THEE A  WISE AND AN UNDERSTANDING HEART; SO THAT THERE WAS NONE LIKE THEE BEFORE THEE,  NEITHER AFTER THEE SHALL ANY ARISE LIKE UNTO THEE.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:13] AND I HAVE ALSO GIVEN THEE THAT WHICH THOU HAST NOT ASKED, BOTH RICHES,  AND HONOUR: SO THAT THERE SHALL NOT BE ANY AMONG THE KINGS LIKE UNTO THEE ALL THY DAYS.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:14] AND IF THOU WILT WALK IN MY WAYS, TO KEEP MY STATUTES AND MY                      COMMANDMENTS, AS THY FATHER DAVID DID WALK, THEN I WILL LENGTHEN THY DAYS.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:15] AND SOLOMON AWOKE; AND, BEHOLD, IT WAS A DREAM. AND HE CAME TO  JERUSALEM, AND STOOD BEFORE THE ARK OF THE COVENANT OF THE LORD, AND OFFERED UP BURNT OFFERINGS, AND OFFERED PEACE OFFERINGS, AND MADE A FEAST TO ALL HIS SERVANTS.

The Judgement of Solomon
[1-Kings 3:16] THEN CAME THERE TWO WOMEN, THAT WERE HARLOTS, UNTO THE KING, AND  STOOD BEFORE HIM.                     
HARLOTS. Hebrew "Zonot", singular "zonah", from the root "zoneh" to sin, err, be sexually promiscuous".  This is the source of the English word "sin".
There is a similarly-sounding word in Hebrew "zon" meaning "to feed".  The word "zoneh" as well as meaning "prostitute" could also conceptually mean "a female seller of food" or  "a female seller of lodgings".   The Commentators say that in Ancient Times female inn-keepers etc were also often prostitutes.
 
[1-Kings 3:17] AND THE ONE WOMAN SAID, O MY LORD, I AND THIS WOMAN DWELL IN ONE  HOUSE; AND I WAS DELIVERED OF A CHILD WITH HER IN THE HOUSE.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:18] AND IT CAME TO PASS THE THIRD DAY AFTER THAT I WAS DELIVERED, THAT THIS  WOMAN WAS DELIVERED ALSO: AND WE WERE TOGETHER; THERE WAS NO STRANGER WITH US IN  THE HOUSE, SAVE WE TWO IN THE HOUSE.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:19] AND THIS WOMAN'S CHILD DIED IN THE NIGHT; BECAUSE SHE OVERLAID IT.                     
The claim was that the other woman had slept with her baby beside her
vand accidentally smothered it.
 
[1-Kings 3:20] AND SHE AROSE AT MIDNIGHT, AND TOOK MY SON FROM BESIDE ME, WHILE 
THINE HANDMAID SLEPT, AND LAID IT IN HER BOSOM, AND LAID HER DEAD CHILD IN MY BOSOM.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:21] AND WHEN I ROSE IN THE MORNING TO GIVE MY CHILD SUCK, BEHOLD, IT WAS  DEAD: BUT WHEN I HAD CONSIDERED IT IN THE MORNING, BEHOLD, IT WAS NOT MY SON, WHICH I DID BEAR.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:22] AND THE OTHER WOMAN SAID, NAY; BUT THE LIVING IS MY SON, AND THE DEAD IS THY SON. AND THIS SAID, NO; BUT THE DEAD IS THY SON, AND THE LIVING IS MY SON. THUS  THEY
SPAKE BEFORE THE KING.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:23] THEN SAID THE KING, THE ONE
SAITH, THIS IS MY SON THAT LIVETH, AND THY  SON IS THE DEAD: AND THE OTHER SAITH, NAY; BUT THY SON IS THE DEAD, AND MY SON IS THE LIVING.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:24] AND THE KING SAID, BRING ME A SWORD. AND THEY BROUGHT A SWORD BEFORE THE KING.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:25] AND THE KING SAID, DIVIDE THE LIVING CHILD IN TWO, AND GIVE HALF TO THE ONE, AND HALF TO THE OTHER.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:26] THEN
SPAKE THE WOMAN WHOSE THE LIVING CHILD WAS UNTO THE KING, FOR  HER BOWELS YEARNED UPON HER SON, AND SHE SAID, O MY LORD, GIVE HER THE LIVING CHILD,    AND IN NO WISE SLAY IT. BUT THE OTHER SAID, LET IT BE NEITHER MINE NOR THINE, BUT DIVIDE  IT.                     
 
[1-Kings 3:27] THEN THE KING ANSWERED AND SAID, GIVE HER THE LIVING CHILD, AND IN NO WISE SLAY IT: SHE IS THE MOTHER THEREOF.  

If we really care for someone or  some thing  we have to be prepared if necessary to let it go on its own way or at least give up some of our own hold on it.                 
 
[1-Kings 3:28] AND ALL ISRAEL HEARD OF THE JUDGMENT WHICH THE KING HAD JUDGED; AND THEY FEARED THE KING: FOR THEY SAW THAT THE WISDOM OF GOD WAS IN HIM, TO DO  JUDGMENT.                     
 


Peter Paul Rubens
[Flemish Baroque Era Painter, 1577-1640]



Giuseppe Cades [Rome, Italy, 1750-1799]



Raphael
Raphael Sanzio (in Italian "Raffaello") 1483 1520, Urbino, Italy



For more pictures see:
The Judgment of Solomon





 
1-Kings ch.2
harp 1-Kings ch.4