The Brit-Am Rose
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where we note that the form
"Yam" could have been used interchangeably with Yah.
[1-Kings 15:2] THREE YEARS REIGNED HE IN JERUSALEM. AND HIS MOTHER'S NAME WAS MAACHAH, THE DAUGHTER OF ABISHALOM.
There is a chronological discussion as to whether the three years of Abiyah's reign were full years or merely regnal ones i.e. not complete years but counted as such for dynastic purposes.
ABISHALOM is considered another form of Abshalom.
The father of Maachah according to some accounts (e.g. Josephus) was Abshalom son of David who rebelled against him, defiled his concubines, and was killed.
In [2-Chronicles 13:2] it
says: HIS MOTHER'S NAME ALSO WAS
THE DAUGHTER OF URIEL
There seems to be contradiction here.
Was his mother MAACHAH, THE DAUGHTER OF ABISHALOM [1-Kings 15:2]
MICHAIAH THE DAUGHTER OF URIEL OF GIBEAH?
To find an answer, we went through some of the Commentaries.
MICHAIAH was another name for MAACHAH. She may not have been actually the daughter of ABISHALOM but rather the grand-daughter through her mother.
We see later that she was a bad person. Her grandson Asa who reigned after Abiyah was a good king and demoted her from her position of importance due to her wickedness.
AND ALSO MAACHAH HIS MOTHER, EVEN HER HE REMOVED FROM BEING QUEEN, BECAUSE SHE HAD MADE AN IDOL IN A GROVE; AND ASA DESTROYED HER IDOL, AND BURNT IT BY THE BROOK KIDRON [1-Kings 15:13].
In Scripture ancestors are sometimes referred to as "father" or "mother" and in genealogical accounts it happens that some generations may be skipped over.
It has been suggested (Daat Mikra) that MAACHAH is referred to as THE DAUGHTER OF ABISHALOM (even though she was actually merely a descendant) to emphasize the retrograde qualities she may have inherited from him.
[1-Kings 15:3] AND HE WALKED IN ALL THE SINS OF HIS FATHER, WHICH HE HAD DONE BEFORE HIM: AND HIS HEART WAS NOT PERFECT WITH THE LORD HIS GOD, AS THE HEART OF DAVID HIS FATHER.
The Sages said that both Rehoboam and his sin Abijah did not actually sin themselves. They rather did not prevent the people from sinning. They failed to exert their authority and the influence they did have to keep their subjects on the right track.
[1-Kings 15:4] NEVERTHELESS FOR DAVID'S SAKE DID THE LORD HIS GOD GIVE HIM A LAMP IN JERUSALEM, TO SET UP HIS SON AFTER HIM, AND TO ESTABLISH JERUSALEM:
There are Jewish families that believe they are descended from King David. There are also claims concerning the British Royal Houses and so on. We have discussed this elsewhere. It does stand to reason however that descendants of David now occupy ruling positions over different sections of the House of Israel and Judah.
Aviyah did not deserve to rule by virtue of his own deeds but rather due to him being descended from David. We may never know how things are figured out. We all should try to do as well as we can in religious matters not only for our own sake but also for the sake of our family and our people.
[1-Kings 15:5] BECAUSE DAVID DID THAT WHICH WAS RIGHT IN THE EYES OF THE LORD, AND TURNED NOT ASIDE FROM ANY THING THAT HE COMMANDED HIM ALL THE DAYS OF HIS LIFE, SAVE ONLY IN THE MATTER OF URIAH THE HITTITE.
David only sinned in the matter of Uriah.
[1-Kings 15:6] AND THERE WAS WAR BETWEEN REHOBOAM AND JEROBOAM ALL THE DAYS OF HIS LIFE.
[1-Kings 15:7] NOW THE REST OF THE ACTS OF ABIJAM, AND ALL THAT HE DID, ARE THEY NOT WRITTEN IN THE BOOK OF THE CHRONICLES OF THE KINGS OF JUDAH? AND THERE WAS WAR BETWEEN ABIJAM AND JEROBOAM.
[1-Kings 15:8] AND ABIJAM SLEPT WITH HIS FATHERS; AND THEY BURIED HIM IN THE CITY OF DAVID: AND ASA HIS SON REIGNED IN HIS STEAD.
The Book of Chronicles gives us more details concerning the reign of Abiyah.
We hope eventually to write a separate Brit-Am Commentary to Chronicles so we may not always refer to what Chronicles says in our commentary to the Book of Kings. Nevertheless concerning Abiyah it is worth noting.
Chronicles tells us how Abiyah with 400,000 warriors went to war against Jeroboam with 800,000. it is implied that Jeroboam had initiated hositilieis in an attempt to subdue Judah. Abiyah reproved Jeroboam and the Ten tribes for rebelling against the House of David and for taking advantage of the inexperience of Rehoboam his father to break away from Judah. He also condemned them for worshipping golden statues of bull calves and appointing ordinary volunteers as priests in place of the Levites.
Jeroboam the King of Israel made an ambush against the Host of Judah and attacked them from both sides. The men of Judah cried to the Almighty and the Priests sounded the trumpets. God saved them. They slaughtered 500, 000 Israelites and pursued after them capturing settlements in the region of Bethel, Yehsanah, and Ephraim in general. After that Jeroboam never recovered. He was struck by God and died.
Abiyah had 14 wives, 22 sons, and 16 daughters.
He died 1o years after the war against Jeroboam and was succeeded by his son Asa.
Below is the relevant passage from Chronicles:
[2-Chronicles 12:16] AND REHOBOAM SLEPT WITH HIS FATHERS, AND WAS BURIED IN THE CITY OF DAVID: AND ABIJAH HIS SON REIGNED IN HIS STEAD.
[2-Chronicles 13:1] NOW IN THE EIGHTEENTH YEAR OF KING JEROBOAM BEGAN ABIJAH TO REIGN OVER JUDAH.
[2-Chronicles 13:2] HE REIGNED THREE YEARS IN JERUSALEM. HIS MOTHER'S NAME ALSO WAS MICHAIAH THE DAUGHTER OF URIEL OF GIBEAH. AND THERE WAS WAR BETWEEN ABIJAH AND JEROBOAM.
[2-Chronicles 13:3] AND ABIJAH SET THE BATTLE IN ARRAY WITH AN ARMY OF VALIANT MEN OF WAR, EVEN FOUR HUNDRED THOUSAND CHOSEN MEN: JEROBOAM ALSO SET THE BATTLE IN ARRAY AGAINST HIM WITH EIGHT HUNDRED THOUSAND CHOSEN MEN, BEING MIGHTY MEN OF VALOUR.
[2-Chronicles 13:4] AND ABIJAH STOOD UP UPON MOUNT ZEMARAIM, WHICH IS IN MOUNT EPHRAIM, AND SAID, HEAR ME, THOU JEROBOAM, AND ALL ISRAEL;
[2-Chronicles 13:5] OUGHT YE NOT TO KNOW THAT THE LORD GOD OF ISRAEL GAVE THE KINGDOM OVER ISRAEL TO DAVID FOR EVER, EVEN TO HIM AND TO HIS SONS BY A COVENANT OF SALT?
[2-Chronicles 13:6] YET JEROBOAM THE SON OF NEBAT, THE SERVANT OF SOLOMON THE SON OF DAVID, IS RISEN UP, AND HATH REBELLED AGAINST HIS LORD.
[2-Chronicles 13:7] AND THERE ARE GATHERED UNTO HIM VAIN MEN, THE CHILDREN OF BELIAL, AND HAVE STRENGTHENED THEMSELVES AGAINST REHOBOAM THE SON OF SOLOMON, WHEN REHOBOAM WAS YOUNG AND TENDERHEARTED, AND COULD NOT WITHSTAND THEM.
[2-Chronicles 13:8] AND NOW YE THINK TO WITHSTAND THE KINGDOM OF THE LORD IN THE HAND OF THE SONS OF DAVID; AND YE BE A GREAT MULTITUDE, AND THERE ARE WITH YOUR GOLDEN CALVES, WHICH JEROBOAM MADE YOU FOR GODS.
[2-Chronicles 13:9] HAVE YE NOT CAST OUT THE PRIESTS OF THE LORD, THE SONS OF AARON, AND THE LEVITES, AND HAVE MADE YOU PRIESTS AFTER THE MANNER OF THE NATIONS OF OTHER LANDS? SO THAT WHOSOEVER COMETH TO CONSECRATE HIMSELF WITH A YOUNG BULLOCK AND SEVEN RAMS, THE SAME MAY BE A PRIEST OF THEM THAT ARE NO GODS.
[2-Chronicles 13:10] BUT AS FOR US, THE LORD IS OUR GOD, AND WE HAVE NOT FORSAKEN HIM; AND THE PRIESTS, WHICH MINISTER UNTO THE LORD, ARE THE SONS OF AARON, AND THE LEVITES WAIT UPON THEIR BUSINESS:
[2-Chronicles 13:11] AND THEY BURN UNTO THE LORD EVERY MORNING AND EVERY EVENING BURNT SACRIFICES AND SWEET INCENSE: THE SHEWBREAD ALSO SET THEY IN ORDER UPON THE PURE TABLE; AND THE CANDLESTICK OF GOLD WITH THE LAMPS THEREOF, TO BURN EVERY EVENING: FOR WE KEEP THE CHARGE OF THE LORD OUR GOD; BUT YE HAVE FORSAKEN HIM.
[2-Chronicles 13:1 AND, BEHOLD, GOD HIMSELF IS WITH US FOR OUR CAPTAIN, AND HIS PRIESTS WITH SOUNDING TRUMPETS TO CRY ALARM AGAINST YOU. O CHILDREN OF ISRAEL, FIGHT YE NOT AGAINST THE LORD GOD OF YOUR FATHERS; FOR YE SHALL NOT PROSPER.
[2-Chronicles 13:13] BUT JEROBOAM CAUSED AN AMBUSHMENT TO COME ABOUT BEHIND THEM: SO THEY WERE BEFORE JUDAH, AND THE AMBUSHMENT WAS BEHIND THEM.
[2-Chronicles 13:14] AND WHEN JUDAH LOOKED BACK, BEHOLD, THE BATTLE WAS BEFORE AND BEHIND: AND THEY CRIED UNTO THE LORD, AND THE PRIESTS SOUNDED WITH THE TRUMPETS.
[2-Chronicles 13:15] THEN THE MEN OF JUDAH GAVE A SHOUT: AND AS THE MEN OF JUDAH SHOUTED, IT CAME TO PASS, THAT GOD SMOTE JEROBOAM AND ALL ISRAEL BEFORE ABIJAH AND JUDAH.
[2-Chronicles 13:16] AND THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL FLED BEFORE JUDAH: AND GOD DELIVERED THEM INTO THEIR HAND.
[2-Chronicles 13:17] AND ABIJAH AND HIS PEOPLE SLEW THEM WITH A GREAT SLAUGHTER: SO THERE FELL DOWN SLAIN OF ISRAEL FIVE HUNDRED THOUSAND CHOSEN MEN.
[2-Chronicles 13:18] THUS THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL WERE BROUGHT UNDER AT THAT TIME, AND THE CHILDREN OF JUDAH PREVAILED, BECAUSE THEY RELIED UPON THE LORD GOD OF THEIR FATHERS.
[2-Chronicles 13:19] AND ABIJAH PURSUED AFTER JEROBOAM, AND TOOK CITIES FROM HIM, BETHEL WITH THE TOWNS THEREOF, AND JESHANAH WITH THE TOWNS THEREOF, AND EPHRAIM WITH THE TOWNS THEREOF.
[2-Chronicles 13:20] NEITHER DID JEROBOAM RECOVER STRENGTH AGAIN IN THE DAYS OF ABIJAH: AND THE LORD STRUCK HIM, AND HE DIED.
[2-Chronicles 13:21] BUT ABIJAH WAXED MIGHTY, AND MARRIED FOURTEEN WIVES, AND BEGAT TWENTY AND TWO SONS, AND SIXTEEN DAUGHTERS.
[2-Chronicles 13:2 AND THE REST OF THE ACTS OF ABIJAH, AND HIS WAYS, AND HIS SAYINGS, ARE WRITTEN IN THE STORY OF THE PROPHET IDDO.
[2-Chronicles 14:1] SO ABIJAH SLEPT WITH HIS FATHERS, AND THEY BURIED HIM IN THE CITY OF DAVID: AND ASA HIS SON REIGNED IN HIS STEAD. IN HIS DAYS THE LAND WAS QUIET TEN YEARS.
[1-Kings 15:9] AND IN THE TWENTIETH YEAR OF JEROBOAM KING OF ISRAEL REIGNED ASA OVER JUDAH.
Asa in Hebrew (and Aramaic) connotes "healing".
[1-Kings 15:10] AND FORTY AND ONE YEARS REIGNED HE IN JERUSALEM. AND HIS MOTHER'S NAME WAS MAACHAH, THE DAUGHTER OF ABISHALOM.
[1-Kings 15:11] AND ASA DID THAT WHICH WAS RIGHT IN THE EYES OF THE LORD, AS DID DAVID HIS FATHER.
[1-Kings 15:12] AND HE TOOK AWAY THE SODOMITES OUT OF THE LAND, AND REMOVED ALL THE IDOLS THAT HIS FATHERS HAD MADE.
SODOMITES. Hebrew "kedoshim" literally "Holy Ones". These were males who dedicated themselves to homosexual prostitution with the proceeds going to the pagan Temple they worked out of.
[1-Kings 15:13] AND ALSO MAACHAH HIS MOTHER, EVEN HER HE REMOVED FROM BEING QUEEN, BECAUSE SHE HAD MADE AN IDOL IN A GROVE; AND ASA DESTROYED HER IDOL, AND BURNT IT BY THE BROOK KIDRON.
We saw above (1-Kings 15:3) that MAACHAH is referred to as THE DAUGHTER OF ABISHALOM (even though she was actually merely a descendant) to emphasize the retrograde qualities she may have inherited from him.
[1-Kings 15:14] BUT THE HIGH PLACES WERE NOT REMOVED: NEVERTHELESS ASA'S HEART WAS PERFECT WITH THE LORD ALL HIS DAYS.
THE HIGH PLACES. Hebrew "Bamot". These were places of worship and the offering of sacrifice to the God of Israel but outside of the Temple Area. This was forbidden but a continued common practice even when righteous monarchs were in power.
[1-Kings 15:15] AND HE BROUGHT IN THE THINGS WHICH HIS FATHER HAD DEDICATED, AND THE THINGS WHICH HIMSELF HAD DEDICATED, INTO THE HOUSE OF THE LORD, SILVER, AND GOLD, AND VESSELS.
[1-Kings 15:16] AND THERE WAS WAR BETWEEN ASA AND BAASHA KING OF ISRAEL ALL THEIR DAYS.
Baasha was the king of the Ten Tribes in the Kingdom of Israel to the north of Judah and Jerusalem. The narrative has here jumped forward in regards to the Northern Kingdom but it backtracks later. We shall see 1-Kings 15:27) how Jeroboam the son of Nebat died and was followed by his son Nadav who reigned for two years. He was then killed by Baasha from the Tribe of Issachar who ruled in his stead.
[1-Kings 15:17] AND BAASHA KING OF ISRAEL WENT UP AGAINST JUDAH, AND BUILT RAMAH, THAT HE MIGHT NOT SUFFER ANY TO GO OUT OR COME IN TO ASA KING OF JUDAH.
RAMAH. Supposedly near the present-day Arab occupied city of Ramallah.
[1-Kings 15:18] THEN ASA TOOK ALL THE SILVER AND THE GOLD THAT WERE LEFT IN THE TREASURES OF THE HOUSE OF THE LORD, AND THE TREASURES OF THE KING'S HOUSE, AND DELIVERED THEM INTO THE HAND OF HIS SERVANTS: AND KING ASA SENT THEM TO BENHADAD, THE SON OF TABRIMON, THE SON OF HEZION, KING OF SYRIA, THAT DWELT AT DAMASCUS, SAYING,
SYRIA. In Hebrew "Aram" a term that applied also to areas in northern Syria and present-day Iraq.
DAMASCUS. In Biblical terms Damascus often refers to a city or area by the Upper Euphrates in the region of Gozan.
"Brit-Am Now"- 402
#3. The NORTHERN BORDERS
of Biblical Israel
[1-Kings 15:19] THERE IS A LEAGUE BETWEEN ME AND THEE, AND BETWEEN MY FATHER AND THY FATHER: BEHOLD, I HAVE SENT UNTO THEE A PRESENT OF SILVER AND GOLD; COME AND BREAK THY LEAGUE WITH BAASHA KING OF ISRAEL, THAT HE MAY DEPART FROM ME.
[1-Kings 15:20] SO BENHADAD HEARKENED UNTO KING ASA, AND SENT THE CAPTAINS OF THE HOSTS WHICH HE HAD AGAINST THE CITIES OF ISRAEL, AND SMOTE IJON, AND DAN, AND ABEL-BETH-MAACHAH, AND ALL CINNEROTH, WITH ALL THE LAND OF NAPHTALI.
MAACHAH became the name of the goddess of war in Ancient Ireland.
ABEL-BETH-MAACHAH means The Plain of the House of Maacah. In Hebrew it could also be rendered as Emain Maacah, as explained elsewhere. ABEL-BETH-MAACHAH had been an important Israelite center in the north.
Later the name Emain Macah re-appeared in Ancient Ireland.
Emain Macha is also known as Navan Fort in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. It was the site of the traditional capital of the Ulaid.
##According to Irish mythology and historical tradition it [Emain Macha] was the capital of the Ulaid, the people who gave their name to the province of Ulster. It was supposedly founded by the goddess Macha in the 5th or 7th century BC, and was the seat of Conchobar mac Nessa in the tales of the Ulster Cycle. ...##The name Emain Macha is variously explained as "Macha's neck-brooch", after Macha marked out the boundaries of the site with her brooch, and "Macha's twins", after Macha gave birth to twins after being forced to compete in a chariot-race. The Annals of the Four Masters record that it was abandoned after it was burned by the Three Collas in 331 AD, after they had defeated Fergus Foga, king of Ulster.
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O70-EmainMacha.html[1-Kings 15:21] AND IT CAME TO PASS, WHEN BAASHA HEARD THEREOF, THAT HE LEFT OFF BUILDING OF RAMAH, AND DWELT IN TIRZAH.
Excavation (1963–71) has established that the round house was begun c.700 BC and rebuilt nine times before 100 BC; the surrounding stockade was rebuilt six times. Emain Macha is probably identical with the Isamnion mentioned in Ptolemy's geography (2nd cent. AD). The survival of the skull of a Barbary ape at Emain Macha implies that the site was known far beyond Ireland.
|After the Death of Solomon:|
The Divided Kingdom
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