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Assyrians, Scythians, and the Ten Tribes.
The Almighty As a Husband to Israel.

1. Gomer as Israel.
2. (a) Isaiah 54 : As Husband to Judah.
3. (b) Jeremiah ch. 3: As husband to the whole House of Israel and the Scythian Re-Union with Judah.
4. (c) Jeremiah chapter 31: Identification and Reconciliation.
5.Significant Points of Israelite Identification from Jeremiah 31:


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1.Gomer as Israel
We have seen (Hosea ch. 1 and Hosea ch.2) how the union of Hosea and Gomer is used as a prototype for the relationship between the Almighty and the Ten Tribes in their Period of exile.

The identification of Israel in Exile with Gomer was commented upon by Rabbi Yisrael Alter ("Beis Yisroel", 1895 - 1977), the Rabbi of  Gur!

# Then Joseph took an oath from the children of Israel, saying, 'God will surely visit you, and you shall carry up my bones from here' (Genesis 50:25)#. ..[The Hebrew word for "bones" has a double meaning connoting "self" i.e. You shall carry up something of myself with you]. So we learn ... that they were told to take his essence with them. ..This is the quality of  Jacob and Joseph and the other Tribes ... The bones [essence] of the other Tribal Ancestors [in addition to Joseph] were also taken up [from Egypt at the time of Exodus]. Their Power remains with the Children of Israel throughout their Exile... This is why the Children of Israel are called GOMRIM [i.e. from Gomer, Gomerites, also connoting "Completers"]... This is the point concerning all Redemption of the Children of Israel from all their Places of Exile, that they will be called GaMeR [Gomer]. #

See Also:
GOMER is a Name of Israelites!

We also learned that there was a group of non-Israelite peoples named Gomer with whom the Israelite Exiles confederated or amalgamated. Conventionally these are identified as the Cimmerians and Scythians both of whom were referred to by the Assyrians as Gimirri.

Hosea had taken Gomer to wife and his relationship became a metaphor for that of the Almighty and Israel.
We find other passages elsewhere in the Bible where God is likened unto a husband to Israel.

In Isaiah 54:4 the Almighty depicts HIMSELF as a Husband to Israel. According to the context in this case he is referring primarily to Judah at the time of their Exile and Future Redemption.

In Jeremiah 3:1 the Almighty says that Israel is like a promiscuous woman who has been divorced but later (against accepted practice) is to be taken back again by her husband. God is that husband. The specific case here concerns the Ten Tribes in their early stages of Exile. A chance was given them to return and some of them took it but it did not last. The historical events surrounding this matter help prove that the Ten Tribes became affiliated and identified with the Cimmerians and Scythians.

In Jeremiah 31:32 it is predicted that a New Covenant will be made with Israel. It will not be like the former Covenant that the Israelites did not keep even though the Almighty was married to them.
The whole chapter of Jeremiah 31 contains several important points that prove the Lost Ten Tribes in the End Times will be found amongst Western Peoples especially those of British descent and their associates.

2. (a) Isaiah 54 : As Husband to Judah.

Isaiah 54:4 Do not be afraid; you will not suffer shame. Do not fear disgrace; you will not be humiliated. You will forget the shame of your youth and remember no more the reproach of your widowhood. (5) For your Maker is your husband, the LORD Almighty is his name, the Holy One of Israel is your Redeemer; he is called the God of all the earth. (6) The LORD will call you back as if you were a wife deserted and distressed in spirit, a wife who married young, only to be rejected,' says your God. (7) 'For a brief moment I abandoned you, but with deep compassion I will bring you back.'

Isaiah ch.54 may be applied to all of Israel in a general sense. A close analysis of the passage however shows Isaiah 54 to emanate from Isaiah 53 which applies more specifically to Judah. In Isaiah 52 and 53 Judah is represented by the suffering servant who will have suffered in exile and been despised by the heathen. In the end times his righteousness will be acknowledged and the Almighty will comfort him.

Isaiah 54:
8 With a little wrath I hid My face from you for a moment; But with everlasting kindness I will have mercy on you,'  Says the LORD, your Redeemer.
9 ' For this is like the waters of Noah to Me; For as I have sworn That the waters of Noah would no longer cover the earth,
So have I sworn  That I would not be angry with you, nor rebuke you.
10 For the mountains shall depart And the hills be removed, But My kindness shall not depart from you, Nor shall My covenant of peace be removed,'  Says the LORD, who has mercy on you.

3.(b) Jeremiah ch. 3 As husband to the whole House of Israel and the Scythian Re-Union with Judah.

Jeremiah chapter 3 refers to God as a husband to the whole House of Israel and then to both Judah and Israel as separate entities:

Jeremiah 3:1 'If a man divorces his wife and she leaves him and marries another man, should he return to her again' Would not the land be completely defiled' But you have lived as a prostitute with many lovers ' would you now return to me'' declares the LORD.

All Israel is likened to a wife who has betrayed her husband with other men.
Legally a woman who commits adultery must be divorced and the husband cannot return her (Deuteronomy 24:1).
Israel has been a harlot with many lovers yet God asks her to return to HIM (Jeremiah 3:1-5).
In the time of  Josiah son of Amon King of Judah the Almighty called to Jeremiah to compare the deeds of Judah to those of Israel (Jeremiah 3:6).
Jeremiah 3:
 7 And I said, after she had done all these things, 'Return to Me.' But she did not return. And her treacherous sister Judah saw it. 8 Then I saw that for all the causes for which backsliding Israel had committed adultery, I had put her away and given her a certificate of divorce; yet her treacherous sister Judah did not fear, but went and played the harlot also.

The northern Tribes of Israel had committed adultery. The Almighty had divorced them.
Judah had imitated the idolatrous practices of the northern Tribes. The Almighty had reproved Judah and led by King Josiah the Land was purified of idolatry and the people repented (2-Kings 22-23). Jeremiah is told that the contrition of Judah is insincere. In 2-Kings 22:8 we are told how a Torah Scroll written by Moses was found in the Temple .
It was open to the passage warning of exile of the King and nation as punishment for idolatry (Deuteronomy 28:36). King Josiah understood that this occurrence forbode ill for Judah. A delegation was sent to the Prophetess Hulda who confirmed the negative prognosis. Due to the sins of Judah and its monarchs especially in the time of king Menasseh grandfather of Josiah the punishment of exile had been decreed against Judah. Since however Josiah himself had been righteous the disaster would be diverted to the next generation (2-Chronicles 24:28).
Putting off the punishment was by virtue of King Josiah rather than that of his people. Jeremiah is told that the repentance of Judah was in "pretence" (Jeremiah 3:9). The Bible tells us how King Josiah had cleaned out the Temple and purified it of idolatry. He had also attempted to extirpate idolatry from the Land. The Sages describe how the people of Judah had pretended to go along with the reforms of Josiah but in secret had continued their idolatry.
Josiah reigned over Judah after the overwhelming majority of the inhabitants of the former Kingdom of Israel had been taken into exile by the Assyrians. The Assyrians had also established their suzerainty over Judah and were a factor in the increasing idolatry of Judah. King Josiah threw off the yoke of Assyria, destroyed Assyrian idols (symbols of domination), and restored the Temple worship of the Almighty. He also went through all the former domain of the Ten Tribes obliterating idols from the ruined cities and slaughtering pagan priests (wherever Israelite or not ) wherever he found them (2-Kings 23).
The message to Jeremiah came during the reign of Josiah. The Almighty tells Jeremiah that 'Backsliding Israel has shown herself more righteous than treacherous Judah" (Jeremiah 3:9).
The Ten Tribes in their places of Exile (as explained in detail elsewhere) had become prominent in the Assyrian military complex.
A significant proportion of the manpower and officers of the Assyrian Army had come to consist of foreigners whom the Assyrians had exiled and re-settled. Former inhabitants of Israel were amongst them. The exiled Israelites had been settled in regions dominated by the Children of Gomer. These were the Cimmerians and their Scythian and Gothic (Guti) offshoots in  Media. Elements from Gomer (identified as Scythians) had managed to take control of the Assyrian Empire. They were to dominate it for about 28 years. This also explains the facility with which Josiah dispensed with Assyrian rulership.
The Scythians made contact with Judah. A reconciliation was to be attempted. The Northern Israelites at this stage may have genuinely wanted to return. This explains why God describes them as more righteous than Judah.
Jeremiah was informed that,
'Backsliding Israel has shown herself more righteous than treacherous Judah" (Jeremiah 3:9).
The expression "has shown herself more righteous" in Hebrew is "tsadkah nafshah" which connotes emotional need or response.
"Nefesh" means "life-force, heart, soul" and it was the "nafshah" that showed itself as more righteous.
 Jeremiah is told to go unto the Northern Tribes and bring them back.
Jeremiah 3:
12 Go and proclaim these words toward the north, and say:
' Return, backsliding Israel,' says the LORD;   ' I will not cause My anger to fall on you.  For I am merciful,' says the LORD;
' I will not remain angry forever.13 Only acknowledge your iniquity, That you have transgressed against the LORD your God,
 And have scattered your charms  To alien deities under every green tree,   And you have not obeyed My voice,' says the LORD.
14 'Return, O backsliding children,' says the LORD; 'for I am married to you. I will take you, one from a city and two from a family, and I will bring you to Zion. 15 And I will give you shepherds according to My heart, who will feed you with knowledge and understanding.

Here the Almighty describes Himself as married to Israel meaning in this context the Ten Tribes.
The Scythians established a center at Beth-Shean in the former territory of Manasseh. Beth-Shean seems to have served as their de facto headquarters in the period when they ruled over the Assyrian Empire. Scythian presence throughout the former territory of Israel during this time is attested to be archaeological remains. Since Josiah was passing through this region and purifying it off idolatry their must have been some interaction between himself and the Scythians. In fact, the Scythians seem to have acknowledged Josiah as King over them. A stele has been found in Beth-Shean declaring the authority of King Josiah!  [Source: M. Avi Yonah,  "The Beth Shean Valley" (Hebrew) 1962 in "The 17th Archaeological Convention. I.E.S."]

Talmudic and Rabbinical sources say that Jeremiah went to bring the Ten Tribes back. A few returned. King Josiah ruled over them. When Josiah was killed most of the northern Israelite returnees went back to their places of exile. This could also explain the declaration to Jeremiah that the Almighty would take from the northern Israelites "one from a city and two from a family" and bring them to Zion (Jeremiah 3:14).
This is what happened.
The Cimmerian-Scythians had reclaimed their independence from the Assyrians and began to attack them. They had also split up into different groups. The "Scythian" section (or one of them) came to terms with Assyria. These Scythians helped defeat the others and drive some of them out. After that they either ruled over the Assyrian Empire or at the least they became a dominant factor while the Empire was in a state of anarchy.
Under Assurbanipal the Assyrians managed to re-assert themselves.
Meanwhile the Medes, Babylonians, different sections of the Cimmerians, and others were in active revolt.
They besieged Assyria in her cities. The Egyptians under Pharoah Necho sent an army north to assist Assyria. King Josiah of Judah attempted to stop them but was defeated and killed at Megiddo in the territory of Manasseh. Upon the death of Josiah the presence of Scythians in the former lands of Israel ceased. King Josiah had attempted to set up colonies in Philistia in the south as well as in the former lands of Israel in the north. This overlapped Scythian presence. The Greek historian Herodotus also records a campaign of the Scythians against the Philistine city of Ashkelon and against Egypt.
After defeating Josiah, Pharoah Necho continued northward to be defeated by the Babylonians at Harran in Northern Syria.
A group of Scythians came to the aid of Assyria but were persuaded to change sides and join the Medes and Babylonians.
Nineveh and the other cities of Assyria were destroyed. One understanding of the inscriptions describing these events has the Scythians playing the main role in the destruction of Assyria.
Greek accounts tell us that the Medes got the Scythian leadership drunk at a celebratory banquet and then massacred them.
After that the Medes and Babylonians divided the Assyrian Empire between them.
They progressively drove the Cimmerians and Scythians out of the Middle East area.
Later the Babylonians conquered Media and then Judah and exiled the Jews to Babylon.
The Persians rebelled against the Medes, conquered Babylon, and allowed the Jews to return and rebuild the Temple.
The Ten Tribes had mostly moved onwards and were no longer a factor in the region.
Micah chapter 5 describes the Ten Tribes as being exiled, becoming shepherds or protectors of the Assyrians, and later progressing to destroy the Assyrian cities as revenge for the destruction of Samaria.
In other words Micah describes the Israelites as having played the same role secular historical sources attribute to the Scythians.
Amongst the Scythians we find private names, tribal names, legends, Hebraic customs, specific styles of artistic craftsmanship, and other indications of Israelite ancestry, at least in part.

In continuation the Cimmerians and Scythians split up into different groups. Some went to the west almost immediately. Others went to the north and east and then returned westward. Ultimately they all converged on Western Europe. A study of these different peoples throughout their sojourning and peregrinations continues to provide evidence of Israelite origins or at the least of a significant Israelite component amongst them.
Many peoples of West European origin derive from these peoples and therefore before that from Israel.

Jeremiah chapter 3 after describing or predicating events that took place during the time of King Josiah then moves on to a scenario that will transpire in the Messianic Era. This is the way of Scripture.
The Prophets pictured the distant future by taking an events from their own experience or time period and use it as a prototype for what will occur in the End Times.
Israelites will greatly increase in the Land (3:16); Jerusalem shall be called The Throne of the LORD (3:17); Emissaries from Judah will go tot he Lost Tribes to bring them back.

[Jeremiah 3:18] 'In those days the house of Judah shall walk with [go unto] the house of Israel, and they shall come together out of the land of the north to the land that I have given as an inheritance to your fathers.

The rest of Jeremiah chapter 3 describes the feelings of shame and remorse the Israelites will experience and the call of the Almighty exhorting them to repent.

4.(c) Jeremiah chapter 31: Identification and Reconciliation.

Ch.31: The Almighty will be reconciled with Israel (Jeremiah 31:1).  The Lost Tribes who will be "Notsrim" or Christians will return (31:6).  Ephraim is still the firstborn (31:9). The North Country, coasts of the earth,  and "Isles afar off", are all linked with the Ephraim and the Chosen People (31:10).

'North Country' and 'Coasts of the Earth' regarding the Latter Day Era of our own time refers to North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and like places. Even in the time of Jeremiah these expressions could refer to areas in Northern Europe. A related expression connected with the Lost Ten Tribes is 'ends of the earth' (Genesis 33;13, Isaiah 41;8,9,13). This expression too in ancient times could relate to northern regions:
# In innumerable places Egyptian, Hebrew, Babylonian, Greek, and Latin writings refer to the most northerly lands as 'the ends of the earth'  # (Jurgen p. 28).
'The Egyptians saw the world as divided into nine bows which correspond roughly to the modern concept of meridians of latitude'. Pliny the Elder said that the ninth division of the world goes 'across the Hyperboreans' (i.e. the Cimbrian peninsula present-day Jutland [in Denmark]).. 'with a seventeen hour day' (at its longest). F.A. Ukert pointed out long ago that this method of dividing the world was taken from the Egyptians and that the 'ninth bow' corresponds to the area between latitudes 52 and 57'Between these latitudes lie north Germany, Denmark, and southern Scandinavia' (Jurgen Spanuth, "Atlantis of the North", 1979, p.29).

Jeremiah 31:

16 Thus says the LORD: Refrain your voice from weeping, And your eyes from tears;  For your work shall be rewarded, says the LORD,
And they shall come back from the land of the enemy.
17 There is hope in your future, says the LORD,  That your children shall come back to their own border.

Malbim on Jeremiah 31:17:  There is hope in your future: There is hope for the Last Days, in the End Time.  That your children shall come back to their own border: Meaning that even though the Lost Ten Tribes who were exiled will not return themselves, their descendants in the End Time will return to their boundary. Here it does not say they will return from THE LAND OF THE ENEMY [as it does for Judah in Jeremiah 31:16 above] for the Ten Tribes are not in the Land of the enemy but they dwell alone in a land faraway from their boundary. They will return at the last to their border.

Ephraim is the "AEGEL" [also pronounced as "Angle"] or bull-calf of the Almighty (31:18). The path of "megalithic" monuments (dolmens, etc) should be used to prove the Israelite Origins of the Lost Ten Tribes (31:21).  This (as confirmed by Rabbinical commentaries such as Radak,  Abarbanel, and Metsudot) refers to historical and archaeological researches especially  those dealing with megalithic monuments.
There will be a restoration of Both Houses, of Judah (31:23) and Israel.
Human Nature (especially that of Israel) will be changed and a "New Covenant" made (31:31).
This New Covenant will be different from the previous one.

Jeremiah 31:32 'It will not be like the covenant I made with their forefathers when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they broke my covenant, though I was a husband to them,' declares the LORD.

The Almighty had been a "husband" to Israel.
They broke the marital covenant.
The word translated as "covenant" in Hebrew is "brit".
A New Covenant or "Brit" will be made with Both Houses of Israel.
Human Nature will be changed.

5.Significant Points of Israelite Identification from Jeremiah 31:

* Jeremiah speaks of the ingathering of the Ten Tribes (31;1 to 31:22); he speaks of the Redemption of the Jews (Judah) (31:23-26); and he speaks of the re-unification of Judah with the Lost Ten Tribes (31;27-37) who will return in the Last days.

*In Ancient Times the Ten Tribes had turned away from God and therefore they were cast out and 'lost'. In the future they will take the initiative and begin to return to the God of Israel. God will respond and turn towards them and bring them back (31:1, 6, 9, 22).

* The Lost Ten Tribes before their final return will be mainly "
Notsrim" (translated as "watchmen") members of the Christian religion  (31:9). In our opinion this religion is wrong but it will be the religion they will be (mistakenly) practicing.

* They will return from every place they are found in. Their chief places of residence at the Last Times will be in North America (31:8), in Europe, and at the geographical extremities of the Continental Masses (31:8), and in the British Isles (31:10). [We are not saying that everybody in these areas belongs to the Ten Tribes but rather that the Lost Ten Tribes are concentrated in these regions and they are significantly there. This is where they are to be found in the End
Times]. They will return by modern means of transport such as aeroplanes that are capable of transporting the incapacitated and women in childbirth (31:8). The Lost Ten Tribes in the End Times will be dwelling independently in their own lands (31:17). This indicates that in those places they will be concentrated in they will be the majority of the population or at least the most influential elements in their own areas.

* The Lost Ten Tribes did not return. They will have lost their Identity until the End Times when their Identity will be restored and they will come back (31:15-16).

* Ephraim will be identified with 'John Bull' of Britain and with those of English ('
Aegloi' - Anglo) descent (31:18). 'Ephraim' will have an aristocratic character, type of government and social system (31;18, 31;20) [whereas 'Menasseh' will stand out for democratic principles].

* The dolmens and megalithic monuments form a path (31:21) reaching from the Land of Israel through the Mediterranean, Spain, France, Britain, Ireland, Holland, and Scandinavia. They show a path of migration of Israelites to the West. This path was either set down (as seems certain) by the migrating Israelites or at the least is to be adopted by them (according to Jeremiah) in the future as a sign of the path they followed and by which path they are to return to the Land of Israel. They are to use the monuments (dolmens and
megalithics) as signs of the path to the lands and cities in the Land of Israel that they were exiled from and to which they will return. The Land of Israel to which they will return reaches from the Nile to the Euphrates and encompasses part of Egypt, the present day State of Israel, part of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, part of Turkey, and part of Iraq, and the Isle of Cyprus.

* The Lost Ten Tribes after their Exile would be weak at first but would then become strong and defeat the Gentiles in warfare (31:22) as indeed happened.
Other passages from the Prophets confirm the above conclusions and add important details to them. Jeremiah 31 is an important chapter because it brings a lot of identifying characteristics together in one passage.

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