Ezekiel 26 to 30
The Palestinians and anti-Semites should not be tolerated. Toleration of such rogues is like committing idolatry. Judah needs Samaria to return and to teach Samaria.
We have to free ourselves from the negative influences imposed upon us by our own society. God wants our good for our sakes.
"Israel" was once exceedingly well-off but because of her sins she is punished.
Settling in the Land, as an Israelite, requires the keeping of the law of Moses.
The Book of Ezekiel
Chapters 26 to 30
Chapters with Brit-Am Commentary
Chapter 26: The Palestinians and anti-Semites should not be tolerated. Toleration such rogues is like committing idolatry. Judah needs Samaria to return and to teach Samaria.
Chapter 27: Jehoiacin was the dry tree who was made to flourish. Through him would the House of David be greatly increased.
Chapter 28: We have to free ourselves from the negative influences imposed upon us by our own society. God wants our good for our sakes.
Chapter 29: "Israel" was once exceedingly well-off but because of her sins she is punished.
Chapter 30: Settling in the Land, as an Israelite, requires the keeping of the law of Moses.
Chapters with Brit-Am Commentary:
Ezekiel 26 to 30
[Ezekiel 26:1] AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE ELEVENTH YEAR, IN THE FIRST DAY OF THE
MONTH, THAT THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO ME, SAYING,
[Ezekiel 26:2] SON OF MAN, BECAUSE THAT TYRUS HATH SAID AGAINST JERUSALEM, AHA,
SHE IS BROKEN THAT WAS THE GATES OF THE PEOPLE: SHE IS TURNED UNTO ME: I SHALL
BE REPLENISHED, NOW SHE IS LAID WASTE:
i.e. The major Phoenician city of
The ships of Tyre
had participated (together with Edom and the Philistines) in transporting part
of the exiled Ten Tribes across the sea to Spain as we explained elsewhere.
Apparently Jerusalem had been an important trading center of international
considered Jerusalem a rival and was happy at her destruction since the trade
that had reached Jerusalem would now come to
The people of Tyre
were mainly Canaanites but they included Israelites,
Greeks, and others. There were two sections of
one was on the mainland and the other was an island just off the coast.
Cf. "Lost Israelite Identity" chapter eight:
PHOENICIAN AND HEBREW SYMBIOSIS
wrote a book "Les
Hebreo-Pheniciens" (i.e. "The
Hebrew-Phoenicians", Paris 1909) in which he
the inter-connections between the Phoenicians and the ancient Israelites.
According to Slouschz
the Phoenicians in Classical mythology were represented by the figures of
and Hercules. Cadmos
was based on an earlier tradition regarding the Phoenician forerunners whereas
Hercules (called Melquart
by the Phoenicians) represented them within Historical Classical times.
and the name of his sister,
Europa, show an early Phoenician
with the west.
(father of Cadmos)
represents Phoenicia. He was the son of Poseidon. Another son of Poseidon
(Neptune) was Albion who according to Greek tradition founded a kingdom in
Britain. The hinterland of Phoenicia is known as Lebanon. "Albion" (i.e. Britain
in Classical terms) is synonymous in meaning with "Lebanon". Both words indicate
"whiteness" and both derive from the same root.
[This ties in with Britain representing Ephraim and Ephraim being destined to
inherit the Lebanon, as mentioned by Zechariah:
<<AND THEY OF EPHRAIM SHALL BE LIKE A MIGHTY MAN, AND THEIR HEART SHALL REJOICE
AS THROUGH WINE: YEA, THEIR CHILDREN SHALL SEE IT, AND BE GLAD; THEIR HEART
SHALL REJOICE IN THE LORD.
<<I WILL BRING THEM AGAIN ALSO OUT OF THE LAND OF EGYPT, AND GATHER THEM OUT OF
ASSYRIA; AND I WILL BRING THEM INTO THE LAND OF GILEAD AND LEBANON; AND PLACE
SHALL NOT BE FOUND FOR THEM [Zechariah 10:7,10].
Egypt and Assyria could apply to areas in Europe.
Gilead means Syria and Lebanon means Lebanon. These areas will be re-populated
by the Lost Ten Tribes represented by "Ephraim".]
THE PHOENICIANS AND ISRAELITES.
We have evidence from Phoenician sources of an Israelite connection with
The Phoenician historian,
was cited by Philo, Eusebius and others. He stated that the city of
had been founded by Sameroumous
was a maker of tents and is attributed characteristics of Jacob (Gen..26;27).
His name appears to be a play on that of "Samaria" meaning the northern
Israelite kingdom. This indicates a partial Israelite involvement in
(i.e. Phoenician) enterprise and settlement. On the other hand, the name "TYRE"
sometimes serves as an euphemism for the descendants of Esau41.
who also, said Sanchuniathon,
is given the qualities of Esau the brother of Jacob. Esau was ancestor to Edom
and an entity of Edom occupied a portion of
on its landward side. Esau is considered the arch enemy of Israel.
compare too this passage from Zechariah and our Commentary there:
[Zechariah 9:1] THE BURDEN OF THE WORD OF THE LORD IN THE LAND OF
AND DAMASCUS SHALL BE THE REST THEREOF: WHEN THE EYES OF MAN, AS OF ALL THE
TRIBES OF ISRAEL, SHALL BE TOWARD THE LORD.
The future borders of Israel shall reach beyond the Euphrates. As explained in
"Lost Israelite Identity"
The Biblical Damascus actually stood on the Euphrates.
was the center of Lias
which land the Tribe of Dan once conquered (Judges chapter 18, see "Lost
Israelite Identity" by Yair
[Zechariah 9:2] AND HAMATH
ALSO SHALL BORDER THEREBY; TYRUS,
THOUGH IT BE VERY WISE.
[Zechariah 9:3] AND TYRUS
DID BUILD HERSELF A STRONG HOLD, AND HEAPED UP SILVER AS THE DUST, AND FINE GOLD
AS THE MIRE OF THE STREETS.
the major Phoenecian
Consider this extract from
the principle mentioned to other passages:
that was adjacent to Israel has already been destroyed a long time
it was destroyed"Venice
was built by descendants of
Tyre"all the descriptions and
occupations that the Prophets applied to
pertain to Venice that was built up from the people of
in the image and form of Tyre
after it having been destroyed".
wrote in the 1490s. Today his words may well be applicable to Japan.
was a Phoenecian
city populated by Canaanites and
Edomites and Japan does have a
Canaanite and Edomite
components in its population.
Getting back to Ezekiel:
[Ezekiel 26:3] THEREFORE THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; BEHOLD, I AM AGAINST THEE, O
TYRUS, AND WILL CAUSE MANY NATIONS TO COME UP AGAINST THEE, AS THE SEA CAUSETH
HIS WAVES TO COME UP.
[Ezekiel 26:4] AND THEY SHALL DESTROY THE WALLS OF TYRUS, AND BREAK DOWN HER
TOWERS: I WILL ALSO SCRAPE HER DUST FROM HER, AND MAKE HER LIKE THE TOP OF A
<<A ROCK: In Hebrew "sela".
This is a play on associations since the name "Tyre"
in Hebrew) also signifies a rock.
[Ezekiel 26:5] IT SHALL BE A PLACE FOR THE SPREADING OF NETS IN THE MIDST OF THE
SEA: FOR I HAVE SPOKEN IT, SAITH THE LORD GOD: AND IT SHALL BECOME A SPOIL TO
[Ezekiel 26:6] AND HER DAUGHTERS WHICH ARE IN THE FIELD SHALL BE SLAIN BY THE
SWORD; AND THEY SHALL KNOW THAT I AM THE LORD.
<<HER DAUGHTERS WHICH ARE IN THE FIELD:
her suburbs round about.
[Ezekiel 26:7] FOR THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; BEHOLD, I WILL BRING UPON TYRUS
NEBUCHADREZZAR KING OF BABYLON, A KING OF KINGS, FROM THE NORTH, WITH HORSES,
AND WITH CHARIOTS, AND WITH HORSEMEN, AND COMPANIES, AND MUCH
[Ezekiel 26:8] HE SHALL SLAY WITH THE SWORD THY DAUGHTERS IN THE FIELD: AND HE
SHALL MAKE A FORT AGAINST THEE, AND CAST A MOUNT AGAINST THEE, AND LIFT UP THE
BUCKLER AGAINST THEE.
[Ezekiel 26:9] AND HE SHALL SET ENGINES OF WAR AGAINST THY WALLS, AND WITH HIS
AXES HE SHALL BREAK DOWN THY TOWERS.
[Ezekiel 26:10] BY REASON OF THE ABUNDANCE OF HIS HORSES THEIR DUST SHALL COVER
THEE: THY WALLS SHALL SHAKE AT THE NOISE OF THE HORSEMEN, AND OF THE WHEELS,
AND OF THE CHARIOTS, WHEN HE SHALL ENTER INTO THY GATES, AS MEN ENTER INTO A
CITY WHEREIN IS MADE A BREACH.
[Ezekiel 26:11] WITH THE HOOFS OF HIS HORSES SHALL HE TREAD DOWN ALL THY
STREETS: HE SHALL SLAY THY PEOPLE BY THE SWORD, AND THY STRONG GARRISONS SHALL
GO DOWN TO THE GROUND.
[Ezekiel 26:12] AND THEY SHALL MAKE A SPOIL OF THY RICHES, AND MAKE A PREY OF
THY MERCHANDISE: AND THEY SHALL BREAK DOWN THY WALLS, AND DESTROY THY PLEASANT
HOUSES: AND THEY SHALL LAY THY STONES AND THY TIMBER AND THY DUST IN THE MIDST
OF THE WATER.
[Ezekiel 26:13] AND I WILL CAUSE THE NOISE OF THY SONGS TO CEASE; AND THE SOUND
OF THY HARPS SHALL BE NO MORE HEARD.
[Ezekiel 26:14] AND I WILL MAKE THEE LIKE THE TOP OF A ROCK: THOU SHALT BE A
PLACE TO SPREAD NETS UPON; THOU SHALT BE BUILT NO MORE: FOR I THE LORD HAVE
SPOKEN IT, SAITH THE LORD GOD.
[Ezekiel 26:15] THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD TO TYRUS; SHALL NOT THE ISLES SHAKE AT
THE SOUND OF THY FALL, WHEN THE WOUNDED CRY, WHEN THE SLAUGHTER IS MADE IN THE
MIDST OF THEE"
<<ISLES: The British Isles" The
Phoenicians settled in southern Spain. They mined tin in Cornwall in Britain and
according to tradition also had a presence in Ireland. They also visited
Scandinavia and may have had settlements there.
[Ezekiel 26:16] THEN ALL THE PRINCES OF THE SEA SHALL COME DOWN FROM THEIR
THRONES, AND LAY AWAY THEIR ROBES, AND PUT OFF THEIR BROIDERED GARMENTS: THEY
SHALL CLOTHE THEMSELVES WITH TREMBLING; THEY SHALL SIT UPON THE GROUND, AND
SHALL TREMBLE AT EVERY MOMENT, AND BE ASTONISHED AT THEE.
[Ezekiel 26:17] AND THEY SHALL TAKE UP A LAMENTATION FOR THEE, AND SAY TO THEE,
HOW ART THOU DESTROYED, THAT WAST INHABITED OF SEAFARING MEN, THE RENOWNED CITY,
WHICH WAST STRONG I THE SEA, SHE AND HER INHABITANTS, WHICH CAUSE THEIR TERROR
TO BE ON ALL THAT HAUNT IT!
[Ezekiel 26:18] NOW SHALL THE ISLES TREMBLE IN THE DAY OF THY FALL; YEA, THE
ISLES THAT ARE IN THE SEA SHALL BE TROUBLED AT THY
[Ezekiel 26:19] FOR THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; WHEN I SHALL MAKE THEE A DESOLATE
CITY, LIKE THE CITIES THAT ARE NOT INHABITED; WHEN I SHALL BRING UP THE DEEP
UPON THEE, AND GREAT WATERS SHALL COVER THEE;
[Ezekiel 26:20] WHEN I SHALL BRING THEE DOWN WITH THEM THAT DESCEND INTO THE
PIT, WITH THE PEOPLE OF OLD TIME, AND SHALL SET THEE IN THE LOW PARTS OF THE
EARTH, IN PLACES DESOLATE OF OLD, WITH THEM THAT GO DOWN TO THE PIT, THAT THOU
BE NOT INHABITED; AND I SHALL SET GLORY IN THE LAND OF THE LIVING;
<<AND I SHALL SET GLORY IN THE LAND OF
THE LIVING: This is a hint at the eventual restoration of Jerusalem ("DM":
[Ezekiel 26:21] I WILL MAKE THEE A TERROR, AND THOU SHALT BE NO MORE: THOUGH
THOU BE SOUGHT FOR, YET SHALT THOU NEVER BE FOUND AGAIN, SAITH THE LORD GOD.
[Ezekiel 27:1] THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME AGAIN UNTO ME,
[Ezekiel 27:2] NOW, THOU SON OF MAN, TAKE UP A LAMENTATION FOR TYRUS;
sits at the entrances to the seas and trades with many isles.
was the major Phoenician city though
was also important. Arvad
were also Phoenician cities. The Phoenicians were a mixture of people who in the
later stages of their history identified themselves as Canaanites. The
Phoenicians established colonies in North Africa, France, Spain, and according
also in western and northern Europe. They mined tin on Cornwall. Carthage in
North Africa was a Phoenician colony first settled by refugees from
Carthage was destined to become mighty empire in its own right and wage several
wars with Rome, known as the "Punic" wars.
According to Professor Manasheh
Davidson): The four major branches of the Phoenician economy were (a)
ship-building; (b) dyes, especially blue and purple dyes, for wool and linen
fabrics; (c) fishing; (d) trading.
Trading was the most important activity. International trading activities
included the exchange of animals (sheep, goats, horses, mules); agricultural
products for food, clothing, and balm; luxury goods such as precious stones,
gold and silver products, and ivory carvings; Metals such as iron, copper, tin,
and lead; slaves from all over the world.
The most important metal in use was bronze which is an alloy of copper and tin.
Most of the tin came from Britain and the Phoenician monopoly on trade in tin
[Ezekiel 27:3] AND SAY UNTO TYRUS, O THOU THAT ART SITUATE AT THE ENTRY OF THE
SEA, WHICH ART A MERCHANT OF THE PEOPLE FOR MANY ISLES, THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD;
O TYRUS, THOU HAST SAID, I AM OF PERFECT BEAUTY.
[Ezekiel 27:4] THY BORDERS ARE IN THE MIDST OF THE SEAS; THY BUILDERS HAVE
PERFECTED THY BEAUTY.
Archaeological finds indicate that
Cyprus, eastern Greece, and the northern section of Israel fulfilled important
roles in the economy of Tyre.
The major part of the city of
Tyre was an island 700 meters
from the coast. Assyrian illustrations depict the walls of
with high towers intermittently protruding. The topmost section of the wall was
covered with shields behind which the defenders would make their stand. The
walled city of Tyre
from the coast had the appearance of a great majestic ship. The ships of
were quite large and traveled all over the seas. They were the best in the
Ancient World. Different parts of the ship were made of different materials: A
certain type of wood imported from one place would be used for one section of
the boat and another type of wood (brought from somewhere else) would be
considered more appropriate for another part. The prophet uses this aspect of
the ships of Tyre
as symbolic of Tyre
[Ezekiel 27:5] THEY HAVE MADE ALL THY SHIP BOARDS OF FIR TREES OF SENIR: THEY
HAVE TAKEN CEDARS FROM LEBANON TO MAKE MASTS FOR THEE.
Ezekiel (ch.27) lists the places with
traded and what goods they supplied.
27;5: Fir trees (or juniper tree) from
and cedars from Lebanon were used for ship building.
[Ezekiel 27:6] OF THE OAKS OF BASHAN HAVE THEY MADE THINE OARS; THE COMPANY OF
THE ASHURITES HAVE MADE THY BENCHES OF IVORY, BROUGHT OUT OF THE ISLES OF
27;6: Oaks from
for oars, benches inlaid with ivory from Asher from the Isles of the
and Asher of Israel, Cyprus and Italy: "Bashan"
was in the territory of Menasseh
east of the Jordan.
"Asher" (of Israel) was in northern Syria where in ancient times elephants were
hunted for their ivory.
"Isles of the Chittim"
meant Cyprus and Islands about Italy which is interesting since it implies that
Israelites from the Tribe of Asher had also reached those areas. This verse may
contain a hint concerning the Israelite presence on Sardinia which was named
from the Tribe of Zebulon and from which Isle Hebrews appear to have moved to
"COMPANY OF THE ASHURITES":
In Hebrew "Bath-Ashurim"
which most commentators say was a kind of tree found in Cyprus. This is not how
we understood the expression.
Ezekiel is describing the trading activities that had made
a great power in recent times though changes had already taken place. The Lost
Ten Tribes and several other peoples had been uprooted and exiled by the
Assyrians and Babylonians. The Assyrians had first began to replace the
Phoenicians in the eastern Mediterranean with Greek settlers.
[Ezekiel 27:7] FINE LINEN WITH BROIDERED WORK FROM EGYPT WAS THAT WHICH THOU
SPREADEST FORTH TO BE THY SAIL; BLUE AND PURPLE FROM THE ISLES OF ELISHAH WAS
THAT WHICH COVERED THEE.
27;7: Fine embroidered linen from Egypt
for sails, to be your standard, blue and purple from the Isles of
"Isles of Elisha"
refers presumably to the Islands of
i.e. of Greece. Though the manufacturing of purple is believed to have become a
Phoenician monopoly and in the Talmud (Megilla
6.a) is associated with the Israelite Tribe of Zebulon, some say that the
process had Minoan (Cretan) origins.
[Ezekiel 27:8] THE INHABITANTS OF ZIDON AND ARVAD WERE THY MARINERS: THY WISE
MEN, O TYRUS, THAT WERE IN THEE, WERE THY PILOTS.
employed sailors from the
Phonenician cities of
[Ezekiel 27:9] THE ANCIENTS OF GEBAL AND THE WISE MEN THEREOF WERE IN THEE THY
CALKERS: ALL THE SHIPS OF THE SEA WITH THEIR MARINERS WERE IN THEE TO OCCUPY THY
also known as "Byblos".
The Greeks purchased Egyptian papyrus from
They used the papyrus for writing material. This could be were our word "bible"
i.e. caulkers who use tar and other materials to ensure that the boat is
MARINERS WERE IN THEE TO OCCUPY THY MERCHANDISE: I would translate this from the
Hebrew as "sailors who mortgaged themselves to you" or instead of "mortgaged
themselves" perhaps "were your guarantors".
The elders and wisemen
would maintain your ships, all the ships of the sea and their sailors mortgaged
themselves to you.
[Ezekiel 27:10] THEY OF PERSIA AND OF LUD AND OF PHUT WERE IN THINE ARMY, THY
MEN OF WAR: THEY HANGED THE SHIELD AND HELMET IN THEE; THEY SET FORTH THY
10:From Persia and Lydia and
came men to serve in your armies. Lydia was inn the western section of mainland
[Ezekiel 27:11] THE MEN OF ARVAD WITH THINE ARMY WERE UPON THY WALLS ROUND
ABOUT, AND THE GAMMADIMS WERE IN THY TOWERS: THEY HANGED THEIR SHIELDS UPON THY
WALLS ROUND ABOUT; THEY HAVE MADE THY BEAUTY PERFECT.
The natives of
and your own soldiers manned your walls round about. Pygmies [Hebrew: "Gamadim"]
in your towers hung their shields around your walls. They perfected your
beauty. The above verses indicate international connections and great
specialization in supply and organization. The use of Pygmies to man very high
almost inaccessible towers about the walls probably had military value. Pygmies
make small targets. They are agile and they probably could climb up heights
difficult of access to larger mortals.
[Ezekiel 27:12] TARSHISH WAS THY MERCHANT BY REASON OF THE MULTITUDE OF ALL KIND
OF RICHES; WITH SILVER, IRON, TIN, AND LEAD, THEY TRADED IN THY
was a merchandiser of yours. With great capital, through trade in silver, iron,
tin, and lead they laid up surpluses.
was in Spain possibly centred
on the region of Gibraltar.
Tarshish served as a trading
emporium for goods from Spain, Britain, and Gaul.
according to D'Arbois
once controlled most of Gaul. The Israelites in the time of Solomon and
afterwards traded with Tarshish
and may have had a base there. Later after the Assyrian exile Israelites and
Phoenicians were re settled in the
area. The Hebrew association with Gibraltar is therefore of long standing and
even today Gibraltar remains a British base.
[Ezekiel 27:13] JAVAN, TUBAL, AND MESHECH, THEY WERE THY MERCHANTS: THEY TRADED
THE PERSONS OF MEN AND VESSELS OF BRASS IN THY MARKET.
were your merchants. They traded men and
in your markets.
is Ionia in western Anatolia (the Asian part of modern Turkey) or Greece which
was settled by Javan.
were then also in Anatolia but today are identified with peoples who settled in
gave its name to Moscow, Tubal
capital of Georgia in the Caucasus. There are authorities (such as
who connect Tubal
with Spain. People from Anatolia did settle around the coasts of Spain according
to Classical sources.
[Ezekiel 27:14] THEY OF THE HOUSE OF TOGARMAH TRADED IN THY FAIRS WITH HORSES
AND HORSEMEN AND MULES.
son of Gomer
son of Japheth is identified with
north of Carcamish
(in northwest Syria) and to the west of Armenia. This was to become a Cimmerian
[Ezekiel 27:15] THE MEN OF DEDAN WERE THY MERCHANTS; MANY ISLES WERE THE
MERCHANDISE OF THINE HAND: THEY BROUGHT THEE FOR A PRESENT HORNS OF IVORY AND
were your merchants. Many isles traded with you, ivory and ebony.
The Phoenicians introduced their alphabet to the Indonesian islands. They
probably had contacts with Polynesia. The present day king of Tonga is a student
of ancient Phoenician sea craft.
<<EBONY: Hebrew "Eshcor",
meaning uncertain, probably a scent of some kind from the east.
[Ezekiel 27:16] SYRIA WAS THY MERCHANT BY REASON OF THE MULTITUDE OF THE WARES
OF THY MAKING: THEY OCCUPIED IN THY FAIRS WITH EMERALDS, PURPLE, AND BROIDERED
WORK, AND FINE LINEN, AND CORAL, AND AGATE.
(Syria) was your merchant in precious stones and fabrics.
<<FINE LINEN: Hebrew "bootz":
Rabin says that this was actually cotton from India that was brought overland
via Syria to the Mediterranean coast.
[Ezekiel 27:17] JUDAH, AND THE LAND OF ISRAEL, THEY WERE THY MERCHANTS: THEY
TRADED IN THY MARKET WHEAT OF MINNITH, AND PANNAG, AND HONEY, AND OIL, AND BALM.
<<THE LAND OF ISRAEL: Ezekiel is
speaking of a period prior to the exile of the Ten Tribes. Professor
says that Ezekiel in this prophecy may well have been using an ancient list of
names. Such lists would be arranged in poetic form singing the raises of
The Prophets lived in a culture that was both highly literate while combining
characteristics of illiterate societies. The impression is that they would
commit much to memory, repeat descriptions of events, heroic stories, and words
of wisdom in song in such a way that memory came easy and a good deal of the
general culture was always present in their subconscious. When the Prophets gave
forth their prophecy they would dress their messages in form, style, expression,
even partial content, that was taken from their own experiences and
Judah and the Land of Israel supplied wheat, grains, honey, oil, and
<<WHEAT OF MINNITH:
Wheat that grew on the hills near
This was supplied to the coast via Judah. The trade had already ceased it would
seem when Ezekiel prophesied but, as we said, Ezekiel was describing the
situation that had led to the greatness of
[Ezekiel 27:18] DAMASCUS WAS THY MERCHANT IN THE MULTITUDE OF THE WARES OF THY
MAKING, FOR THE MULTITUDE OF ALL RICHES; IN THE WINE OF HELBON, AND WHITE
Damascus traded in most of your
products, most of its capital was involved with your trade, it gave over
wine and white wool.
[Ezekiel 27:19] DAN ALSO AND JAVAN GOING TO AND FRO OCCUPIED IN THY FAIRS:
BRIGHT IRON, CASSIA, AND CALAMUS, WERE IN THY MARKET.
The Israelite Tribe of Dan and Ancient
In this verse the Israelite Tribe of Dan is linked with
meaning Greece and Greek legend recalled the Israelite children of
among the founders of Greek civilization. Modern archaeological studies (see the
Cambridge Ancient History) tend to identify the mythical "children of
settlers who left Egypt and founded early Mycenaean colonies in Greece.
Dan and Javan
brought you supplies of iron and steel products.
The site of Dan in northern Galilee was a metallurgical centre. The
(northwest Syria and southeast Turkey) also belonged to Dan of Israel and here
too supplies of iron ore were available.
<<BRIGHT IRON: "barzel
"manufactured iron", possibly steel according to
in the Middle Ages.
<<CASSIA, AND CALAMUS:
I have translated these words from the Hebrew as referring to forms of metal
[Ezekiel 27:20] DEDAN WAS THY MERCHANT IN PRECIOUS CLOTHES FOR
[Ezekiel 27:21] ARABIA, AND ALL THE PRINCES OF KEDAR, THEY OCCUPIED WITH THEE IN
LAMBS, AND RAMS, AND GOATS: IN THESE WERE THEY THY
[Ezekiel 27:22] THE MERCHANTS OF SHEBA AND RAAMAH, THEY WERE THY MERCHANTS: THEY
OCCUPIED IN THY FAIRS WITH CHIEF OF ALL SPICES, AND WITH ALL PRECIOUS STONES,
brought spices, precious stones and gold.
Sheba and Rama
refer to India. Rama
is still an ancestral figure in Hindu mythology (B.Sieger).
[Ezekiel 27:23] HARAN, AND CANNEH, AND EDEN, THE MERCHANTS OF SHEBA, ASSHUR, AND
CHILMAD, WERE THY MERCHANTS.
probably Media (cf. Targum).
[Ezekiel 27:24] THESE WERE THY MERCHANTS IN ALL SORTS OF THINGS, IN BLUE
CLOTHES, AND BROIDERED WORK, AND IN CHESTS OF RICH APPAREL, BOUND WITH CORDS,
AND MADE OF CEDAR, AMONG THY MERCHANDISE.
Eden, the merchants of Sheba, Assyria, and
traded with you. These were your merchants in finished products and raw
[Ezekiel 27:25] THE SHIPS OF TARSHISH DID SING OF THEE IN THY MARKET: AND THOU
WAST REPLENISHED, AND MADE VERY GLORIOUS IN THE MIDST OF THE
The list of traders with Tyre
of Phoenicia rounds off by recalling "the ships of
as the means through which Tyre
"The ships of Tarshish"
were the caravans for your markets; and you were replenished, and made very
glorious in the midst of the seas.
[Ezekiel 27:26] THY ROWERS HAVE BROUGHT THEE INTO GREAT WATERS: THE EAST WIND
HATH BROKEN THEE IN THE MIDST OF THE SEAS.
[Ezekiel 27:27] THY RICHES, AND THY FAIRS, THY MERCHANDISE, THY MARINERS, AND
THY PILOTS, THY CALKERS, AND THE OCCUPIERS OF THY MERCHANDISE, AND ALL THY MEN
OF WAR, THAT ARE IN THEE, AND IN ALL THY COMPANY WHICH IS IN THE MIDST OF THEE,
SHALL FALL INTO THE MIDST OF THE SEAS IN THE DAY OF THY
[Ezekiel 27:28] THE SUBURBS SHALL SHAKE AT THE SOUND OF THE CRY OF THY
[Ezekiel 27:29] AND ALL THAT HANDLE THE OAR, THE MARINERS, AND ALL THE PILOTS OF
THE SEA, SHALL COME DOWN FROM THEIR SHIPS, THEY SHALL STAND UPON THE
[Ezekiel 27:30] AND SHALL CAUSE THEIR VOICE TO BE HEARD AGAINST THEE, AND SHALL
CRY BITTERLY, AND SHALL CAST UP DUST UPON THEIR HEADS, THEY SHALL WALLOW
THEMSELVES IN THE ASHES:
[Ezekiel 27:31] AND THEY SHALL MAKE THEMSELVES UTTERLY BALD FOR THEE, AND GIRD
THEM WITH SACKCLOTH, AND THEY SHALL WEEP FOR THEE WITH BITTERNESS OF HEART AND
[Ezekiel 27:32] AND IN THEIR WAILING THEY SHALL TAKE UP A LAMENTATION FOR THEE,
AND LAMENT OVER THEE, SAYING, WHAT CITY IS LIKE TYRUS, LIKE THE DESTROYED IN THE
MIDST OF THE SEA"
[Ezekiel 27:33] WHEN THY WARES WENT FORTH OUT OF THE SEAS, THOU FILLEDST MANY
PEOPLE; THOU DIDST ENRICH THE KINGS OF THE EARTH WITH THE MULTITUDE OF THY
RICHES AND OF THY MERCHANDISE.
[Ezekiel 27:34] IN THE TIME WHEN THOU SHALT BE BROKEN BY THE SEAS IN THE DEPTHS
OF THE WATERS THY MERCHANDISE AND ALL THY COMPANY IN THE MIDST OF THEE SHALL
[Ezekiel 27:35] ALL THE INHABITANTS OF THE ISLES SHALL BE ASTONISHED AT THEE,
AND THEIR KINGS SHALL BE SORE AFRAID, THEY SHALL BE TROUBLED IN THEIR
<<ALL THE INHABITANTS OF THE ISLES: Of
Britain" The Phoenicians also settled in West Africa and from there they
apparently founded the Olmec
civilization in Mexico. Some West African tribes have traditions that indicate
The original physical type of the Phoenicians is uncertain. They are often
depicted by the Egyptians as darkish but sometimes as blonde or red-haired and
blue-eyed. Mesopotamian depictions indicate that Africans were present amongst
them from the beginning.
[Ezekiel 27:36] THE MERCHANTS AMONG THE PEOPLE SHALL HISS AT THEE; THOU SHALT BE
A TERROR, AND NEVER SHALT BE ANY MORE.
[Ezekiel 28:1] THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME AGAIN UNTO ME,
This chapter speaks of
the chief Phoenician cities.
Sidon was considered the oldest
city and there was a tradition that
had been founded by people from
was a term that could be applied to Phoenicians in general.
sailors manned the navy of Tyre.
became the most important and there was a certain degree of rivalry between the
two. We refer to them as "Phoenicians" which is what the Greeks and Romans
called them but they referred to themselves as Canaanites.
[Ezekiel 28:2] SON OF MAN, SAY UNTO THE PRINCE OF TYRUS, THUS SAITH THE LORD
GOD; BECAUSE THINE HEART IS LIFTED UP, AND THOU HAST SAID, I AM A GOD, I SIT IN
THE SEAT OF GOD, IN THE MIDST OF THE SEAS; YET THOU ART A MAN, AND NOT GOD,
THOUGH THOU SET THINE HEART AS THE HEART OF GOD:
The king of
had made himself into a deity. This was a common phenomenon in ancient times.
The Pharaohs of Egypt and several of the Emperors of Rome made themselves out to
be gods. Other monarchs claimed to be representatives of gods and have divine
rights. This continued in Europe until relatively recent times. The Divine Right
of Kings was an important political doctrine up until the 1700s and in some
cases (such as Russia to a degree") up until about 100 years ago.
[Ezekiel 28:3] BEHOLD, THOU ART WISER THAN DANIEL; THERE IS NO SECRET THAT THEY
CAN HIDE FROM THEE:
Daniel in the Book of Daniel was from
the same generation as Ezekiel (though a bit younger) and he became famous
throughout the kingdom of
Nebuchadnessar for his wisdom and
understanding of hidden matters. Archaeological findings from the Phoenician
city of Ugarit
on the north Syrian coast indicate that there had once been another Daniel. This
previous hero called "Daniel" had been a king and renowned for his wisdom and
justice. He had probably belonged to the Tribe of Manasseh. Some modern
commentators say that this is the "Daniel"
is referring to. Daniel in the Book of Daniel belonged to the family of David
[Ezekiel 28:4] WITH THY WISDOM AND WITH THINE UNDERSTANDING THOU HAST GOTTEN
THEE RICHES, AND HAST GOTTEN GOLD AND SILVER INTO THY
[Ezekiel 28:5] BY THY GREAT WISDOM AND BY THY TRAFFICK HAST THOU INCREASED THY
RICHES, AND THINE HEART IS LIFTED UP BECAUSE OF THY RICHES:
[Ezekiel 28:6] THEREFORE THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; BECAUSE THOU HAST SET THINE
HEART AS THE HEART OF GOD;
[Ezekiel 28:7] BEHOLD, THEREFORE I WILL BRING STRANGERS UPON THEE, THE TERRIBLE
OF THE NATIONS: AND THEY SHALL DRAW THEIR SWORDS AGAINST THE BEAUTY OF THY
WISDOM, AND THEY SHALL DEFILE THY BRIGHTNESS.
[Ezekiel 28:8] THEY SHALL BRING THEE DOWN TO THE PIT, AND THOU SHALT DIE THE
DEATHS OF THEM THAT ARE SLAIN IN THE MIDST OF THE SEAS.
[Ezekiel 28:9] WILT THOU YET SAY BEFORE HIM THAT SLAYETH THEE, I AM GOD" BUT
THOU SHALT BE A MAN, AND NO GOD, IN THE HAND OF HIM THAT SLAYETH
[Ezekiel 28:10] THOU SHALT DIE THE DEATHS OF THE UNCIRCUMCISED BY THE HAND OF
STRANGERS: FOR I HAVE SPOKEN IT, SAITH THE LORD GOD.
[Ezekiel 28:11] MOREOVER THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO ME,
[Ezekiel 28:12] SON OF MAN, TAKE UP A LAMENTATION UPON THE KING OF TYRUS, AND
SAY UNTO HIM, THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; THOU SEALEST UP THE SUM, FULL OF WISDOM,
AND PERFECT IN BEAUTY.
[Ezekiel 28:13] THOU HAST BEEN IN EDEN THE GARDEN OF GOD; EVERY PRECIOUS STONE
WAS THY COVERING, THE SARDIUS, TOPAZ, AND THE DIAMOND, THE BERYL, THE ONYX, AND
THE JASPER, THE SAPPHIRE, THE EMERALD, AND THE CARBUNCLE, AND GOLD: THE
WORKMANSHIP OF THY TABRETS AND OF THY PIPES WAS PREPARED IN THEE IN THE DAY
THAT THOU WAST CREATED.
All the precious stones mentioned here
(apart from gold) were amongst the 12 stones in the breast plate of the High
Priest in the Temple.
The above identifications of the Hebrew stones with the tribes and with stones
known to us are the most commonly accepted but other theories exist.
Anyway, according to the system we accepted, the tribes Dan,
and Gad were left out.
Does this have something to do with the exile" Dan and
were themselves sea-going tribes and Phoenician in their culture. The
who assisted King Solomon in building the Temple came from
and he was related to both Dan and
Hiram, king of Tyre
sent to Solomon,
"a cunning man, endued with understanding .. "
"The son of a woman of the daughters of DAN, and his father was a
man of Tyre,..."(2-Chronicles
"And king Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of
He was a widow's son of the Tribe of
and his father was a man of Tyre,
a worker in brass [i.e. Bronze]: (1-Kings 7; 13 14).
Whether the man, Hiram, was named Hiram or just sent by Hiram or
whether his father had been a citizen of
and his mother from Dan or his mother from Dan and/or
and his father from Tyre
does not really matter at present. The writer of Scripture knew his texts and
what he intended. The important thing is that Israelites from Dan and
were interconnected with TYRE
and with crafts for which Tyre
had a reputation.
Co-Operation in the past:
IN THE BOOK OF KINGS (1-Kings 9;26 28) it relates how under King Solomon a fleet
was fitted out to sail from the Red Sea around Africa to
(either in Peru of South America or an area of Southern Africa) and to return
on the Atlantic Ocean. Phoenician sailors, "shipmen that had knowledge of the
sea", lent by Hiram king of Tyre
were to accompany the Israelite subjects of Solomon.
"And king Solomon made a navy of ships in
which is beside Eloth
on the shore of the Red Sea, in the land of Edom.
"And Hiram sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had knowledge
of the sea, with the servants of Solomon.
"And they came to
Ophir and fetched from thence
gold, four hundred and twenty talents, and brought it to king Solomon."
(1-Kings 9;26 28).
"For the king's ships went to
with the servants of Hiram: every three years once came the ships of
King Solomon had embarked on maritime enterprises in partnership
with the presumably more experienced sea faring Phoenicians. Almost a hundred
years after the demise of Solomon his descendant King
(ca.867-851) of Judah (1-Kings 22;48-49, 2-Chronicles 20;35-37) and King
northern Israel attempted to renew the sea connection and "made ships of
to go to Ophir
for gold". This was done through partnership of Judah in the south with the
northern kingdom of Israel. The ships were all wrecked, apparently while still
at port at Ezion
the son of Ahab of Israel offered to send his servants with the servants of the
king of Judah and to renew the attempt but the king of Judah declined.
[Ezekiel 28:14] THOU ART THE ANOINTED CHERUB THAT COVERETH; AND I HAVE SET THEE
SO: THOU WAST UPON THE HOLY MOUNTAIN OF GOD; THOU HAST WALKED UP AND DOWN IN THE
MIDST OF THE STONES OF FIRE.
[Ezekiel 28:15] THOU WAST PERFECT IN THY WAYS FROM THE DAY THAT THOU WAST
CREATED, TILL INIQUITY WAS FOUND IN THEE.
[Ezekiel 28:16] BY THE MULTITUDE OF THY MERCHANDISE THEY HAVE FILLED THE MIDST
OF THEE WITH VIOLENCE, AND THOU HAST SINNED: THEREFORE I WILL CAST THEE AS
PROFANE OUT OF THE MOUNTAIN OF GOD: AND I WILL DESTROY THEE, O COVERING CHERUB,
FROM THE MIDST OF THE STONES OF FIRE.
The Prophet is speaking about the King
and the verses have been understood as also alluding to a mystical being, a kind
of angel who was expelled. This person was identified by Greek Jews with Lucifer
and with the Satan. Later the Christians took this identification up.
Cf. Isaiah and our Commentary there:
[Isaiah 14:12] HOW ART THOU FALLEN FROM HEAVEN, O LUCIFER, SON OF THE MORNING!
HOW ART THOU CUT DOWN TO THE GROUND, WHICH DIDST WEAKEN THE NATIONS!
"LUCIFER, SON OF THE MORNING" in Hebrew "Hilel
Here Babylon is epitomized by a prince of
who like Babylon ascribed to himself divinity.
Christian tradition identified "Lucifer" with an angel who rebelled against God
and became the Satan or devil. A whole doctrine has developed around this
concept. The tradition has Jewish folk-lore roots derived from Apocryphal
Literature and obscure sources. The concept of fallen angels does exist in
legend. There is such a thing as a "Satan" and there are forces of evil. "Satan"
in Hebrew means adversary. We all have internal and external adversaries to
doing what we should. We should strive to overcome, cast down, or re-channel all
On the simple level the Prophet is referring to a real political entity that
once existed. On the other hand the imagery used does lend itself to
<<AND I WILL DESTROY THEE, O COVERING CHERUB, FROM THE MIDST OF THE STONES OF
FIRE: Was this man himself" Was the real "satan"
a force inside of us"
[Ezekiel 28:17] THINE HEART WAS LIFTED UP BECAUSE OF THY BEAUTY, THOU HAST
CORRUPTED THY WISDOM BY REASON OF THY BRIGHTNESS: I WILL CAST THEE TO THE
GROUND, I WILL LAY THEE BEFORE KINGS, THAT THEY MAY BEHOLD
<<THY BEAUTY: God made us in His image.
The problem is that we tend to attribute what little we become to our own credit
instead of to He to whom the credit belongs.
[Ezekiel 28:18] THOU HAST DEFILED THY SANCTUARIES BY THE MULTITUDE OF THINE
INIQUITIES, BY THE INIQUITY OF THY TRAFFICK; THEREFORE WILL I BRING FORTH A FIRE
FROM THE MIDST OF THEE, IT SHALL DEVOUR THEE, AND I WILL BRING THEE TO ASHES
UPON THE EARTH IN THE SIGHT OF ALL THEM THAT BEHOLD THEE.
[Ezekiel 28:19] ALL THEY THAT KNOW THEE AMONG THE PEOPLE SHALL BE ASTONISHED AT
THEE: THOU SHALT BE A TERROR, AND NEVER SHALT THOU BE ANY
[Ezekiel 28:20] AGAIN THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO ME,
[Ezekiel 28:21] SON OF MAN, SET THY FACE AGAINST ZIDON, AND PROPHESY AGAINST
[Ezekiel 28:22] AND SAY, THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; BEHOLD, I AM AGAINST THEE, O
ZIDON; AND I WILL BE GLORIFIED IN THE MIDST OF THEE: AND THEY SHALL KNOW THAT I
AM THE LORD, WHEN I SHALL HAVE EXECUTED JUDGMENTS IN HER, AND SHALL BE
SANCTIFIED IN HER.
[Ezekiel 28:23] FOR I WILL SEND INTO HER PESTILENCE, AND BLOOD INTO HER STREETS;
AND THE WOUNDED SHALL BE JUDGED IN THE MIDST OF HER BY THE SWORD UPON HER ON
EVERY SIDE; AND THEY SHALL KNOW THAT I AM THE LORD.
[Ezekiel 28:24] AND THERE SHALL BE NO MORE A PRICKING BRIER UNTO THE HOUSE OF
ISRAEL, NOR ANY GRIEVING THORN OF ALL THAT ARE ROUND ABOUT THEM, THAT DESPISED
THEM; AND THEY SHALL KNOW THAT I AM THE LORD GOD.
We know that Philistine and Phoenician
ships (from Tyre
transported many Israelites to Spain and settled them there. We also know that
for a short period Phoenicians ruled over
and southern Spain in general. There was a Port of Manasseh in the
area (near Gibraltar), metal produced in the region was called "Samarian"
metal, the major fortress was built with a design known almost exclusively from
Samaria, Israelites place-names appeared, they were known as "Iberi"
or Hebrews, etc. From Southern Spain the Hebrews later moved to the northwest of
Spain and from there to Gaul, Britain, and Ireland. It may be that when
of Babylon attacked Tyre
the captured Israelites in Spain were enabled to assert their independence"
[Ezekiel 28:25] THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; WHEN I SHALL HAVE GATHERED THE HOUSE OF
ISRAEL FROM THE PEOPLE AMONG WHOM THEY ARE SCATTERED, AND SHALL BE SANCTIFIED IN
THEM IN THE SIGHT OF THE HEATHEN, THEN SHALL THEY DWELL IN THEIR LAND THAT I
HAVE GIVEN TO MY SERVANT JACOB.
This is referring to the End Times and a
return to the Land of Israel. Even so, Scripture can deliver several pertinent
messages at one and the same time. It may be that the Prophet was saying that
now the captured Israelites will be freed and they will move away from areas
under foreign domination to place that they will be able to call their own that
God has given them, e.g. to the British Isles"
[Ezekiel 28:26] AND THEY SHALL DWELL SAFELY THEREIN, AND SHALL BUILD HOUSES, AND
PLANT VINEYARDS; YEA, THEY SHALL DWELL WITH CONFIDENCE, WHEN I HAVE EXECUTED
JUDGMENTS UPON ALL THOSE THAT DESPISE THEM ROUND ABOUT THEM; AND THEY SHALL KNOW
THAT I AM THE LORD THEIR GOD.
[Ezekiel 29: 1] IN THE TENTH YEAR, IN THE TENTH MONTH, IN THE TWELFTH DAY OF THE
MONTH, THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO ME,
[Ezekiel 29:2] SON OF MAN, SET THY FACE AGAINST PHARAOH KING OF EGYPT, AND
PROPHESY AGAINST HIM, AND AGAINST ALL EGYPT:
[Ezekiel 29:3] SPEAK, AND SAY, THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; BEHOLD, I AM AGAINST
THEE, PHARAOH KING OF EGYPT, THE GREAT DRAGON THAT LIETH IN THE MIDST OF HIS
RIVERS, WHICH HATH SAID, MY RIVER IS MINE OWN, AND I HAVE MADE IT FOR MYSELF.
<<THE GREAT DRAGON: The word translated
as "dragon" in Hebrew is "tannin" meaning here crocodile.
[Ezekiel 29:4] BUT I WILL PUT HOOKS IN THY JAWS, AND I WILL CAUSE THE FISH OF
THY RIVERS TO STICK UNTO THY SCALES, AND I WILL BRING THEE UP OUT OF THE MIDST
OF THY RIVERS, AND ALL THE FISH OF THY RIVERS SHALL STICK UNTO THY SCALES.
[Ezekiel 29:5] AND I WILL LEAVE THEE THROWN INTO THE WILDERNESS, THEE AND ALL
THE FISH OF THY RIVERS: THOU SHALT FALL UPON THE OPEN FIELDS; THOU SHALT NOT BE
BROUGHT TOGETHER, NOR GATHERED: I HAVE GIVEN THEE FOR MEAT TO THE BEASTS OF THE
FIELD AND TO THE FOWLS OF THE HEAVEN.
[Ezekiel 29:6] AND ALL THE INHABITANTS OF EGYPT SHALL KNOW THAT I AM THE LORD,
BECAUSE THEY HAVE BEEN A STAFF OF REED TO THE HOUSE OF ISRAEL.
[Ezekiel 29:7] WHEN THEY TOOK HOLD OF THEE BY THY HAND, THOU DIDST BREAK, AND
REND ALL THEIR SHOULDER: AND WHEN THEY LEANED UPON THEE, THOU BRAKEST, AND
MADEST ALL THEIR LOINS TO BE AT A STAND.
[Ezekiel 29:8] THEREFORE THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; BEHOLD, I WILL BRING A SWORD
UPON THEE, AND CUT OFF MAN AND BEAST OUT OF THEE.
[Ezekiel 29:9] AND THE LAND OF EGYPT SHALL BE DESOLATE AND WASTE; AND THEY SHALL
KNOW THAT I AM THE LORD: BECAUSE HE HATH SAID, THE RIVER IS MINE, AND I HAVE
[Ezekiel 29:10] BEHOLD, THEREFORE I AM AGAINST THEE, AND AGAINST THY RIVERS, AND
I WILL MAKE THE LAND OF EGYPT UTTERLY WASTE AND DESOLATE, FROM THE TOWER OF
SYENE EVEN UNTO THE BORDER OF ETHIOPIA.
[Ezekiel 29:11] NO FOOT OF MAN SHALL PASS THROUGH IT, NOR FOOT OF BEAST SHALL
PASS THROUGH IT, NEITHER SHALL IT BE INHABITED FORTY YEARS.
[Ezekiel 29:12] AND I WILL MAKE THE LAND OF EGYPT DESOLATE IN THE MIDST OF THE
COUNTRIES THAT ARE DESOLATE, AND HER CITIES AMONG THE CITIES THAT ARE LAID WASTE
SHALL BE DESOLATE FORTY YEARS: AND I WILL SCATTER THE EGYPTIANS AMONG THE
NATIONS, AND WILL DISPERSE THEM THROUGH THE COUNTRIES.
[Ezekiel 29:13] YET THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; AT THE END OF FORTY YEARS WILL I
GATHER THE EGYPTIANS FROM THE PEOPLE WHITHER THEY WERE SCATTERED:
One chronological explanation (quoted by
says that from the Babylonian Conquest of Egypt till the Persian conquest of
Babylon there elapsed forty years. Apparently the Babylonians exiled Egyptians
who returned to Egypt when the Persians took over. Even so, things are not so
clear and the commentators disagree with each other on the correct
interpretation of this point.
[Ezekiel 29:14] AND I WILL BRING AGAIN THE CAPTIVITY OF EGYPT, AND WILL CAUSE
THEM TO RETURN INTO THE LAND OF PATHROS, INTO THE LAND OF THEIR HABITATION; AND
THEY SHALL BE THERE A BASE KINGDOM.
[Ezekiel 29:15] IT SHALL BE THE BASEST OF THE KINGDOMS; NEITHER SHALL IT EXALT
ITSELF ANY MORE ABOVE THE NATIONS: FOR I WILL DIMINISH THEM, THAT THEY SHALL NO
MORE RULE OVER THE NATIONS.
Egypt since the time of the Babylonian
captivity has always usually ruled over by foreigners. The native Egyptians are
partly Coptic Christians who are persecuted by the Arab Muslim majority. Egypt
was always ruled over by foreigners up to the time of
Egypt was ruled over by a king of Albanian origin and before him by the British
and before the British by the Turks. After
came Nasser and then Sadat
(who was half-Sudanese, half-German) and now
who really is an Arab Egyptian.
[Ezekiel 29:16] AND IT SHALL BE NO MORE THE CONFIDENCE OF THE HOUSE OF ISRAEL,
WHICH BRINGETH THEIR INIQUITY TO REMEMBRANCE, WHEN THEY SHALL LOOK AFTER THEM:
BUT THEY SHALL KNOW THAT I AM THE LORD GOD.
[Ezekiel 29:17] AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE SEVEN AND TWENTIETH YEAR, IN THE
FIRST MONTH, IN THE FIRST DAY OF THE MONTH, THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO ME,
[Ezekiel 29:18] SON OF MAN, NEBUCHADREZZAR KING OF BABYLON CAUSED HIS ARMY TO
SERVE A GREAT SERVICE AGAINST TYRUS: EVERY HEAD WAS MADE BALD, AND EVERY
SHOULDER WAS PEELED: YET HAD HE NO WAGES, NOR HIS ARMY, FOR TYRUS, FOR THE
SERVICE THAT HE HAD SERVED AGAINST IT:
the Babylonian had done God"s
will and destroyed Phoenician
Tyre he would be given the
Kingdom of Egypt as a reward.
[Ezekiel 29:19] THEREFORE THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; BEHOLD, I WILL GIVE THE LAND
OF EGYPT UNTO NEBUCHADREZZAR KING OF BABYLON; AND HE SHALL TAKE HER MULTITUDE,
AND TAKE HER SPOIL, AND TAKE HER PREY; AND IT SHALL BE THE WAGES FOR HIS ARMY.
[Ezekiel 29:20] I HAVE GIVEN HIM THE LAND OF EGYPT FOR HIS LABOUR WHEREWITH HE
SERVED AGAINST IT, BECAUSE THEY WROUGHT FOR ME, SAITH THE LORD GOD.
[Ezekiel 29:21] IN THAT DAY WILL I CAUSE THE HORN OF THE HOUSE OF ISRAEL TO BUD
FORTH, AND I WILL GIVE THEE THE OPENING OF THE MOUTH IN THE MIDST OF THEM; AND
THEY SHALL KNOW THAT I AM THE LORD.
At all events we can only partly
understand this present prophecy. Egypt was an enemy of Israel at the beginning
of its existence and also throughout most of its history and it will be mostly
in the future. At the time of the Messiah, after being defeated, Egypt will
repent and be re-accepted.
<<IN THAT DAY SHALL THERE BE A HIGHWAY OUT OF EGYPT TO ASSYRIA, AND THE ASSYRIAN
SHALL COME INTO EGYPT, AND THE EGYPTIAN INTO ASSYRIA, AND THE EGYPTIANS SHALL
SERVE WITH THE ASSYRIANS.
<< IN THAT DAY SHALL ISRAEL BE THE THIRD WITH EGYPT AND WITH ASSYRIA, EVEN A
BLESSING IN THE MIDST OF THE LAND:
<<WHOM THE LORD OF HOSTS SHALL BLESS, SAYING, BLESSED BE EGYPT MY PEOPLE, AND
ASSYRIA THE WORK OF MY HANDS, AND ISRAEL MINE INHERITANCE [Isaiah 19:23-25].
[Ezekiel 30:1] THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME AGAIN UNTO ME, SAYING,
Again Ezekiel continues his prophecies
[Ezekiel 30:2] SON OF MAN, PROPHESY AND SAY, THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; HOWL YE,
WOE WORTH THE DAY
[Ezekiel 30:3] FOR THE DAY IS NEAR, EVEN THE DAY OF THE LORD IS NEAR, A CLOUDY
DAY; IT SHALL BE THE TIME OF THE HEATHEN.
[Ezekiel 30:4] AND THE SWORD SHALL COME UPON EGYPT, AND GREAT PAIN SHALL BE IN
ETHIOPIA, WHEN THE SLAIN SHALL FALL IN EGYPT, AND THEY SHALL TAKE AWAY HER
MULTITUDE, AND HER FOUNDATIONS SHALL BE BROKEN DOWN.
[Ezekiel 30:5] ETHIOPIA, AND LIBYA, AND LYDIA, AND ALL THE MINGLED PEOPLE, AND
CHUB, AND THE MEN OF THE LAND THAT IS IN LEAGUE, SHALL FALL WITH THEM BY THE
[Ezekiel 30:6] THUS SAITH THE LORD; THEY ALSO THAT UPHOLD EGYPT SHALL FALL; AND
THE PRIDE OF HER POWER SHALL COME DOWN FROM THE TOWER OF SYENE SHALL THEY FALL
IN IT BY THE SWORD, SAITH THE LORD GOD.
[Ezekiel 30:7] AND THEY SHALL BE DESOLATE IN THE MIDST OF THE COUNTRIES THAT ARE
DESOLATE, AND HER CITIES SHALL BE IN THE MIDST OF THE CITIES THAT ARE WASTED.
[Ezekiel 30:8] AND THEY SHALL KNOW THAT I AM THE LORD, WHEN I HAVE SET A FIRE IN
EGYPT, AND WHEN ALL HER HELPERS SHALL BE DESTROYED.
[Ezekiel 30:9] IN THAT DAY SHALL MESSENGERS GO FORTH FROM ME IN SHIPS TO MAKE
THE CARELESS ETHIOPIANS AFRAID, AND GREAT PAIN SHALL COME UPON THEM, AS IN THE
DAY OF EGYPT. FOR, LO, IT COMETH.
[Ezekiel 30:10] THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; I WILL ALSO MAKE THE MULTITUDE OF EGYPT
TO CEASE BY THE HAND OF NEBUCHADREZZAR KING OF BABYLON.
[Ezekiel 30:11] HE AND HIS PEOPLE WITH HIM, THE TERRIBLE OF THE NATIONS, SHALL
BE BROUGHT TO DESTROY THE LAND AND THEY SHALL DRAW THEIR SWORDS AGAINST EGYPT,
AND FILL THE LAND WITH THE SLAIN.
[Ezekiel 30:12] AND I WILL MAKE THE RIVERS DRY, AND SELL THE LAND INTO THE HAND
OF THE WICKED AND I WILL MAKE THE LAND WASTE, AND ALL THAT IS THEREIN, BY THE
HAND OF STRANGERS. I THE LORD HAVE SPOKEN IT.
[Ezekiel 30:13] THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; I WILL ALSO DESTROY THE IDOLS, AND I
WILL CAUSE THEIR IMAGES TO CEASE OUT OF NOPH; AND THERE SHALL BE NO MORE A
PRINCE OF THE LAND OF EGYPT AND I WILL PUT A FEAR IN THE LAND OF EGYPT.
[Ezekiel 30:14] AND I WILL MAKE PATHROS DESOLATE, AND WILL SET FIRE IN ZOAN, AND
WILL EXECUTE JUDGMENTS IN NO.
[Ezekiel 30:15] AND I WILL POUR MY FURY UPON SIN, THE STRENGTH OF EGYPT; AND I
WILL CUT OFF THE MULTITUDE OF NO.
[Ezekiel 30:16] AND I WILL SET FIRE IN EGYPT: SIN SHALL HAVE GREAT PAIN, AND NO
SHALL BE RENT ASUNDER, AND NOPH SHALL HAVE DISTRESSES
[Ezekiel 30:17] THE YOUNG MEN OF AVEN AND OF PIBESETH SHALL FALL BY THE SWORD:
AND THESE CITIES SHALL GO INTO CAPTIVITY.
[Ezekiel 30:18] AT TEHAPHNEHES ALSO THE DAY SHALL BE DARKENED, WHEN I SHALL
BREAK THERE THE YOKES OF EGYPT: AND THE POMP OF HER STRENGTH SHALL CEASE IN HER:
AS FOR HER, A CLOUD SHALL COVER HER, AND HER DAUGHTERS SHALL GO INTO
[Ezekiel 30:19] THUS WILL I EXECUTE JUDGMENTS IN EGYPT: AND THEY SHALL KNOW THAT
I AM THE LORD.
[Ezekiel 30:20] AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE ELEVENTH YEAR, IN THE FIRST MONTH, IN
THE SEVENTH DAY OF THE MONTH, THAT THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO ME,
[Ezekiel 30:21] SON OF MAN, I HAVE BROKEN THE ARM OF PHARAOH KING OF EGYPT; AND,
LO, IT SHALL NOT BE BOUND UP TO BE HEALED, TO PUT A ROLLER TO BIND IT, TO MAKE
IT STRONG TO HOLD THE SWORD.
[Ezekiel 30:22] THEREFORE THUS SAITH THE LORD GOD; BEHOLD, I AM AGAINST PHARAOH
KING OF EGYPT, AND WILL BREAK HIS ARMS, THE STRONG, AND THAT WHICH WAS BROKEN;
AND I WILL CAUSE THE SWORD TO FALL OUT OF HIS HAND.
[Ezekiel 30:23] AND I WILL SCATTER THE EGYPTIANS AMONG THE NATIONS, AND WILL
DISPERSE THEM THROUGH THE COUNTRIES.
[Ezekiel 30:24] AND I WILL STRENGTHEN THE ARMS OF THE KING OF BABYLON, AND PUT
MY SWORD IN HIS HAND: BUT I WILL BREAK PHARAOH'S ARMS, AND HE SHALL GROAN BEFORE
HIM WITH THE GROANINGS OF A DEADLY WOUNDED MAN.
[Ezekiel 30:25] BUT I WILL STRENGTHEN THE ARMS OF THE KING OF BABYLON, AND THE
ARMS OF PHARAOH SHALL FALL DOWN; AND THEY SHALL KNOW THAT I AM THE LORD, WHEN I
SHALL PUT MY SWORD INTO THE HAND OF THE KING OF BABYLON, AND HE SHALL STRETCH IT
OUT UPON THE LAND OF EGYPT.
[Ezekiel 30:26] AND I WILL SCATTER THE EGYPTIANS AMONG THE NATIONS, AND DISPERSE
THEM AMONG THE COUNTRIES; AND THEY SHALL KNOW THAT I AM THE LORD.
Peoples of Egypt
People of Egypt
The Copts are the modern descendants of the ancient Egyptians. The word Copt
comes from the later Greek and Arab pronunciation of the word "Egypt". The
consonants of both words are nearly identical in sound: compare
Copt is an unusual word. It describes a group of people or an ethnic group, the
language they spoke (Coptic) and their religion. The Copts are the living
descendants of the pharaohs. Many of these people converted to Christianity
during the Roman period in Egypt. The number of Copts living in Egypt has
steadily declined under Muslim rule in Egypt. The Copts make up less than 10% of
the total Egyptian population, but these numbers are debated. There are a number
of villages in Upper Egypt that remain almost entirely Coptic. While many Copts
are well educated professionals others suffer in horrible poverty. Many of the
educated Copts have left Egypt and live in English-speaking countries around the
world. There are growing populations in the United States, Canada and Australia.
There are an estimated 15 million Copts in the world today.
The history of Egypt is in part the story of her conquest and rule by foreign
people. In 641 A.D. Egypt was conquered by invading forces from Arabia. The
Arabian peninsula had recently been converted to Islam (the Moslem religion), a
religion established by Mohammed around 610 A. D. The crusading armies quickly
conquered the lands of the middle east and swept across north Africa and pushed
into Spain as well. Many who lived in these lands were forcibly converted to
Islam and the Arab people settled in these areas. Arab is a name used to
describe people from the Arabian peninsula who migrated as a result of the Arab
conquests and the spread of Islam throughout the middle east and north Africa.
Not all Arabs are Moslems. There are large numbers of Arab Christians in the
middle east as well. The Arabic language is in the Semitic language family,
making it very similar to other Semitic languages like Hebrew,
The Bedouin (Arab ethnic group)
The Bedouin are nomadic Arab people who migrate through the Egyptian deserts in
search of grazing for their livestock and water for their families. Their are a
number of Bedouin tribes that have occupied various regions of Egypt since
ancient times. These tribes are divided into clans or extended family units. The
Bedouins move from location to location in small, compact groups led by an elder
male. They live in temporary straw and twig installations or tents made of
animal skin panels that can be secured to keep the sand out or opened to let the
cooling breezes through the tent. The men dress for the harsh extremes of the
desert, wearing layered flowing robes that protect them from the sun's intense
rays and yet that allow the air to circulate through their garments keeping the
body temperature cooler. Their heads and neck are covered to shield them from
the sun and wind-blown sand and to reduce the loss of moisture. The women wear
black dresses and embroidered headdresses or bright and festive colors. Often
their faces are veiled with veils decorated with embroidered designs, shells and
coins. The Bedouin are hearty and resourceful people who live in one of the most
demanding regions of the world. They know and respect the desert. Bedouins do
not die of starvation. They live to survive. Their lives are not wasteful or
greedy and they are always open to hospitality. As they entertain strangers,
they learn of recent news and the availability of pasturelands and water in
It is common for Bedouin men and boys to be gone for many days, tending their
flocks, hunting or trading in a nearby village. The women are left behind to
tend the tent and some of the livestock. It is also not unusual for the women to
pick-up camp and move during their husbands' absence, because of some need. The
husbands will spend a number of days tracking down their families. In the event
of a divorce, the tent belongs to the woman and the livestock are taken by the
man. The women produce beautiful embroidery that are sold in markets in the
oases. A number of pressures are forcing these people to leave their ancient way
of life. They settle on the outskirts of desert villages and are eventually
absorbed into rural communities often as desert farmers.
(Mixed ethnic groups)
are the people who inhabit the rural villages that line the Nile. These people
work their small plots of land harvesting three separate crops each year. They
also often keep some low maintenance livestock like chickens and goats. The
beast of burden is a water buffalo. The
work hard to feed themselves and the huge population of Egypt. Everyone in the
family works together in the field. Women thresh the grain and carry huge loads
of alfalfa or hay on their heads and the boys drive donkey carts filled with
fresh fruit and vegetables to market. Women and small children tend booths and
sell their crops. The Fallahin
live in mudbrick
homes, sometimes covered with white plaster, bordered in light blue. The houses
are simple, often with dirt floors and no electricity or plumbing. The house is
designed to provide insulation from the cold winter nights and at the same time
circulation to cool the simple homes during the blistering summer days. Moslem
who have made their journey to Mecca, may decorate the outside of their house
with paintings illustrating the story of their pilgrimage. The local mosque and
these so-called Hajj houses, named after the Arabic word for the mandatory
pilgrimage to Mecca, have pride-of-place in a
The villages bustle with excitement on religious festivals or weddings, giving
people an excuse to leave their back-breaking labor and to enjoy the company of
family and friends. The streets of a
village are congested at these times with singing, dancing and festivities.
Women typically wear a black cover over brightly colored house clothes. Their
head is also covered with a black vale. On market day the women come to town in
bright and festive colors to buy, to sell and to meet with friends. The women
also wear silver and gold jewelry, necklaces, and bracelets on their wrists and
ankles. This is their dowry, or the price that their husband had to pay for the
right to marry the woman. Women can be divorced quickly by Islamic law. The
women keep their dowry close at hand for future security in case of a swift
divorce. The women also often have their faces tattooed, especially around the
lips, with traditional clan designs. The village is closely-knit social unit of
extended families. Many of these families have lived in the same villages since
the times of the pharaohs.
City Dwellers (Mixed ethnic groups)
The city dwellers live packed on top of each other in Cairo and Alexandria. The
cities are active all night. People live in flats or apartments in high rises.
The wealthy live in exclusive areas of town often populated by foreigners or
they live in high rises overlooking the Nile or the Mediterranean Sea. The
traffic and the pollution is always bad. Cairo has the worst pollution in the
entire world. The air pollution that a person is exposed to in a day in Cairo is
said to be equivalent to smoking six packs of cigarettes a day! Cairo is an
active city caught between the east and the west. Donkey carts and Mercedes
compete for lanes in traffic. There is a huge gap in Egypt between the wealthy
and the poor. Nowhere is this more apparent, than in large cities.
The Nubians are the people who originally lived in the southern parts of Egypt
in the area that is now known as the Sudan. The word Nubian comes from the
ancient Egyptian word for gold because this is the place where gold from the
interior of Africa made its way through these people' hands into the courts of
the pharaoh. The ancient Egyptians has interaction with the Nubians from the
earliest historical period. There is a long history of tensions in the ancient
world between Nubia
and Egypt. Nubians were assimilated into Egyptian culture and many of them
inner-married. There were later Egyptians dynasties of Nubian pharaohs who
introduced their own exotic brands of hybrid deities which were more reflective
of the animal and spiritual life of interior Africa. The Nubians are village
people, joyous in spirit and hard-working. They had their own ancient language
and their own unique cultural traits. The Nubians are darker in complexion than
the Arab or Copt and they have heavier facial features and coarser hair. The
Aswan High Dam Project displaced tens of thousands of Nubians from their land
but their culture is still alive and Nubians can be seen from Alexandria to
Cairo to Aswan and the villages that surround it.
Concrete evidence regarding Egypt's "racial" origins and those of the Middle
East (from Morocco to western Pakistan) are numerous. Bernard Lewis' Race and
Slavery in the Middle East is an excellent source for information regarding the
Near East that uses Middle Eastern sources. Egypt's origins in Western Asia are
also plentiful. Ancient Egyptian's sole descendent today is Coptic used for
liturgical purposes by the Coptic Christians of Egypt, and is similar, in some
ways, to Berber. The languages spoken in North Africa are Semitic-Hamitic
or Afro-Asiatic, but their origins are in Syria and northern Arabia and were
spread into North and East Africa later. The ancient Egyptians point towards
their origins as springing from the Red Sea (presumably Arabia) and the Berbers
of North Africa have a distinctive Caucasoid appearance and genetic tests show
that are mainly of Western Asian and European extraction. Similarly, DNA tests
upon Egyptian mummies reveal most to have been Western Asia with some being
and even Greek. The Arabs, who are so often blamed for having started Egypt's
ethnic changes, were few in number (the sparse deserts of Arabia are hardly
places for overpopulation to occur) and over time they
Egypt by making Arabic the official language without significantly altering the
ethnic composition of most Egyptians. In fact there are probably more Egyptians
of Greek ancestry than Arabian (although modern Egyptians refer to themselves as
Arabs by virtue of being Arabic speakers). Other European populations were
indeed introduced into Egypt including the
from the Caucasus and southern Russia. These were mainly slave soldiers
(although female concubines weren't uncommon). Further evidence of Egyptians
being predominantly Mediterranean and not sub-Saharan recalls the Ethiopians.
The Ethiopians speak a Semitic language that is more like Arabic or Hebrew
rather than ancient Egyptian (a point
seem to overlook) and the Ethiopians have a number of tales to describe their
origins (which are mostly black with some Semitic admixture). The story of
and the Queen of Sheba (or Saba in modern Yemen) concludes with their son
I becoming Ethiopia's first king. These tales substantiate that Afro-Asiatic
languages arose in Syria and Northern Arabia and not in some undisclosed
sub-Saharan region. The Ethiopians (like the Egyptians) claim that their
language came to them from Arabia.
Reaction To A Report That Pharoah
II Of Egypt Had Red Hair.
Different Colored Africans of One Stock!
II reigned over a people that killed red-heads on sight. It would be hard to
believe that such a society would be ruled by a red-haired god-king. A 4,000
year old mummy's hair needs to be scientifically analyzed to find out the hair
color rather than basing it on the human eye. To describe his skin as tanned (as
if it were naturally pale or white) is a misnomer. This African pharaoh of an
African people was not European or Asian but a member of what Keita called the
elongated Northeastern cluster of Africans. Nubians, Ethiopians, Somalis,
and Egyptians, among others, fall into this category. There are many variations
in hair color and texture, facial features, skin color and so on among them.
They are biologically, culturally, genetically and racially black and African.
II was a living, breathing, thinking, speaking, ancestor-worshipping African. If
his skin was "light" and hair was "red", he was nothing other than a
blackman -not auburn red in the
European sense but a dusty, pygmy, red. "(The auburn-haired Scot's hair is quite
different from this, even though, the bagpipes of Scotland have been found to
not be of Scottish origin but of Ancient Egyptian origin...hmmm.) -There are
many black people who have these physical qualities and there is nothing rare at
all about it. For those of you who live in large American
the next time you catch a cab or stop at a corner store, if your attendant
happens to be Eritrean, Somali, Ethiopian or Sudanese, take a long look at him.
II or any other ancient Pharoah
probably looked very much like him, 4,000 years ago. My, how times change!!!"
- Kevin Youngblood, Dallas, Texas, USA.