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In the 1830s, in wake of the Haskalah, a religious reform movement emerged within German Jewry that was to pave the way for Judaism to embrace modernity. In this context a new type of rabbi developed, one with a distinct modern identity. This new identity reflected changes within the Jewish world brought about by the so-called emancipation of the Jews and the Haskalah. It was due to the engagement of Southern German states in the professional training of the rabbis and new legislation that required a the emerging rabbinate to attend a secular university that connected it with the currents of the non- Jewish intellectual sphere.
As a result, this new Jewish elite had to define itself intellectually and socially as representatives of a "modern Judaism".
The role of the German rabbi thus began to change. He became a leadership figure within civil society, and his influence and image were widely visible outside his community, even conveying the community's identity. Given the influence of the Christian environment, the rabbi's professional identity was increasingly shaped by his duties as pastor and preacher. His extensive secular knowledge, usually obtained while earning a Ph.D., became a central feature. His status was closely related to the complete re- organization of rabbinical training between 1854 and 1873. This shift created new academic centers of Jewish learning that reflected the zeitgeist and were instrumental in shaping a new generation of the German rabbinate: the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau, and in Berlin the Hochschule f r die Wissenschaft des Judentums and the Orthodox Rabbinical Seminary. These schools institutionalized and professionalized a modern rabbinate that embraced the "spirit of critical reason."
With this systematic modernization of the German rabbinate, German rabbis soon became a significant emigrant group. As early as the 19th century they officiated in Denmark, Sweden, England, the USA, Italy, Russia, Galicia, and other regions. With their academic background and new thinking, they often became deeply involved in reshaping Jewish life in their new homelands, thereby restructuring Judaism and establishing a lasting intellectual and social relationship with German Jewry. This relationship often served as a link for the second large wave of emigration of German rabbis that occurred after 1933. Especially outside Europe, these refugees from Nazism did not arrive as strangers, but were often supported by individuals, congregations or seminaries with strong German-Jewish background connections abroad.
University of Munich
Cervantes also speaks of book burnings.
"What books were burned by the Inquisition??, asks Haim. "Those with references to Judaism."
In addition, in Chapter IX, and speaking in the first person, the author tells of walking through the Alcan, the old Jewish and Arab section of Toledo, where he bought some old papers from a street vendor.
Thinking that they were in Arabic, he looked for a translator and was told that they were written in "a better and older" language, a clear reference to Hebrew, says Haim.
However, the most important evidence cited by Haim is perhaps the almost literal translation of an entire page of the Talmud.
This occurs when Sancho Panza, as Governor of the Island of Barataria, passes judgment in the case of a dispute between two men over the payment of a debt. The town's people are so impressed with Sancho's wisdom that they hail him as "a new Solomon."
In 1976, during the Argentinian dictatorship, Gelman's son Marcelo and daughter-in-law Maria Claudia were kidnapped and killed. They became two of the countless "desaparecidos", the people who vanished without a trace during the military regime.
Gelman spent years tracking down a granddaughter born of that marriage and reared in adoption in neighboring Uruguay.
It is one of Argentina's most famous cases of babies being born to political dissidents, taken from their mothers and given up for adoption.
Gelman met his granddaughter Macarena for the first time in 2000. When she learned the poet was her grandfather, she changed her last name to Gelman.
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