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Thank you very much for the information Yair!
May I ask a perhaps difficult question. Is it likely that the people in East Africa that the modern African Americans descend from were of the
lower Egyptian Kingdom that took over Egypt, and enslaved the Israelites?
Thank you for any opinions or further info on this question.
|There is some confusion in the nomenclature. The name R1* seems to be applied to two different haplogroups. The name R1* we are referring is also known as R1b1* .|
Extracts from Additional Sources:|
# Paragroup R1b1* and haplogroup R1b1a (V88) are found most frequently in SW Asia and Africa. The African examples are almost entirely within R1b1a and are associated with the spread of Chadic [Ancient Egyptian linguistic family] languages. #
It is interesting that this R1b1* is closely related to the R1b1b2 (also known as R1b1bc) haplogroups that dominate Western Europe!
R1b1* exists in Egypt (ca. 2%), in the Sudan and in West-Central Africa where amongst some groups it reaches high proportions.
In addition, it has now been shown that R1b1* is also found (albeit in most cases as a minority) in ALL Bantu West African groups from which
the slaves to North America and the Carribean were taken.
Paternal traces of Bantu expansion + African R1b1 mystery
# The R1b1*-in-Africa mystery thickens. At first, these typically Eurasian chromosomes had been found in Cameroon, but they seem to be found in many populations
# A remarkable finding of our study is the substantial number of individuals belonging to haplogroup R1b1* (5.2%). Surprisingly, it has been previously observed in northern Cameroon (40%) at high frequencies (Cruciani et al. 2002), and at lower frequencies in southern Cameroon (1.12%) (Cruciani et al. 2002), Oman (1%), Egypt
(2%), Hutu from Rwanda (1%) (Luis et al. 2004). The presence of this lineage in Africa has been claimed to be a genetic signature of a possible backflow migration from west Asia into Africa (Cruciani et al. 2002). Here we observe R1b1* in 12 Bantu
agriculturalist populations (ranging from 2% to 20%) and in two Pygmy individuals. A network of R1b1* haplotypes performed using STR-data (Figure 2) shows two main clusters, without any population structure. Interestingly, the estimated expansion time for these haplotypes, 7,000 years (SD 8,100) - precedes the time at which the Bantu expansion occurred.
"I've been having a rethink about Afro Asiatic origins" by Mathilda
# Relevant to this is the R1b Y chromosome present in the Ouldeme and the Hausa, both Chadic speaking groups, one in Cameroon and one in the Sudan. The Hausa have R1b ( R-P25* (R1b1*) at about 41%, and Ouldeme at 95%. This is quite a bizarre find for groups in the middle of Africa, as R1b is typically European and West Asian. It would be a logical suggestion that the Ouldeme and Hausa are quite closely related paternally, and may point to an East to West route for Chadic speakers- suggested by Blench in the "The Westward wanderings of Cushitic Pastoralists"- although there have been suggestions the Hausa moved from West to east recently, which would make the R1b in Cameroon possibly from a north to south route across the Sahara. #
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