BAMAD no.61

 DNA and 
 Anthropology Updates 

Updates in DNA studies along with Anthropological Notes of general interest with a particular emphasis on points pertinent to the study of Ancient Israelite Ancestral Connections to Western Peoples as explained in Brit-Am studies.


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BAMAD no. 61
Brit-Am Anthropology and DNA Update
12 October 2009, 24 Tishrei 5769
1. Skull Shapes influenced by Climate especially cold climate.
2. Czech Females probably of similar origin as those of Poland, Germany, and Russia.
3. Scandinavian Population Changes Proven. European
mtDNA same as Middle East
mtDNA [female associated] Varies with Climate!
5. Actress Ami Walker Video 21 Accents
6. R1b and E1b1b1 both originated in the Middle East!
7. Could J1 and R1b be Interchangeable? DNA Doubts and Questions

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1. Skull Shapes influenced by Climate especially cold climate.
Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009 Aug 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Climate Signatures in the Morphological Differentiation of Worldwide Modern Human Populations.
Hubbe M, Hanihara T, Harvati K.

Brit-Am Summary:
Cranial morphology (head shapes) changes with climate especially cold climate.

#Our findings support the hypothesis that cranial, and especially neurocranial morphology, is phylogenetically informative, and that aspects of the face and cranium are subject to selection related to climatic factors. The Fst analysis suggest that selection to climate is largely restricted to groups living in extremely cold environments, including Northeast Asia, North America, and Northern Europe, though each of these regions appears to have arrived at their morphology through distinct adaptive pathways.#

2. Czech Females probably of similar origin as those of Poland, Germany, and Russia.

mtDNA of Czech population

Hum Biol. 2008 Dec;80(6):669-74.

Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups in the Czech population compared to other European countries.

Vidrov?V, Tesarov?M, Trefilova E, Honz? T, Magner M, Zeman J.

The results of our study reveal that the frequency of mtDNA haplogroups in the Czech population is similar to the frequencies obtained in other European countries, especially Poland, Germany, and Russia. On the contrary, significant differences in haplogroup frequency were found between the Czech and Finnish populations (haplogroups U, T, W) and populations from Bulgaria and Turkey (haplogroups H).

3. Scandinavian Population Changes Proven. European mtDNA same as Middle East

the reduction in the frequency of haplogroup I in Denmark since the Viking and Iron Age, or changes of frequency in haplogroups in England since the 11th c. AD, such as the reduction of U5a1 and the increase in H may in fact be due to selection. H was present -although not very frequent- in Neolithic farmers from Central Europe, Corded Ware people from Eulau, and its very high present-day frequency in Europeans (roughly 50%) as there is no plausible source or mechanism that would have brought large numbers of it in Europe.

argiedude says:
N1a was 25% of the farmers but today it's only 0,25%. So you think it's because of natural selection...

Then why is N1a also just 0,25% of the Middle East?

The mtdna of Europe and the Middle East includes half a dozen major haplogroups. If evolution preferred some haplogroup so as to lead to a 100-fold reduction of the original mtdna, then it would almost certainly consist of a single haplogroup, not U, H, T, J, K, etc. The mtdna distribution throughout Europe is incredibly homogenous. Why aren't there differential frequencies of certain haplogroups in the cold north or dry southwest? Different climates, different adaptive advantageous.

Europe's mtdna is virtually identical in every corner of the continent.

4. mtDNA [female associated] Varies with Climate!
Mitochondrial phylogeography
The worm in the fruit of the mitochondrial DNA tree
Despite this, there is evidence for natural selection on mtDNA in various taxa (for example, Ballard et al., 2007; Fontanillas et al., 2005; Oliveira et al., 2008), with temperature being often invoked as the likely selective force. The situation in humans is still far from clear. There have been claims based on ratios of synonymous versus non-synonymous mutations (dN/dS ratios), and to a lesser extent, the evolutionary persistence of mutations that human mtDNA may have been affected by climate (Torroni et al., 2001; Mishmar et al., 2003; Ruiz-Pesini et al., 2004). This has been refuted by other studies, which concluded that human mtDNA sequence variation has not been significantly shaped by natural selection (Elson et al., 2004; Kivisild et al., 2006; Amo and Brand, 2007; Ingman and Gyllensten, 2007).

5. Actress Ami Walker Video 21 Accents

6. R1b and E1b1b1 both originated in the Middle East!
Barbara Arredi and colleagues have studied the Y haplogroup E1b1b1b (E-M81) in North Africa. They discovered an east-west cline with genetic diversity increasing towards the Middle East. The estimates of the times to the most recent common ancestor suggest a largely Neolithic origin. So they propose that Afro-Asiatic-speaking pastoralists from the Middle East spread across North Africa.44B. Arredi et al, A predominantly neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa, American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 75, no.2 (2004), pp. 338-45.

Arredi and her colleagues proposed a comparable pattern for Europe. Once again they found a striking cline of Y-chromosomal differentiation oriented east-west. In this case the dominant haplogroup is R1b, which they suggest entered Europe during the Neolithic. Yet Y-DNA haplogroups J, E and G are more frequently proposed as Neolithic arrivals, having a strong presence in the Near East. Some R1b1* seems to have entered the Near East in time to spread to Africa with early farmers around 5,500 BC, along with subclades of E, but the R1b in Europe is mostly younger, as we shall see.45B. Arredi, E. S. Poloni and C. Tyler-Smith, The peopling of Europe, in M. Crawford (ed.), Anthropological Genetics: Theory, methods and applications (2007), pp. 391-95.

7. Could J1 and R1b be Interchangeable? DNA Doubts and Questions
The Abraham Gene

Instead of assuming that J1 was created 30,000 years ago and as a result Abraham was also living 30,000 years ago, or somewhere near, he took the information in front of him and interpreted it in a more holistic manner. It confirmed to him that Abraham was the common ancestor of both the Jews and Arabs. He visualised the elements of J1 and R1b moving together as the markers of two separate groups moved towards each other. The markers would do so by virtue of their existing ancestral pattern that would force those markers into a preordained route that would eventually force them to overlap. This convergence makes it impossible to unravel the past, except through the use of known ancestral pattern. Many of those who are now in the R1b tree have consequently been misclassified as having always been in the R1b tree. Ancestral pattern shows their origins as being in the Middle East, along with all J1s and J2s. This mapping shows the new understanding of where these groups fit and can be found at Annex 11

Other points

The first thing he decided to look at was how DNA markers are dated. At the very first turn of the page he realised that the science, which he believed was an absolute science, was not as absolute as he had expected. The problems originate from the fact that the study of genetics related to tracing family origins is only a very recent science. DNA had only become common and a mass market business in the previous ten to twenty years. Indeed the last ten years had brought so many advances in technologies applied to that art that it was difficult for even those who are interested to keep up with all the new developments and discoveries.

Then another new controversy materialised, as large numbers of the population started to take genetic tests to find their relatives. Those who embarked upon this journey were looking for close matches with others in the databases, which were held by the genetic testing companies. As a result of more and more people publishing their test results through the internet other anomalies have suddenly appeared. It was found that markers have mutated between cousins in the same family, when estimates calculated through population studies predicted that these same markers would not mutate for hundreds or even thousands of years. This evidence indicated a serious flaw in genetic dating methods and seriously discredited any dating related to population statistics that had been made in the last few years.

Others had found that mutations may possibly be created through stress or local environmental circumstances.

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