BAMAD no.60

 DNA and 
 Anthropology Updates 

Updates in DNA studies along with Anthropological Notes of general interest with a particular emphasis on points pertinent to the study of Ancient Israelite Ancestral Connections to Western Peoples as explained in Brit-Am studies.


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BAMAD no. 60
Brit-Am Anthropology and DNA Update
17 September 2009, 28 Elul 5769
1. Brit-Am and DNA.
Haplogroups I and J in Europe and Amongst Jews
3. Notes on Haplogroup I (Y-DNA) (Quoted Extracts)
4. Notes on Haplogroup J (Y-DNA) (Quoted Extracts)
5. The Jewish or
Aram Connection of I2* and I2?

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1. Brit-Am and DNA:

Note: Brit-Am says that DNA differentiation is initially determined by environment.
We also say that DNA changes may be from the simple to the more complex (as assumed in conventional DNA theory) or from the complex to the more simple as happens in all known scientifically observed permutations to date.
We suggest that changes from the complex to the more simple are much more frequent and that where changes are presumed to have occurred this must be assumed to be what has happened unless evidence exists to the contrary.
We also take cognizance of conventional DNA explanations.
Brit-Am believes that the Jews are mainly from certain Israelite Tribes while a significant proportion of inhabitants of the British Isles and some West European countries (as well as their descendants overseas) are from other Israelite Tribes, i.e. the two comprise one people as far as their ancestry is concerned.
Brit-Am bases its case on Biblical, Rabbinical, and Historical sources.
Critics of Brit-Am sometimes refer to the apparent lack of DNA evidence to affirm Brit-Am beliefs.
We do not feel a need to show how DNA confirms Brit-Am Beliefs but rather only to show that DNA findings when properly understood do not contradict them.
Actually for the females all European and Jewish mt (female) DNA is more or less interchangeable so no real problem exists but neither is there any real confirmation.
In fact the mtDNA (i.e. female ) for Western Europe is more than 50% H with some V. Both H and V derive from HV and this from pre-HV which comes from Arabia.

Most peoples in the west on the male side belong to haplogroups (i.e. DNA groups) such as R1b and I with some R1a and minority representations of the others.
Jews belong to J, Eu, others.

British Isles:
Approximations in Percentages:
Ireland   I 10 R1b 80 E3b 2
Scotland   I 12 R1a 10 R1b 75 E3b 1
Wales   I 16 R1b 84
England   I 30 R1a 10 R1b 55 E3b 2

Note: There is nothing unique about the above figures.
Similar percentages hold over most of Western and Northern Europe with R1a replacing R1b as one goes eastward.

Ashkenazi: 70% of male Y-chromosome findings that
are J (ca. 40%) or E3b (ca.30%).
30% Q and Rla & Rlb
Note Sephardic Jews similar to Ashkenazic.
Sephardic Jews have R1b (ca. 10-15% with their own haplotypes) whereas Asheknazis have ca. 20% R1a.

J is considered most specifically Semitic.
J1 more Arab, J2 more Jewish, Greek, Italian, Armenian, Kurdish, Turkish.

 2. Haplogroups I and J in Europe and Amongst Jews
Amongst common DNA haplogroups we have I and J.
I and J are almost the same and at times the experts have difficulty in deciding whether a sample is one or the other.
They may also interchange.
Nevertheless the experts have decided to differentiate the two.
I is found in Scandinavia and North Germany as well as in the British Isles mainly in former Viking areas.
I is also found in Sardinia, and Croatia and elsewhere in the Balkans.
J is found amongst Arabs, Jews (ca.30%) and Mediterranean Peoples.
As we said I and J in some respects may be considered almost the same.

In order to reconcile Jewish DNA with that of Western Europeans we must account for Eu amongst the Jews and R1b amongst the West Europeans.

We will deal with that elsewhere.

The notes below give a background to I and J and the last 2 notes indicate a possible "Jewish" (Hebraic)
connection for some branches of I.

3. Notes on Haplogroup I (Y-DNA) (Quoted Extracts)

Haplogroup I (Y-DNA)

I is the oldest
haplogroup in Europe...It is thought to have arrived from the Middle East as haplogroup IJ ....and developed into haplogroup I .. Nowadays haplogroup I accounts for 10 to 45% of the population in most of Europe. It is divided in four main subclades.

The megalithic structures (5000-1200 BCE) of Europe were built by I people.

Haplogroup I1 (formerly I1a) is the most common I subclade. It is found mostly in Scandinavia and Northern Germany, where it can represent over 35% of the population. Associated with the Norse ethnicity, it is found in all places invaded by the ancient Germanic tribes and the Vikings.

Haplogroup I2 might have originated in southeastern Europe...and developed into four main subgroups : I2a1, I2a2, I2b1 and I2b2.

I2a1 (formerly I1b2) is found chiefly among the Sardinians and the Basques, and is rarely found outside Iberia, Western France, the West coast of Italy and the Mediterranean coast of the
Maghreb. It accounts for approximately 40% of all Y-DNA haplogroups among the Sardinians.

I2a2 (formerly I1b) is typical of the
Dinaric Slavs (Croats, Serbs and Bosniaks). Its highest density is observed around ex-Yugoslavia and Moldova, but it is also common to a lower extent in Albania, Northern Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Belarus, and southwestern Russia.

I2b (formerly I1c) is associated with the pre
Celto-Germanic people of North-Western Europe, such as the megaliths builders...

I2b is found in all Western Europe, but apparently survived better the Indo-European invasions (see R1b) in northern Germany, and was reintroduced by the Germanic invasions during the late Roman period. Nowadays, I2b peaks in central and northern Germany (10-20%), the Benelux (10-15%) as well as in northern Sweden. It is also found in 3 to 10% of the inhabitants of Denmark, East England, and Northern France. It is rare in Norway, which concords with the fact that it hasn't been invaded by people from northern Germany.

There are two major
subclades : I2b1 (M223+) and I2b2 (L38/S154+), further subdivided in at least 4 subclades each, although little is known about them yet. The subclade I2b1a (M284+) occurs almost exclusively in Britain, where it seemingly developed about 3,000 years ago.


4. Notes on Haplogroup J (Y-DNA) (Quoted Extracts)
Haplogroup J (Y-DNA)


J is a Middle Eastern haplogroup, divided into the northern J2 and the southern J1. J2 is by far the most common variety in Europe.

J2 originated in northern Mesopotamia, and spread westward to Anatolia and southern Europe, and eastward to Persia and India. J2 is related to the Ancient Etruscans, (Minoan) Greeks, southern Anatolians, Phoenicians, Assyrians and Babylonians.

In Europe, J2 reaches its highest frequency in Greece (especially in Crete,
Peloponese and Thrace), southern and central Italy, southern France, and southern Spain. The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread J2 around the western and southern Mediterranean.

The world's maximum concentrations of J2a is in Crete (32% of the population). The
subclade J2a8 appears to be native to Crete. J2a also reaches high frequencies in Anatolia and the southern Caucasus. A likely place of origin is northern Mesopotamia.

Interestingly, J2a* is found as far as India and is largely confined to the upper castes. The Brahmin (priest) caste is made up almost exclusively of
haplogroups R1a1, R2, and J2a (although R1a1 makes up two thirds of the lineages). These 3 haplogroups have Bronze Age coalescence time and are thought to represent the gene flow of the Indo-Aryan invasion of the Indian subcontinent about 3,500 years ago.

J1 is a typically Semitic
haplogroup, making up most of the population of the Arabian peninsula. Its highest density is observed in Yemen (72%), which could be its native place.

A considerable part of Jewish people belong to J1 and J2, although J2 is more common. J1 is the Cohen Modal
Haplotype meaning that about three quarters of the people called Cohen, Kohen, or a variant belong to a specific J1 haplotype.
 [Brit-Am Editorial Note: Not so. On going debate as to whether the
CMH is J1 or J2 with most opinions inclining to J2. CMH is theory should be a subgroup of either J1 or J2. Instead it is found in both J1 and J2 with the specifically Jewish-Cohen version assumed to be that of J2. CMH is also found outside of J altogether!!
These findings in the hands of an expert more proficient than ourselves could well be used to cast doubts on the whole of DNA Theory as conventionally presented! ]

In the Hebrew Bible the common ancestor of all
Cohens is identified as Aaron, the brother of Moses.

5. The Jewish or Aram Connection of I2* and I2?
Haplogroups I1 is associated with Northern Europe and I2 with the south.
 I2* is close to the
breakoff point with I1 and Ken Nordvedt suggests it may be specifically
Jewish, Aramaic, or Hebraic.
Sasson Margaliot suggests all I2 may hail ultimately from Aram which he defines as
Armenia, Georgia and Turkey.

(a) Ken
Nordtvedt: I2* "ultimately connected with various diasporas of the Jews?"
From: "Ken
Nordtvedt" <>
Subject: [DNA] More
MidEast I2*
Date: Sat, 29 Aug 2009 13:45:42 -0600

Those of you in I2*
haplogroup please consider extending your haplotypes to 67 markers. Many are quite short.

It seems it will be awhile before we have any help from
snps. One person from I2* did the walk the y and no new snps were found.

Yesterday I found two additional solid
MidEast I2* haplotypes --- albeit limited in number of STR markers.

This brings represented countries to: Iran, Georgia, Armenia, Turkey, Jordan. And as well we have Mediterranean examples from Greece to Iberia; eastern Europe, as well as western Europe. Only Scandinavia is very weak in representation. There is a strong Jewish cluster. Are most all I2* ultimately connected with various diasporas of the Jews? I don't know, but it is a possibility. Evidence in the negative is that variance ages for some
clades of I2* look older than Jewish history.

One way or the other I2* seems central to the earliest post-
LGM era of haplogroup I. I hope all in this haplogroup will consider adding more STR data to their haplotypes if they are presently minimal haplotypes.


Note: I use I2* in the up-to-date tree sense of the label. A lot of people are found in databases with out-dated I2* classifications which today would have different, more downstream labels. An I2* is negative (ancestral) for M253, for P37, for M223, and is not in I2b2 as well.

(b) Sasson Margaliot: I2 from Aram?
From: Sasson Margaliot <>
Subject: Re: [DNA] More MidEast I2*
Date: Sat, 29 Aug 2009 23:10:34 +0300
References: <007a01ca28e1$4c59b2e0$6400a8c0@Ken1>
In-Reply-To: <007a01ca28e1$4c59b2e0$6400a8c0@Ken1>


Notice my identification of I2 with (ancient) historical "
Aram" - in a
posting some six months ago:

" I2
Aram (from Armenia, Georgia and Turkey) "
Adding Turkey and Jordan to the I2* list strengthen hypothesis about Middle
East origin of I2


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