BAMAD no.54

 DNA and 
 Anthropology Updates 

Updates in DNA studies along with Anthropological Notes of general interest with a particular emphasis on points pertinent to the study of Ancient Israelite Ancestral Connections to Western Peoples as explained in Brit-Am studies.


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BAMAD no. 54
Brit-Am Anthropology and DNA Update
22 June 2009, 1 Tammuz 5769
1. Armenian DNA in Early Germany??
2.Independent Amerindian
Mongolioid Phenotypical Evolution? Brit-Am Hypothesis Confirmed Yet Again?
3. Geneaologist Claims 10% Not descended from Supposed Forebears
4. Evolutionists Contradict Modern DNA Findings and REJECT Them!
5. Africans and People from the Middle East in Roman York, England
6. Indian DNA Scientists Argue for  Independent Local Origin of Indian R1a1*!!??
7. Mo-
hamer-ed Who? J1e?

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1.Armenian DNA in Early Germany??

Medieval Sources Claimed the Bavarians of Germany Came from Armenia.
Present-day DNA gives the Bavarians more or less the same DNA markers as other peoples of that area.
A recent DNA testing of 4 samples from Bavaria in the 600s CE gives 2 like that found in Armenia and 2 similar to the present general Central European ones.
4 samples is not enough to prove anything but it may indicate something.

The Brit-Am impression is that DNA changes and these findings may be consistent with the Brit-Am position.

Date: Mon, 01 Jun 2009 15:38:19 -0700 (PDT)
From: Ted Kandell <>
Subject: Re: [DNA] 2 G2a and 4 R1b from medieval Germany

The three individuals buried in the second chamber:

244D is R1b1b2,  244E is G2a DYS19=14+15 and 244F is clearly G2a3b1a.

My guess is that the first three men were either Frankish Dukes of Bavaria from the Agiolfing dynasty or related to them:
A cadet branch of the Agiolfings also ruled the Lombard Kingdom of Italy intermittently from 616-712.

We know that G2a3b1a exists in this region, or rather, further to the west in Germany. Interestingly, a close match for 244F is Brabec (Barbetz) from Bohemia, rather close to Bavaria.

It turns out that G2a duplicated DYS19=14+15 is extremely rare. Haplotype #206 from the Weale et al. (2001) study of Y the haplotypes of Armenia seems to be a match for 244E. This was found in a single Armenian from Iran. There is also one such haplotype in YHRD from Extramadura in Andalusia, Spain. Many of the Armenians in Isfahan Iran are believed to have originated in Armenian district of Julfa.

From: Dienekes Pontikos
Subject: [DNA] 2 G2a and 4 R1b from medieval Germany
The paper is free and has haplotypes of the samples

2. Independent Amerindian Mongolioid Phenotypical Evolution? Brit-Am Hypothesis Confirmed Yet Again?
Extracts below simply show that so-called Mongoloid Features of Amerindians developed independently in the Americas and were not brought with them, i.e. they are not inherited from Asian forebears even though their ancestors may have come from Asia and may have other descendants in Asia who ALSO independtly "evolved" into Mongoloid types.

Ancient mtDNA and craniometric evolution of Amerindians

This paper shows that while the mtDNA gene pool of Amerindians did not undergo substantial change since the Holocene (haplogroups B, C, D were detected in the ancient samples, all of them common today), their cranial morphology changed from a more generalized to a more Mongoloid pattern.

PLoS ONE doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005746

Discrepancy between Cranial and DNA Data of Early Americans: Implications for American Peopling
S. Ivan Perez et al.

Currently, one of the major debates about the American peopling focuses on the number of populations that originated the biological diversity found in the continent during the Holocene. The studies of craniometric variation in American human remains dating from that period have shown morphological differences between the earliest settlers of the continent and some of the later Amerindian populations. This led some investigators to suggest that these groups, known as Paleomericans and Amerindians respectively, may have arisen from two biologically different populations. On the other hand, most DNA studies performed over extant and ancient populations suggest a single migration of a population from Northeast Asia. Comparing craniometric and mtDNA data of diachronic samples from East Central Argentina dated from 8,000 to 400 years BP, we show here that even when the oldest individuals display traits attributable to Paleoamerican crania, they present the same mtDNA haplogroups as later populations with Amerindian morphology. A possible explanation for these results could be that the craniofacial differentiation was a local phenomenon resulting from random (i.e. genetic drift) and non-random factors (e.g. selection and plasticity). Local processes of morphological differentiation in America are a probable scenario if we take into consideration the rapid peopling and the great ecological diversity of this continent; nevertheless we will discuss alternative explanations as well.

3. Geneaologist Claims 10% Not descended from Supposed Forebears
From: Diana Gale Matthiesen

By "nearly 10%" I mean that nearly one person in ten of the people tested in my projects turns out to have an unexpected result, that is, a result refuting their paper trail.  It is not a "per generation" or "per family" or "per birth" rate.  Many of these individuals are as many as 10 or 15 generations from their purported paper ancestor, so there have been ample opportunities for an NPE [non-Paretnal Event] to have occurred.

If, on average, my members are ten generations from their paper ancestor and 10% of them have an NPE, then the probability of an NPE is about 1% per generation, which is the probability I've heard mentioned by others.

By my definition, an error in paper genealogy is not an NPE.  The event rises (or falls) to the level of an NPE when the paper trail appears correct, but the DNA refutes it.

I suspect NPE's are probably more common than people realize, and they're lurking among all those people without matches in their surnames.  Five years ago, I was inclined to tell people without a match in their surname to be patient and just wait until they get one.  Experience has since taught me, in such cases, to take a good hard look at their matches in other surnames.  If any rise to the level of "maybe," it's probably time to upgrade and see if the match improves or falls away.  I let some low-level matches sit for years before pushing the individuals to upgrade, only to find out their match held up at high levels.

I've yet to encounter anyone who wasn't devastated by the news of an NPE, though some take it better than others.  Just as we tell those embarking on doing their genealogy not to do so unless they can withstand finding out something they'd rather not have known, if you get DNA tested, there is a hazard that you will discover you have an NPE in your line.  It's for this reason that I recommend people keep quiet about being tested until they get their results.


4. Evolutionists Contradict DNA Findings and REJECT Them!
Humans More Related To Orangutans Than Chimps, Study Suggests
Schwartz and Grehan contend in the Journal of Biogeography that the clear physical similarities between humans and orangutans have long been overshadowed by molecular analyses that link humans to chimpanzees, but that those molecular comparisons are often flawed: There is no theory holding that molecular similarity necessarily implies an evolutionary relationship; molecular studies often exclude orangutans and focus on a limited selection of primates without an adequate "outgroup" for comparison; and molecular data that contradict the idea that genetic similarity denotes relation are often dismissed.

"They criticize molecular data where criticism is due," said Malte Ebach, a researcher at Arizona State University's International Institute for Species Exploration who also was not involved in the project but is familiar with it.

"Palaeoanthropology is based solely on morphology, and there is no scientific justification to favor DNA over morphological data. Yet the human-chimp relationship, generated by molecular data, has been accepted without any scrutiny. Grehan and Schwartz are not just suggesting an orangutan-human relationship, they're reaffirming an established scientific practice of questioning data."

5. Africans and People from the Middle East in Roman York, England
The authors used both anthroposcopy and FORDISC to assess ancestry. From the paper:
The results generated by the two different approaches for ancestral assessment were for the most part in accord. However, some individuals generated conflicting data (see Table 6). In these cases, it was the cranial vault rather than the facial characteristics that caused the discrepancy and this probably reflects a degree of intrapopulation variation, overlap, and genetic admixture (Howells, 1995). In addition, some crania showed little affinity with any of the FORDISC 3.0 reference populations (e.g., TDC472, TDC467, TDC317, and RE24, RE34, RE38) and may have originated from groups not represented in the dataset.
In the European groups, the crania showed the greatest affinity with the Northern European and American White reference samples. The diversity of the female crania from Trentholme Drive suggests a degree of heterogeneity, which contradicts Warwick?s (1962, p 110) assertion that the women from this site were indigenous. For the African groups, the crania demonstrated the greatest resemblance to the American Black reference samples of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, perhaps reflecting a similar degree of genetic admixture in these populations. Individuals with a close affinity to the Egyptian skulls were also identified at both sites, and this is perhaps not surprising considering the Roman Empire included these areas of North Africa. What is also clear is that both males and females with affinities to African groups appear in both the high status Railway site and at Trentholme Drive.

American Journal of Physical Anthropology doi:10.1002/ajpa.21104 About DOI

Migration and diversity in Roman Britain: A multidisciplinary approach to the identification of immigrants in Roman York, England
Stephany Leach et al.

Previous anthropological investigations at Trentholme Drive, in Roman York identified an unusual amount of cranial variation amongst the inhabitants, with some individuals suggested as having originated from the Middle East or North Africa. The current study investigates the validity of this assessment using modern anthropological methods to assess cranial variation in two groups: The Railway and Trentholme Drive. Strontium and oxygen isotope evidence derived from the dentition of 43 of these individuals was combined with the craniometric data to provide information on possible levels of migration and the range of homelands that may be represented. The results of the craniometric analysis indicated that the majority of the York population had European origins, but that 11% of the Trentholme Drive and 12% of The Railway study samples were likely of African decent. Oxygen analysis identified four incomers, three from areas warmer than the UK and one from a cooler or more continental climate. Although based on a relatively small sample of the overall population at York, this multidisciplinary approach made it possible to identify incomers, both men and women, from across the Empire. Evidence for possible second generation migrants was also suggested. The results confirm the presence of a heterogeneous population resident in York and highlight the diversity, rather than the uniformity, of the population in Roman Britain.

6. Indian DNA Scientists Argue for  Independent Local Origin of Indian R1a1*!!??

Human Genetics; Data from Jawaharlal Nehru University
advance knowledge in human genetics

2009 JUN
26 - ( -- "Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu
caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic
evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the
Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1*, at times associated with
a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia or Eurasia, which has
contributed to the higher castes in India," scientists in New Delhi, India

"Y-haplogroup R1a1* has a widespread
distribution and high frequency across Eurasia, Central
 Asia and the Indian subcontinent, with scanty reports of its
ancestral (R*, R1* and R1a*) and derived lineages (R1a1a, R1a1b and R1a1c). To
resolve these issues, we screened 621 Y-chromosomes (of Brahmins occupying the
upper-most caste position and schedule castes/tribals occupying the lower-most
positions) with 55 Y-chromosomal binary markers and seven Y-microsatellite
markers and compiled an extensive dataset of 2809 Y-chromosomes (681 Brahmins,
and 2128 tribals and schedule castes) for conclusions. A peculiar observation
of the highest frequency (up to 72.22%) of Y-haplogroup
R1a1* in Brahmins hinted at its presence as a founder lineage for this caste
group. Further, observation of R1a1* in different tribal population groups,
existence of Y-haplogroup R1a* in
ancestors and extended phylogenetic analyses of the pooled dataset of 530
Indians, 224 Pakistanis and 276 Central Asians and Eurasians bearing the R1a1* haplogroup supported the autochthonous
origin of R1a1 lineage in India and a tribal link to Indian Brahmins,"
wrote S. Sharma and colleagues, Jawaharlal Nehru University.

and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Human Genetics (The
Indian origin of paternal haplogroup
R1a1*substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system.
Journal of Human Genetics, 2009;54(1):47-55).

7. Mohamered Who? J1e?
DNA could illuminate Islam's lineage
DNA could illuminate Islam?s lineage
Rasha Elass
For almost 1,600 years, the title Sharif, Sayyed, or Habib has been bestowed on Muslims who have been able to trace their roots back to the Prophet Mohammed through intricate family trees, oral histories and genealogical records. But now an American DNA lab says it may have identified the DNA signature of descendants of the Prophet Mohammed, and perhaps the prospect of a direct, more accurate means of confirming or identifying such a connection.

Family Tree DNA, a genealogy and genetics-testing company in Houston, Texas, says it made the discovery after several clients, reputed by oral family histories and some supporting documentation to be descended from the Prophet Mohammed, asked to have their paternal DNA sequences mapped.

"With these various samples, we were able to identify an overlapping signature in their DNA, a common thread for all of them, which is their genetic lineage from the Prophet, if their oral tradition is accurate," said Bennett Greenspan, chief executive of Family Tree DNA, which is said to have amassed one of the largest DNA databases in the world.

The company declined to identify any of the men on the grounds of client privacy, but Mr Greenspan said "several samples came from men in different parts of the Arab world".

Genetic testing can trace the maternal or paternal line by mapping the DNA in the sex chromosome passed on by parents. The father passes on the Y chromosome to his son and the mother her X chromosome, so only male descendants can trace both their patriarchal and matriarchal lineage. Female descendants, possessing two X chromosomes, can test only their matriarchal lineage, also known as mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA.

In recent years there have been many projects attempting to identify the DNA signatures of famous people, tribes and populations that inhabit specific regions, sometimes with surprising results.

In 2003 a group of international geneticists found that eight per cent of men in what used to be the Mongolian Empire were descended from Genghis Khan. According to a ground-breaking paper in The American Journal of Human Genetics in 2003, this meant there were no fewer than 16 million descendants of the 12th-century ruler living today.

The DNA signature of Marie Antoinette is also said to have been determined, meaning anyone suspecting a genetic link to the former queen of France can confirm their royal roots by testing their mtDNA.

Such analysis can create controversy. When the DNA signature of Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, was isolated, it appeared to give credence to the theory that Jefferson, revered as one of the America?s founding fathers, had fathered a child with his slave, Sally Hemmings.

But it could not be confirmed beyond a doubt because although Eston Hemmings, the child of the slave, shared the same Y chromosomal DNA as Jefferson, he could have been the offspring of any of Jefferson's male relatives living in Virginia at the time.

The Prophet Mohammed had no surviving sons but his daughter Fatima married her paternal second cousin, Ali, producing two grandsons: Hassan and Hussein. Both have a traceable line of male descendants.

Because Ali and the Prophet Mohammed share the same grandfather, their paternal DNA is identical.

"A mechanism called qiyafah, similar to an expert witness, existed at the time of the Prophet," said Sheikh Musa Furber, a scholar in Islamic law at the Abu Dhabi-based Tabah Foundation.

"The Prophet would send the people to an expert who can look at overall physical resemblance to deduce who might be the father. Today, instead of qiyafah, we should consider DNA testing."

There are a few privately funded lineage projects in the region, such as the Arab DNA Project and the Arab J1e Y-DNA Project. The former is an online public forum with chat rooms and shared information for Arab men and women interested in their genetic lineage. The J1e project, accessible through the website of Family Tree DNA (at is more specialised. It is a forum for men whose Y chromosome belongs to the J1e haplogroup, a genetic grouping of Semitic tribes.

J1e is the genetic signature of the Hashemites, a clan to which the Prophet Mohammed belonged. The current King of Jordan, Abdullah II, is a Hashemite descendant, and one of the better-known living descendants of the Prophet Mohammed.

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