BAMAD no.44

 DNA and 
 Anthropology Updates 

Updates in DNA studies along with Anthropological Notes of general interest with a particular emphasis on points pertinent to the study of Ancient Israelite Ancestral Connections to Western Peoples as explained in Brit-Am studies.


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Brit-Am Anthropology and DNA Update
1. European Genetical Sicknesses and Interelationships:
Are Rumanians Genetically German?
2. American Ethnic Geography
3. Is the R1b of the British Isles Unique? What is L21?

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1. European Genetical Sicknesses and Interelationships:
Are Rumanians Genetically German?
Date: Fri, 21 Nov 2008 18:02:03 -0600

From: Lawrence Mayka <>
 Re: [DNA] Article: Investigation of the fine structure of
        Europeanpopulations with applications to disease association studies

The full article is here:

Table 5 is particularly interesting.  It shows where a country's samples
would be clustered if that country itself were not one of the choices.
French and British end up in Belgium; Poles end up in Russia and vice-versa.
But very surprisingly, 91.6% of the Romanian samples end up in Germany, even
though nearer choices include Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, the Czech Republic,
and Russia.  7.4% of the Romanian samples end up in Hungary, and 1.0% in

> [] On Behalf Of
> steven perkins
> European Journal of Human Genetics (2008) 16, 1413-1429;
> doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.210

Brit-Am Comment:
Disease-Association Genes in Some respects reflect Genetical Similarities in Practical Terms.
Continuing the thread of  Lawrence Mayka we find further possibilities:
Spain becomes France (.987)
France becomes mainly Belgium (.658) with Spain (.188) and UK (.134) and Germany only (.011).
UK becomes mainly Belgium (.730) with France (.233) and Germany (.020).
Norway is mainly Sweden (.823).
Sweden however is (.654) Germany and (.335) Norway.
Explanation:  Most of the genetic-transmitted problems of Norway are also found in Sweden. Sweden however AS WELL as having the DNA types found in Norway has additional types (that Norway has not) that are found in Germany.
Most types in Germany however are NOT found in Sweden.
Romania  becomes Germany (.916).
Germany becomes Czechia (.579), Belgium (.164), Sweden (.072),  Romania (.025).
Hungary becomes Slovakia (.688), and Czechia (.208)
Czechia becomes Slovakia (.598) and Hungary (.229).

2. American Ethnic Geography
A Cultural Geography of the United States and Canada

3. Is the R1b of the British Isles Unique? What is L21?
DNA e-mail forums  are dominated by professional scientists who are engaged in the field.
There are also quite few interested laymen but most of them have some scientific training together with a strong interest in the field.
Lately a lot of threads have been dominated with themes we were not at all familiar with.
There was upwards of L21, downwards of L21, L21 negative, positive, etc.
We made searches for an explanation but could not find one until we came to the URL:
House of Alexander

This brings us to a point worth knowing.
Laymen who wish to understand a little about DNA findings etc are often best advised to look at the URL of genealogists specializing in limited family groups.
These people use DNA findings. They have an audience of intelligent but untrained laymen whom they want to inform.  They have not got all the time in the world.
The result is that often these family-oriented forums give good short simple explanations for what the "experts" insist on making complicated.
L21 is a newly discovered SNP that may well distinguish most R1b haplogroups in the British Isles from those in the Continent.  Why they did not know about it until now is anybody's guess.

In simple terms:
You have R1b in general.
After that you have SNP L21.
Some R1b have L21 some do not.
All those who have it are L21 positive.
L21 precedes (i.e. is upstream) of many sub-haplogroups such as R-M222 [formerly known as R1b1c7 i.e. the NW Irish Modal (M222+, aka Ui Neill cluster)] which is therefore L21 positive.
It may be that L21 is characteristic of most R1b haplogroups originating in the British Isles.

L-21 Map
shows predominance of Ireland and Britain with some in Western France.

L21 Explained
Excerpts from:

House of Alexander

From: "Patrick Tagert" <>
To: <>
Sent: Sunday, November 16, 2008 10:35 PM
Subject: [SCOT-DNA] Recruiting for testing of new
SNP L21 which has been found at very high levels in British Isles R1b participants

As many of you may already know, a new
SNP, L21, has recently been tested by approximately one hundred participants...

This latest
SNP has had very high positive (derived) results among British Isles participants. The NW Irish Modal (M222+, aka Ui Neill cluster) is positive (derived) for this latest SNP, as are two participants who have haplotypes that match the Leinster Modal, a cluster that many suggest might be well correlated to the old Irish Laigin pedigree. Quite a high % of other participants with Welsh, English, Irish & Scottish surnames have also tested positive, but it is notable that as many English tested negative as tested positive. Half a dozen Hispanics who are R-P312+ also tested negative (ancestral) for the new SNP, while two Scandinavians & two Germans tested positive. Two participants in another cluster that is very close to the Scots Modal have tested negative (ancestral) for the new SNP, **but perhaps of interest to this discussion list, two participants who match the robust R1b Scots Modal (aka Dal Riadic signature, aka Strathclyde Briton Modal, aka Argyll Modal, aka Pict Modal) HAVE ALSO TESTED POSITIVE FOR THE NEW SNP.** There is too little data & too many possibilities at present to sort out all of the implications of the new SNP, which brings me to the point of this post.
The R1b Scots Modal has been estimated to be the most common
haplotype in Argyll, & is very well represented amongst the Highland Clans of Argyll, including Clan Gregor, Clan MacLea (Livingstone), Clan Labhran, Clan Campbell & many others.

So what are the implications?? One possibility is that it will help confirm or dispel (in conjunction with other data) some of the debates about the relationships between all the Celtic speaking peoples of the British Isles. One of great interest to this list is the history of
Dal Riada. That is very old folklore & history, & this test may help illuminate the question. Recall that M222+ is also L21+, & is now tentatively placed on the phylogenetic tree as downstream of L21. To sum, L21 is downstream of P312/S116, & M222 is downstream of L21 (P312>L21>M222). Recall as well that "Gaelic"? pedigrees suggest that Dal Riada descend from the Ui Neill, as do the Laigin (Leinster Modal ??, L21+), & you see that this could be interesting.
.....The other item I would like to point out is that many, many "
clusterles" haplotypes with British Isles surnames are testing positive as well, *but again, not all*. What that means is not entirely clear at present, but the more that test, the greater the potential for clearing it up. Best of luck to us all, Pat Tagert

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