BAMAD no.16

 DNA and 
 Anthropology Updates 

Updates in DNA studies along with Anthropological Notes of general interest with a particular emphasis on points pertinent to the study of Ancient Israelite Ancestral Connections to Western Peoples as explained in Brit-Am studies.



Brit-Am Anthropology and DNA Update
4 Shebet 5768, 11 January 2008
1. Crypto Jews and DNA
2. DNA Maps: Worldwide Distribution of
YDNA and mtDNA haplogroups
3. China experts identify drug addiction genes
4. Polynesians: A Mixture of  Melanesian Males and East Asian Females?
5. Russians as Compared with Other Europeans

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1. Crypto Jews and DNA

2. DNA Maps: Worldwide Distribution of YDNA and mtDNA haplogroups
These illustrations show the wordwide disturbution of Male (Y) and femalte (mitochondria) DNA haplogroups together with diagrams showing the interrelationships of the haplogroups to each other.
This is a very important and very useful URL.
We have mentioned it several times in the past but if you are like us you may have forgotten to take note of it and then cannot find it when needed.

A simplified explanation of the Conventional Theory of Haplogroup Expansion
with Maps:

3. China experts identify drug addiction genes
HONG KONG (Reuters) - Scientists in China have identified about 400 genes that appear to make some people more easily addicted to drugs, opening the way for more effective therapies and addiction control.

Experts believe genetic factors account for up to 60 percent of a person's vulnerability to drug addiction, with environmental factors accounting for the remainder.

The researchers focused on four addictive substances -- cocaine, opiate, alcohol and nicotine -- and mapped out five main routes, or "molecular pathways," that lead to addiction, they wrote in the journal PLoS Computational Biology.

4. Polynesians: A Mixture of  Melanesian Males and East Asian Females?
Am J Hum Genet. 2008 Jan;82(1):194-8.

Genome-wide Analysis Indicates More Asian than Melanesian Ancestry of Polynesians.

Kayser M, Lao O, Saar K, Brauer S, Wang X, N rnberg P, Trent RJ, Stoneking M.

Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus University Medical Center
Rotterdam, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nonrecombining Y chromosome (NRY) variation in the same populations are sometimes concordant but sometimes discordant. Perhaps the most dramatic example known of the latter concerns Polynesians, in which about 94% of Polynesian mtDNAs are of East Asian origin, while about 66% of Polynesian Y chromosomes are of Melanesian origin. Here we analyze on a genome-wide scale, to our knowledge for the first time, the origins of the autosomal gene pool of Polynesians by screening 377 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 47 Pacific Islanders and compare the results with those obtained from 44 Chinese and 24 individuals from Papua New Guinea. Our data indicate that on average about 79% of the Polynesian autosomal gene pool is of East Asian origin and 21% is of Melanesian origin. The genetic data thus suggest a dual origin of Polynesians with a high East Asian but also considerable Melanesian component, reflecting sex-biased admixture in Polynesian history in agreement with the Slow Boat model. More generally, these results also demonstrate that conclusions based solely on uniparental markers, which are frequently used in population history studies, may not accurately reflect the history of the autosomal gene pool of a population.

5. Russians as Compared with Other Europeans
Russian Y chromosomes
While previous work on the Y chromosomes of Russians had established the main conclusions (dominance of Y-haplogroup R1a, and a Finno-Ugrian N3 substratum), this paper adds to our understanding by examining several ethnic Russian populations and placing their variation within the larger Eurasian context.

An interesting multi-dimensional scaling plot from the paper. For each ethnic group, the large disk indicates the entire group, while the smaller figures, geographical subpopulations. This is an interesting way to present the information, and shows clearly (a) the tight clustering of Slavic populations in a large area from Poland to Russia and the Ukraine, and also the evidence of the Russification of indigenous Finno-Ugrians (populations 1-4: Mezen, Pinega, Krasnoborsk, Vologda).

Also of interest for students of Slavic origins, another recent article about which I had blogged here. Note also the distance between all Greek subpopulations, including Macedonian Greeks from the Slavic cluster which should be read as further evidence contra the Fallmerayer thesis.

The Greek, Turkish, and Italian populations are well separated from the northern and eastern European populations on the left side of the figure; Germans are intermediate between southern Europeans and Swedes who tend to the Finns; like the northern Russians, Swedes also have their own Finnish influence. Evident, also, is the differentiation between Slavs and Germans, which had been noted before.

Also of interest from the paper is the comparison of inter-ethnic variation within European ethnic groups (also evident in the Figure):
Table 3 summarizes data on Y chromosomal intraethnic variation among Russians and compares them with other ethnicities of Europe. The highest variation among subpopulations is found for Finns, Croatians, Russians, and Italians (GST value between 0.04 and 0.08); Swedes and Germans demonstrate moderate variation; other ethnic groups (Greeks, Turks, Poles, Belorussians, and Ukrainians) exhibit similar and lower level of regional variation (GST value approximately 0.01).

See also:
BAMAD Archives
DNA Refuted. The "Cohen Gene"
R1b The Western Japhet?? or not?
haplogroup I
Brit-Am DNA
Queries about Race

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