1. Evidence of Roman Battles in Northern
German Archaeologists Hail New Find
Discovery of Roman Battlefield Poses Historical Riddle
By Andrew Curry in Kalefeld, Germany
Archaeologists in Germany say they have found an ancient battlefield strewn with
Roman weapons. The find is significant because it indicates that Romans were
fighting battles in north Germany at a far later stage than previously assumed.
The wilds of Germany may not have been off-limits to Roman legions,
archaeologists announced on Monday. At a press conference in the woods near the
town of Kalefeld, about 100 kilometers south of Hanover, researchers announced
the discovery of a battlefield strewn with hundreds of Roman artifacts dating
from the 3rd century A.D.
Finding evidence of Roman fighting forces so far north is surprising, the
archaeologists say. Germany was once considered prime territory for Roman
conquest. But in A.D. 9, thousands of Roman legionaries were slaughtered in a
forest near modern-day Bremen.
"We thought that with the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, the Romans gave up on
this region and pulled back behind the limes," or frontier fortifications
further south, says Henning Hassmann, the Lower Saxony Conservation Department's
But evidence found in woods outside the small town of Kalefeld may force
historians to take a new look at the Roman presence in Germany. More than 600
artifacts, ranging from axe heads and wagon parts to coins and arrowheads, have
been found on a forested hill called the Harzhorn. So far, the artifacts
indicate that Roman soldiers fought a battle on top of the hill.
At least one arrowhead still contained enough of the original wooden shaft to
provide organic material for radiocarbon dating, which place it some time in the
3rd century A.D. Coins and other objects support the idea that the battle may
have been fought some time between 200 and 250 A.D.
There is sketchy evidence in the histories for some sort of Roman push into
German territory in the 3rd century. Historians like Herodian say the Emperor
Maximinus Thrax declared war on the Germans, but this is the first evidence he
may have actually carried out his threats. "From what sources say, he did push
into Germany," says Eric de Sena, an archaeologist at John Cabot University in
Rome. "In a way it seems to correspond with the histories."
The specialized artillery and hundreds of Roman sandal nails found atop Harzhorn
Hill is a good indication the combatants were Romans, not barbarians using Roman
weapons. Roman artifacts have been found as far north as the Baltic Sea, but
have usually been dismissed as trade goods. "Roman sandals on German feet
doesn't make sense, at least not in that amount," says Friedrich Lueth, head of
the German Archaeological Institute's Roman German Commission. "At this late
stage, it's quite surprising to see them so far north."
2. Celtic Tribes of the British Isles by
Interesting, informative, recommended Extracts:
Celtic tribes of the British Isles
Before the spread westwards of Angles, Saxons and Vikings, Britain and Ireland
were inhabited by tribes speaking Celtic languages. Who were they? Their origins
probably go back to about 2,400 BC, when the first Bell Beaker material appeared
in the British Isles. Genetically their signature is Y-DNA R1b-L21 and its
parent and subclades....The famous Geography of Claudius Ptolemy, written in
Greek c. 150 AD, provides the framework of our knowledge. It is a shaky
scaffolding by comparison with a modern atlas. Yet it was revolutionary in its
day. Ptolemy relied on the work of an earlier geographer, Marinos of Tyre, who
continually updated his work as new information became available.1J. B. Harley
and D. Woodward (eds.),
By the time the inhabitants of the British Isles were producing literature of
their own, five languages were spoken within the islands, as Bede recorded:
Latin, English, British, Irish and Pictish.5Bede, The Ecclesiastical History of
the British People, ed. J. McClure and R. Collins (1994), p. 10.
Ewan Campbell suggested that Gaelic simply remained in the Highlands and Islands
of Scotland from early times, cut off by the Grampians from linguistic
developments further south.
...as Europe moved from the Bronze to the Iron Age. A climate change added to
the woes of the Irish. More rain and less sun reduced farming in Ireland to a
grim subsistence level. There was a decline in human activity and a related
increase in wetlands and forest broadly from about 250 BC until 250 AD. The
population must have fallen. Warfare was endemic.
The tribal and place-names in Ireland listed by Ptolemy were Celtic, and many
survive in Old or Middle Irish forms. The deduced Celtic name for Ireland -
Iverio - from which its present name was derived, was known to the Greeks by the
4th century BC at least, possibly as early as the 6th century BC. The name meant
the fertile land. It was Latinised to Hiernia or Hibernia. Its people were the
Iverni. Significantly they were restricted to the south-west of Ireland by
Ptolemy's day. Here cultural continuity can be traced from the Bronze to the
Iron Age. It was the region of Ireland least affected by the incoming Hallstatt
and La Tene styles.
The La Tene Culture of the Central European Celts spread into Britain in the
late Iron Age. It arrived in North-Eastern Ireland from northern Britain around
200 BC and spread across the north of the island, north of a Dublin-Galway line.
....The Y-DNA haplogroup R1b-M222 is found in Northern Ireland, Lowland Scotland
and Northern England and may reflect the arrival of La Tene in Ireland. The
swirling La Tene style continued to develop in Ireland after the Continental
heartlands of La Tene and most of Britain were absorbed into the Roman sphere.
The Irish annals from the 6th century AD refer to British people - Cruthin or
Cruithni in Gaelic - in Ireland, particularly the north-east. ....Derived from *Qritani
or *Qriteni, which is the Goidelic/Q-Celtic version of the Britonnic/P-Celtic *Pritani
or *Priteni i.e. British. The last use of the term Cruthin in Irish annals is in
773 AD. Were these the descendants of La Tene arrivals centuries earlier? ...The
Annals of Ulster distinguish between the Cruthin and the Ulaidh, who vied for
power in Ulster....
Other terms are also used in Irish literature to denote a particular class of
people, rather than a clan. The aithechthuatha were vassal peoples, whom Philip
Rance identifies as the Attacotti who attacked Britain in the 360s AD. Deisi had
a similar meaning.18P. Rance, Attacotti, D?si and Magnus Maximus: The Case for
Irish Federates in Late Roman Britain, Britannia, vol. 32 (2001), pp. 243-270.
The Irish language was first written in a script called ogham, dating from the
4th or 5th century AD. The ogham alphabet clearly arose from familiarity with
Latin....Ogham inscriptions cluster in Munster - the home of the ancient Iverni
- and also appear in southern Wales and Cornwall.
Early Irish literature preserves a tradition of the division of Ireland into
five provinces or kingdoms..four of which are familiar from historic times:
Connachta, (Connaught), Laighin (Leinster), Mhumhain (Munster) and Ulaidh
(Ulster). ..The Irish annals record defeats of the Cruthin by the Ui Neill.
These descendants of Niall, so prominent on the map of Ireland by 800 AD, gained
their ascendancy from around the 6th century AD. .... The Black Pig's Dyke is an
intermittant linear earthwork that seems to mark the ancient boundary of Ulster.
One stretch of it in Co. Monaghan has been dated to 390-370 BC so we can guess
that the whole work was devised around that time. Surviving stretches link
natural boundary or defensive features such as rivers, lochs and bogs, creating
one long deterrent to invasion or cattle raiding.
Surnames and Y-DNA
A promising line of research arises from the fact that both Y-DNA and surnames
are handed down from father to son. Early attempts at this approach were perhaps
over-hasty in their conclusions. The Y-DNA haplogroup R1b-M222 was initially
thought to mark the descendants of Niall of the Nine Hostages. It is carried by
nearly 20% of the men in Donegal today. In early historic times this was the
territory of the northern Ui Neill, presumed descendants of the fabled
5th-century warlord. R1b-M222 is particularly common among those with some Ui
Neill surnames, such as O'Doherty, though not most of the O'Neills themselves.
It also appears among the Connachta, supposed descendants of the brothers of
Niall. However its concentration among Lowland Scots (rather than in Gaelic
Argyll) and northern English suggests that it is centuries older than
Niall.....So it is more likely to be a La Tene marker, present among the people
of north-western Ireland long before the Ui Neill established their dominance
there, unrelated to the Ui Neill elite.
Domnann: the Fir Domnann (Fir = people) appear in Irish legend as among the
invaders of Ireland. They were probably related to the Dumnonii of south-west
Britain and what is now the western Scottish Lowlands.
Volunti (Lat.), Ouolountioi (Gr.): lived south of the Darini, according to
Ptolemy. This is probably a corruption of Uluti. They appear later as the Ulaidh,
who gave their name to the province of Ulster. Their cult centre was at Emain
Macha, scene of tales in the Ulster Cycle. It is now known as Navan Fort, Co.
Armargh. A huge circular building there has been dated to 95 BC by
dendrochronology. It can be identified with the northernmost of the two Irish
places that Ptolomy names as Regia - the place of the ruler.
The climatic downturn at the Bronze to Iron Age transition naturally hit Britain
as well as Ireland, yet did less damage to agriculture in Britain. .. The
overall picture though is one of continuity....The people of the British
lowlands were in constant contact with the Continent in the Bronze and Iron
Ages. Consequently the form of Celtic spoken in Britain by Roman times was
similar to the Gaulish spoken across the Channel. The Iron Age Hallstatt Culture
developed north of the Alps from about 700 BC and spread into Lowland Britain by
600 BC. It reached as far north as the Forth-Clyde line. It was superseded by
the La Tene Culture from around 450 BC, which again spread to Britain. La Tene
metalwork styles are widely distributed in Britain and often have close
Caesar learned in 54 BC that the tribes of the interior of Britain had an oral
tradition that they were indigenous. However oral history is seldom passed down
intact for more than three generations. So Caesar's information on the more
recent arrivals is more reliable. He was told that Belgae from north-east Gaul
had settled along the coast, many retaining the same tribal names as their
brethren across the Channel. Caesar, Gallic Wars, 5.12. This is compatible with
the archaeological evidence, if we are generous in our interpretation of the
coast. From 125 BC Gallo-Belgic coins appear over the whole of south-eastern
Britain. New tribal centres appeared, similar to those in Gaul. Known as oppida,
these were large, fortified, lowland settlements. ...Caesar's comments on the
Belgae have caused confusion over their ethnicity. He describes them as
different from the Gauls in language. He says that the bulk of them descended
from tribes which long ago came across the Rhine from Germany, and refers to
some of the tribes specifically as German.50Caesar, Gallic Wars,1.1, 2.4. Yet
their recorded tribal, personal and place-names are Celtic (with very few
exceptions), both in Britain and Belgic Gaul. They seem to have spoken a
language similar to Gaulish, but even more similar to Brythonic, as one might
expect from their impact on Britain. It seems that the Belgae had pushed into
North-East Gaul from what had been Celtic-speaking lands east of the Rhine,
under pressure from the expanding Germani. Thus their ancestry was from what the
Romans called Germania, but they were Celts. They had a late La Tene Culture....
The pressure of the Germani may also explain the arrival of Belgae in Britain.
They in turn may have pushed previous inhabitants further north, or even to
Ireland. That might be the explanation occurance of Dumnonii in three places.
However it is possible for unrelated tribes to acquire the same name simply by
....northern and north-western area was Gaelic-speaking in historic times, as
indicated by the distribution of Gaelic place-names in Scotland. ...Pictish
place-names were Gaelicized, as Gaelic became the dominant language of Alba.
Conversely the Pictish place-name element *pet(t) (land-holding, portion, share)
was borrowed into Scottish Gaelic and exported to Lothian. However the
concentration of Pit- or Pet- names falls in the coastal and riverine areas
(i.e. those most suitable for agriculture) of the eastern Highlands. The
distribution of Pictish symbol-stones (6th-9th centuries AD) is remarkably
similar, though they also occur in the Western, Orkney and Shetland Isles.
The north-eastern tip of Scotland is notable for its brochs - tall, round,
stone-built, hollow-walled Iron Age tower-houses. Brochs are also found in the
Orkney and Shetland Islands, Skye and the Outer Hebrides. Brochs were often
sited close to the sea. ...In general broch-building societies appear
multi-cultural. Some probably had chiefs of distant origin, but subordinates of
more local origin. Most brochs were built between 200 BC and 100 AD and some
remained in use as late as the 6th century AD.
Scottish Lowlands and Southern Uplands, and North-East England
Votadini: Ptolemy gives the tribal name as Otadini. They lived to the east of
the Damnoni. ...he Brythonic form of the tribal name evolved into Goutodin in
early Welsh and then Gododdin. ....The kingdom was overrun by the Anglian
Kingdom of Bernicia.
Parisii: Lived near the Brigantes on Opportunum bay. ... The Arras Culture of
the Yorkshire Wolds combines La Tene
material with chariot burials, and burials within a square ditch, similar to
those of the Marne Valley, France. So we can deduce that the British tribe was
an offshoot of the Continental Parisi, who gave their name to Paris.
Dumnonii: Lived west of the Durotriges. Their towns were Voliba, Uxella, Tamara
and Isca [Exeter], where the Legion II Augusta was based. Isca was the civitas
capital, ...The Roman civitas of the Dumnonii became the Kingdom of Dumnonia
after Britain left the Roman Empire, remaining British long after the
Anglo-Saxons had taken over south-eastern Britain, which became known as
England. In the 6th century Gildas ranted at its King Constantine, the
tyrannical whelp of the unclean lioness of Damnonia, punning on the word Latin
word for damnation. A Briton himself, Gildas was convinced that the sinful
behaviour of the British had brought down the wrath of God upon them, in the
form of Germanic invaders. Gildas, The Ruin of Britain, III.28.
Belgic tribes of the East Midlands and South-eastern England
In the two centuries before the Claudian invasion of Britain, the south of the
country was subjected first to raiding and then to settlement by an earlier wave
of invaders - the Belgae of north-east Gaul - who left no history of these
events. We have to piece together the story from comments by Julius Caesar and
the clues in the ground. As noted above, Belgic tribes in Britain can be
identified archaeologically by oppida, wheel-thrown pottery and the minting of
their own coinage. ...the general picture is one of tribes vying for territory,
one ousting another, so a colony could have come and gone. The Roman invasion
put a stop to inter-tribal warfare and so froze the polities as they happened to
stand in 43 AD, except where the Romans restored lands to their allies.
Iceni or Eceni: Lived next to the Catuvellauni and were related to the town
Venta.155 Claudius Ptolemy, The Geography, II.2. The name appears on their coins
with an initial E. They were mentioned by Caesar as the Cenimagni (great Ceni).
3. After WW2 Britain Blew Up Jewish
by Andrew Roberts Info
As Jewish survivors of the Holocaust, the pitiful remnants of History's greatest
crime, tried to make their way across an often hostile Europe at the end of the
Second World War, toward at least a semblance of safety in the Holy Land, they
had no shortage of problems with which to contend, including disease and
malnutrition, Polish anti-Semitism, Soviet indifference, Allied bureaucracy, and
Arab nationalism. Now we discover that they faced yet another peril in the shape
of bombs planted on their transport ships by Britain's Secret Intelligence
Service, better known as MI6.
4. Archaeology: Brit-Am Version of
From: david meadows <firstname.lastname@example.org>
ANCIENT NEAR EAST AND EGYPT
EUROPE AND THE UK (+ Ireland)
I think we had some early hints of this in the past couple of weeks ... a
is claiming to have found a 'Caucasian Stonehenge' in southern Russia:
ASIA AND THE SOUTH PACIFIC
Using DNA to trace ancient humans' migration to Asia:
Extracts: ...Marriages between royal families were matters of alliances and balance
of power. Katharine of Aragon was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of
Spain, the nasty fanatics who expelled the Jews. At the age of three, she was
betrothed to Prince Arthur, the elder son of Henry VII of England. He became
king after a long, divisive civil war and needed to consolidate his position in
a world dominated, at the time, by Spain. In 1501, shortly before her sixteenth
birthday, Katharine married Arthur. But after less than six months he died.
Henry needed to keep the alliance alive, so Katharine was then betrothed to
Arthur's younger brother, Prince Henry. When he became king in 1509, at the age
of eighteen, he married Katharine.
Their marriage produced just one living daughter, Mary Tudor. Henry was
desperate for a male heir and he was a notorious philanderer. He wanted Anne in
his bed, officially. In a religion where divorce was not allowed, the only
option was an annulment. But as the Pope had sanctioned the marriage in the
first place he had to be the one to annul it.
Henry tried all sorts of ways of getting the Pope to agree but the Pope was
under political pressure from other quarters .... After several years of
fruitless negotiations, Henry declared religious independence. He set up the
Protestant Church of England with himself as the supreme religious head and got
his way, at the expense of not a few clergymen who remained loyal to Rome and
lost their lives. ...
Where's the Jewish angle here, particularly since they were expelled from
England in 1290 and there weren't any there officially at the time (apart from a
few itinerant Marranos, who anyway, outwardly were Christians)?
According to Leviticus 18, a man may not marry his brother's wife and if he does
they will be childless. That, thought Henry, was why he had no sons. But the
Pope had sanctioned his marriage based on the levirate marriage described in
Deuteronomy 25. In the event of a brother dying childless, his brother would
marry the widow and have children to carry on the dead brother's name. Henry
realized that where texts contradict each other, then interpretation and
tradition come into play. If the Pope was not willing to play Henry's game and
annul the marriage, he'd have to show the Pope didn?t know his Aleph from his
Bet. The obvious people to turn to were the Church scholars except they
themselves were split. So who else do you turn to but the Jews? Of course
nowadays we know the Jews can't agree on anything and certainly not on matters
of Jewish Law. But Henry hadn't spent any time in yeshivah and knew no better.
He sent his men to Italy where a Venetian rabbi, Isaac Halfon, wrote an opinion
saying that since the end of the Talmudic period, the Biblical law of Yibum,
requiring a brother to marry the widow of a childless brother, had fallen into
abeyance and only the divorce, Chalitza was used. Therefore the marriage
contacted with Arthur's widow was against Jewish law, regardless of whether it
had been consummated or not. Furthermore the same rabbi who had banned polygamy,
Rabbeinu Gershom (960-1028) and the later Rabbeinu Tam (1100 -1171) both
undisputed authorities of European Jewry, had banned the levirate marriage on
principle. More good news came from a contemporary responsum to the same effect
by Yaakov Rephael Ben Yechiel Chaim Paglione of Modena supported by other
Italian rabbis. Henry wanted the sympathetic rabbis to come to his court to
reassure him and his bishops of his case. But Jews, despite Oliver Cromwell's
support, weren't allowed back into England officially (and not without heavy
opposition) until the reign of Charles II. They couldn't or wouldn't come.
Instead Henry had to use a Jewish convert to Christianity one Marco Raphael to
come over on a generous expense account to persuade the local opponents that
Jewishly speaking Henry was in his rights. Henry incidentally acquired a copy of
the Talmud to do his own checking. Some years ago it was discovered in a British
library and returned to Jewish ownership when the Valmadonna Trust swapped it
for a copy of the Magna Carta.
The Pope knew that Sephardi Jews had other customs. Indeed, Sephardi Jews had
not been bound either by Rabbeinu Gershom or Rabbeinu Tam. They could have
several wives and divorce much more easily and they had never banned Yibum at
all. The Pope got his own rabbis to say so. Poor old 'Enery had wasted his time
and money and found himself back at square one. And that, my dears, was why he
broke with Rome, established the first Protestant Kingdom and how the reigning
monarch to this day is also the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
(If this really excites your interest (and who knows what might) read more about
it in, amongst others, David S. Katz. The Jews in the History of England
Pleased with what you have read?
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