1. Archaeology: Brit-Am Version of
ANCIENT NEAR EAST AND EGYPT
More on that Hyskos city revealed by satellite imaging:
CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA
Video/feature connected to that Maya-were-aware-of-fossils story:
If you're like most people, you'll dimly recall from your school days that the
name America has something to do with Amerigo Vespucci, a merchant and explorer
from Florence. You may also recall feeling that this is more than a little odd '
that if any European earned the 'right' to have his name attached to the New
World, surely it should have been Christopher Columbus, who crossed the Atlantic
years before Vespucci did.
But Vespucci, it turns out, had no direct role in the naming of America. He
probably died without ever having seen or heard the name. A closer look at how
the name was coined and first put on a map, in 1507, suggests that, in fact, the
person responsible was a figure almost nobody's heard of: a young Alsatian
proofreader named Matthias Ringmann.
How did a minor scholar working in the landlocked mountains of eastern France
manage to beat all explorers to the punch and give the New World its name' The
answer is more than just an obscure bit of history, because Ringmann
deliberately invested the name America with ideas that still make up important
parts of our national psyche: powerful notions of westward expansion,
self-reinvention, and even manifest destiny.
And he did it, in part, as a high-minded joke.
Matthias Ringmann was born in an Alsatian village in 1482. After studying the
classics at university he settled in the Strasbourg area, where he began to eke
out a living by proofing texts for local printers and teaching school. It was a
forgettable life, of a sort that countless others like him were leading. But
sometime in early 1505, Ringmann came across a recently published pamphlet
titled 'Mundus Novus,' and that changed everything.
The pamphlet contained a letter purportedly sent by Amerigo Vespucci a few years
earlier to his patron in Florence. Vespucci wrote that he had just completed a
voyage of western discovery and had big news to report. On the other side of the
Atlantic, he announced, he had found 'a new world.'
The phrase would stick, of course. But it didn't mean to Vespucci what it means
to us today: a new continent. Europeans of the time often used the phrase simply
to describe regions of the world they had not known about before. Another
Italian merchant had used the very same phrase, for example, to describe parts
of southern Africa recently explored by the Portuguese.Continued...
The expanding horizons began with Vespucci. In his letter, he reported sailing
west across the Atlantic, like Columbus. After making landfall, however, he had
turned south, in an attempt to sail under China and into the Indian Ocean ' and
had ended up following a coastline that took him thousands of miles almost due
south, well below the equator, into a region of the globe where most European
geographers assumed there could only be ocean.
When Ringmann read this news, he was thrilled. As a good classicist, he knew
that the poet Virgil had prophesied the existence of a vast southern land across
the ocean to the west, destined to be ruled by Rome. And he drew what he felt
was the obvious conclusion: Vespucci had reached this legendary place. He had
discovered the fourth part of the world. At last, Europe's Christians, the heirs
of ancient Rome, could begin their long-prophesied imperial expansion to the
Ringmann may well have been the first European to entertain this idea, and he
acted on it quickly. Soon he had teamed up with a local German mapmaker named
Martin Waldseemuller, and the two men printed 1,000 copies of a giant world map
designed to broadcast the news: the famous Waldseemuller map of 1507. One copy
of the map still survives, and it's recognized as one of the most important
geographical documents of all time. That's because it's the first to depict the
New World as surrounded by water; the first to suggest the existence of the
Pacific Ocean; the first to portray the world's continents and oceans roughly as
we know them today; and, of course, the first to use a strange new name:
America, which Ringmann and Waldseemuller printed in block letters across what
today we would call Brazil.
Why America? Ringmann and Waldseemuller explained their choice... '...I do not
see why anyone should rightly prevent this from being called Amerigen, ' the
land of Amerigo, as it were ' or America, after its discoverer, Americus.'
The naming-of-America passage in 'Introduction to Cosmography' is rich in
precisely the sort of word play Ringmann loved. The key to the passage is the
curious name Amerigen, which combines the name Amerigo with the Greek word gen,
or 'earth,' to create the meaning 'land of Amerigo.' But the name yields other
meanings. Gen can also mean 'born,' and the word ameros can mean 'new,'
suggesting, as many Renaissance observers had begun to hope, that the land of
Amerigo was a place where European civilization could go to be reborn ' an idea,
of course, that still resonates today. The name may also contain a play on meros,
a Greek word sometimes translated as 'place,' in which case Amerigen would
become A-meri-gen, or 'No-place-land': not a bad way to describe a previously
unnamed continent whose full extent was still uncertain.
Whatever its meanings, the name America filled a need. By the middle of the 16th
century it had caught on, and mapmakers were using it to define not only South
but North America. But Ringmann himself didn't live to see the day. By 1511 he
was complaining of weakness and shortness of breath, and before the year's end
he was dead, probably of tuberculosis. He hadn't yet reached 30.
at center of anti-Americanism?
http://clarespark.com/2010/07/01/the-new-anti-americanism/ Extract: To conclude: the nativists reacting to mass immigration in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries mentioned above were politically
defeated and marginalized. The New Left, however, though they were supposedly
anti-Stalinist, taught and still teach a view of the U.S. that is identical with
Stalinist and Nazi anti-American propaganda, for example that 'Zionists' control
America, and that 'institutional racism' still exists under its maleficent
aegis, as if a jewified, trigger-happy John Calhoun had just been elected as the
President of a slavocracy.
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