Amber is found in Lebanon and in Israel especially in the north but also in southern
Color ranges from translucent yellow to faintly translucent dark brown to
# The chemical and carbon isotopic compositions of Israeli amber are similar to
those of Baltic amber, although the infra red spectra of the two sources
differed somewhat # p.58
# a similarity was noticed also between Lebanese and Austrian amber # p.58
The levantine amber belt
A.Nissenbauma and A. Horowitz
Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
* Palynological Laboratory, Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, Tel
Aviv 69978, Israel
Received 4 March 1991;
revised 5 July 1991.
Available online 10 April 2003.
Amber, a fossil resin, is found in Early Cretaceous sanstones and fine clastics
in Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel. The term 'Levantine amber belt' is coined for
this amber-containing sediment belt. The amber occurs as small nodules of
various colors and frequently contains inclusions of macro- and microorganisms.
The Lebanese amber contains Lepidoptera and the amber from southern Israel is
rich in fungal remains. The source of the amber, based on geochemical and
palynological evidence, is assumed to be from a conifer belonging to the
Araucariaceae. The resins were produced by trees growing in a tropical near
shore environment. The amber was transported into small swamps and was preserved
there together with lignite. Later reworking of those deposits resulted in
redeposition of the amber in oxidized sandstones.
Recent scientific investigation has determined that a carved hollow lion head
vessel (circa 1340 BC) found at Qatna [near Homs in West Central Syria] was made
from amber imported from the Baltic region. This type of amber has also been
found in the Mycenae region from the same time period.
Anna J Mukherjee et al., The Qatna lion: scientific confirmation of Baltic amber
in late Bronze Age Syria, Antiquity, vol. 82, iss. 315, pp. 49, 2008
4. Multiple Linguistic Usage of Nordic
From: HARALDUR ERLENDSSON
Subject: Re: [Germanic-L] Gambar, Evor, and Aigo
My view is that the tribe names do not have one meaning but multiple.
You will have to tolerate my ignorance - I am just an amateur who likes to play
with multiple meanings of words.
Of those of you who are familiar with Icelandic Scald tradition you will know
that the old poets loved to play with multiple meanings of the words. They would
say one thing (for those who can only understand the basic meaning) but hide a
hidden meaning due to multiple meanings of the words or use of metaphors.
Perhaps this was an old Germanic way of thinking.
Just as in modern times where oil is a primary commodity necessary for the
functioning of the world economies, tin wasa primary commodity in the Bronze
Age. There were three sources of tin available to the Aegean Minoans before1840
B.C. - the tin from faraway northeastern Afghanistan, ores from the
Kestel-Goltepe mines in south-central Turkey,and the vast amounts of tin in the
west (Iberia, Brittany, and Cornwall). In about 1840 B.C. the Kestel-Goltepe
minesshut down and tin from the west became more important. The Minoans would
have totally monopolized the supply of westerntin into the eastern Mediterranean
with their navy and shipping.
Several decades after the eruption [Santorni, Greece] the Mycenaeans from
mainland Greece conquered the surviving Minoans in Crete and assumed control of
the western maritime trade networks of metals from the west. The Iberian El
Argar were incorporated andcontinued to function as an Aegean colony under the
Mycenaeans. The Motillas (forts) of the Bronze of Levante culturelike the
Motilla del Azuer in La Mancha were probably Mycenaean era defenses for a 'Tin
Road' connecting the inland tinmines of Cardenas and Madrid with their ports in
the southeast. The Mycenaean El Argar era lasted for about two hundredand fifty
years until its catastrophic collapse in about 1350 B.C.
6. Did the Tervingi Goths From Scythia
Become Thoringi Germans?
Date: Sat, 10 Sep 2011 09:17:29 +0000
Subject: [Germanic-L] Re: Tervingi - Turingi
the article by Schimpf and Theune is available on the internet:
The book by Frithjoff Sielaff is from 2001 and easily available.
I think the main papers by Heike Grahn-Hoek I have sent you some years ago. They
include the main line of argumentation.
Since then there has been a linguistic investigation by Wolfgang Haubrichs, who
rejected the idea that the name Tervingi/Teruingi could have morphed into
Grahn-Hoek replied to this by pointing out that name changes do not always
follow linguistic rules, but may represent genuine mistakes, mispellings etc.
She points out that the name Tyringi/Turingi/Tueringi is also rendered as
Torcilingi, which according to the Byzantinist Wolfram Brandes resulting from a
erraneous combination of the name Toringi with the new name Turci, by writers in
Also, the name of the Tervingi is rendered in contemporary sources as "Virtingui
and Vertingui (source RGA entry "Greutungi"), which also cannot be derived by
linguistic rules. Likewise, Paulus Diaconus renders the name Turingi in one
passage as Gugingi, which also cannot be derived by using linguistic rules.
Instead, the two closest name forms are Tervingi/Theruingi and Tyringi/Thueringi.
Grahn-Hoek points to a simple "Methathese" from "ru" to "ur" that was necessary
to move from one name to the other. In other words if you pronounce Theruiningi
10 times very quickly it will sound like Thueringi/Thyringi.
Another contribution by Matthias Springer deals with the alternative explanation
of the origin of the Thuringians, i.e. the Hermunduri. This has long been the
standard story that Hermunduri turned into Thuringians. Springer, however, shows
conclusively that this thesis is completely false and needs to be abandoned once
and for all.
The story regarding the Tervingi-Turingi theses would then go like this: After
the death of the iudex Athanaric his Tervingi sought refuge from the Huns,
according to the sources. But they did not vanish, as most scholars seem to
imply, but moved westwards north of the Danube. Other tribal groups, like Suevi,
Vandals, Alans did the same at around the same time.
One larger group led by the pagan Radagais, who may have been a successor and
possibly a relative of the staunchly pagan Athanaric turned southwards to invade
Italy. Other groups continued westwards towards Mainz to cross into Gaul. This
group was also joined by the Burgundians at the Rhine. Around that time
Athanaric decendents and members of the Burgundian royal family may have
intermarried, because later sources would claim that the Burgundian kings were
decendents of Athanaric.
The name Tervingi was last recorded around AD 395 and around the same time the
name Turingi appears, but in a context that suggests that the name was well
known already by the time. The pagan Athanaric Tervingi stayed out of Roman
focus after AD 405, probably somewhere north of Passau in modern Czechia,
Slovakia and Saxonia. They became subjects to the Huns, but used the fall of the
Hunnic empire to establish a large kingdom that reached from around Passau in
the south to far into modern middle Germany, thus incorporating Varnians,
Chattians and others.
Indeed, archaeology detected the arrival of carriers of the Sintana-de-Mures/Chernyakhovs
culture in middle Germany in the first quarter of the 5th century and even found
evidence for fighting against the Huns (Hunnic arrow heads in the bones). Edeka/Edekon
was a Thuringian according to the East Roman sources. His wife was a Scirian and
their sons Odoaker and Onulf were thus half-Thuringians. Both are at times also
addressed as Goths.
Under the name Thyringi and Thoringi, they operate along the Danube in the
second half of the 5th century. They intermarry with Ostrogothic royalty, and
are allies of the Visigoths under Euric. Their kings have East Germanic names
and their law code, which is written down much later, is related to the
Visigothic laws. The Thuringian kingdom finally falls a few years after the
death of their main ally Theorderic the Great.
Again, there is no conclusive evidence for this story, only indications and
interpretations. But the idea that the pagan Athanaric Tervingi did not simply
vanish at the end of the 4th century, but made a comeback by founding the only
Gothic kingdom outside the Roman empire is quite attractive and worth more
investigation I think.
--- In Germanic-L@yahoogroups.com, "Ingemar Nordgren" <ingemar@...> wrote:
> Hi Dirk!
> For once I totally agree with you. Thank you for the book tips.
> Are Sielfaff old and hard to find? Where is the article by Claudia Theune and
Volker Schimpf printed?
> --- In Germanic-L@yahoogroups.com, "faltin2001" <d.faltin@> wrote:
> > Hi all,
> > I'm following a bit this debate about the proposed connection between
Tervingi and Turingi. The theory that the Turingi/Tueringi are the continuation
of a group of Tervingi/Teruingi is very old and dates back to the 19th century
at least. It has received some intensive treatment in recently by the work of
> > The status is basically, that there is no conclusive evidence that one group
of Tervingi (supposedly the followers of Athanaric) that disappeared around AD
390, is the name-giving element of the Turingi, who appeared around the same
time in the historical records. However, the circumstantial indications are
quite impressive, especially when viewed together.
> > Next to the main body of evidence, which I will not discuss in this mail, I
found a few new bids of information. Thus, I found a book recently by Frithjoff
Sielfaff "Das frohe und hohe Mittelalter" were the author suggests that the
Tervingi that were once led by the Theruingorum judex Athanaric, have continued
in the Tueringi.
> > In an article by Claudia Theune and Volker Schimpf "Die Heden-Orte in
Th?ingen" (The Heden placenames in Thuringia) the authors gives some clues,
which may be entirely unrelated, but interesting nonetheless. Thus, Thuringian
dukes of the late 6th and early 7th century sometimes bore the name "Heden".
This unusual name is also given as Chedin, Ethan, Eddanan or Eidanan. The
authors suggest that this is probably the same name element as in Athana-ric,
which is also rendered as Aithana-ric.
> > Further, according to Norbert Wagner (Beitr?e zur Namesforschung 40 (2005)
the name component Athana is a mixture of Athala and (H)ermana. Hermana is of
course also a name component used by Thuringian kings, such as (H)ermanafrid.
> > If, as Grahn-Hoek argues, Radagais who invaded Italy in AD 405, was a
successor and perhaps relative of Athanaric, his name component was even more
commonly used by Thuringian kings and princes, including Radulf, Radegunde and
> > While I'm in speculative mood, there is a village in Thuringia called
Gottstedt, which is now part of the capital Erfurt, which was probably a seat of
the Thuringian kings. According to Theune and Schimpf (op. cit.) the name was
Gothestede in 1103/1104, and according to their website (http://www.gottstedt.de/)
also Gothinstete, and Gottinstedte and derives not from a personal name or a
geographic name, but from the ethnonym "Goths".
> > (The same is reportedly true for Hattstedt near Gotha, which derives from
the Chatten and Friensted/Friesenestat which derives from the Frisians). If that
is really true, and I am a bit sceptical here, it is surprising that a place
near the Thuringian royal centre would bear the name of the Goths unless of
course there is something to this link between Tueringi and Teruingi.
> > Cheers,
> > Dirk
7. Gothic Place-Names in Thuringia,
Germany, and Brit-Am Impressions.
From: faltin2001 <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: [Germanic-L] Placenames
I researched three place names in Germany, which are associated with the ancient
Thuringian kingdom, and which -at least at first glance- may show a link to the
ethnonym Goth. This is what I found:
Gotingen (larger city in southern Lower Saxony, formerly part of the Thuringian
First historical record AD 953 as "Gutingi"
The place was named after a river or steam called "Gote", which ran through the
original settlement. The name Gutingi means people at the Gote river.
Linguistically the name Gutingi and Gote is linked to the East Germanic ethnonym,
but it is certainly not derived from them or historically linked to them.
Gotha (city in Thuringia)
First historical record AD 775 as "villa Gotaha"
According to a founding legend the city was founded by Ostrogoths from Italy in
the 6th century. The earliest records of the legend date to the 16th century and
it was inscribed in 1575 on the facade of the mayoral mansion:
Gottstedt (village in Thuringia, now part of Erfurt the former royal seat of the
First recorded in 1104 as Gotenstete, Gothestete and Gothinstede
According to Schimpf and Theune "Die Heden-Orte in Thuringen", the name is
derived not from a personal name, but from the ethnonym and would -if true -
tranlate as "place of the Goths".
Again, Gotingen/Gutingi only shares the same etymoloy with the name Goths, which
can however be found in many other placenames as well.
For Gotha, the legend may have a kernel of truth, but this is impossible to
The best bet might be Gottstedt/Gotenstete as a place that may have preserved
the name of the Goths, either as a result of 6th century Gothic settlers or as a
result of a link between Thuringians and Tervingians. But this also is still
very much under debate.
A key passage in all of the above was: "Indeed, archaeology detected the
arrival of carriers of the Sintana-de-Mures/Chernyakhovs culture in middle
Germany in the first quarter of the 5th century and even found evidence for
fighting against the Huns (Hunnic arrow heads in the bones)".
The " Sintana-de-Mures/Chernyakhovs" was characteristic of the Goths. We thus
have Goths in Middle Germany in ca. 420 CE. They fight with the Huns who were
advancing westward cat that time and pushing other peoples before them.
In addition we see that the former explanation for the Thuringians (that they
merged from the Hermunduri) is no longer accepted.
The Tervingi were a branch of Goths last seen headed northwestward.
After all the linguistic give-and-take is accounted for the transposition from
Tervingi to Torvingi (Thuringian) is feasible.
Gothic place names are also found in the region.
All this may not be much but it is something.
The Goths at this stage are generally no longer considered entirely Gothic but
less than half derived from original stock.
It is now agreed that other groups took the same path from Scythia to the north
and then westward.
The Angles at one stage were associated with the Thoringians and according to
Brit-Am findings had neighbored them both in Scythia and Germany.
The movement and transformation of the Tervingi into Thoringi and the arguments
in favor of it help put the Brit-Am understanding of the migrations from Scythia
to the west in a more acceptable light.
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