1. Rabbinical Sources on the Ten Tribes
Sanhedrin Tosefta end of ch. 13 on Isaiah 27:13 (shofar assur) return of 10
Pirkei d'Rabbi Eliezer 31.
Will return after the Coming of the Messiah Son of David.
They will fly back (Isaiah 26:20 Yalkut Shimeoni on Isaiah 49:9 469 Pesikta
Most sources assume that the Ten Tribes will not still be recognizable.
One source suggests that most will have assimilated, a few will remain
recognizable and from these will increase and multiply to a great multitude.
Rabbeinu David, Talmud ha-Rambam cf. Maharal of Prague (Netzach Yisroel 34).
(a) Background: Ambri with Sigambri in
east and west. Extracts from "The Tribes":
The Sugambri also were to appear in the region of Bactria as "Sigambri" where
together with the Ambri they met Alexander the Great of Macedon.
The Sigambri and Ambri had encountered Alexander the Great east of the Caspian
in Scythia and had also been reported from besides Nysia on the Indus.
At that stage the Vandals were led by two leaders, named AMBRI and Ass. The name
"Ambri" is reminiscent of the Ambri who, with the Sicambri (Franks), encountered
Alexander the Great in Bactria (Justin Book xii;ix) and later moved to Northern
Europe whence in ca. 109-101 BCE they joined the Cimbri and Teutons in attacking
Rome. Their name is recalled in Ambrum, Imbri, and Ymbre of Scandinavia. They
were descendants of Jimna (Yimna) son of Asher.
The Teutons in Europe received renown for (together with Cimbri and Ambrones)
attacking Rome. Teutons and Ambrones were neighbors and allies from the North.
The Ambrones derived from the Ambri who, together with the Sicambri had been
reported previously in Bactria. The Sicambri were to settle in Holland, Belgium
and France and belonged to the Secem clan of Manasseh. The Teutons came from
Tahat (1- Chronicles 7:20) or from Tahan (Numbers 26:35) who were probably one
and the same. At all events they both belonged to Ephraim who was brother to
(b) Ambri also with Anglo_Saxons.
Saga Book of the Viking Society vol. 8 1913-1914, London.
A Map of Denmark 1900 Years Old by Gudmund Schutte p.59
Ombrones near Burgundians (in Poland) equal Anglo-Saxon Ambrones from south-west
of the Baltic.
Saxons often called Ambrones by their Welsh neighbours (Nennius, etc) p.81
Widsith palces Ymbre near Saxons in Germany. p.81
Imbrae in Danish isles of Fehmern.
Also Ambrum Isle west of south Jutland (Denmark).
I think that if we are to maintain the relationship between monochrome &
Bichrome wares with the Sea Peoples (Philistines'). And, that we know these
wares are not found anywhere outside
Cyprus, Cilicia, Phoenicia & Philistia then we must also resign ourselves to the
conclusion that the so-called Sea Peoples invasion was a relatively local
That is not to deny that these same 'countries' did not have exposure to, &
indulge in, trade with the Aegean, certainly they did.
There was a considerable Canaanite presence on eastern Cyprus, and in
(Classical) Cilica we have Hurrians, Luwians, and Semites a rather cosmopolitan
region. These coastal peoples had a 'borrowed' Aegean cultural influence, but to
take these apparent influences as evidence of a direct Aegean origin is I think
a false premiss.
(b) Philistine Links.
From: Jon Smyth
Subject: [ANE-2] Re: Philistine arrival & settlement'
If I may explain, I should not have mentioned Prof. Killebrew without explaining
In 2005 Prof. Killebrew wrote a synthesis of Philistine origins where four
principal theories are debated.
If I may quote what is written under the fourth theory.
"A fourth theory, specifying southeast Anatolia (especially Cilicia) and/or
Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean, has not been clearly distinguished in past
literature from the eastern Aegean theory. This theory was embraced by Gerald A.
Wainwright .... who located Caphtor in Asia Minor. Based on linguistic and
textual evidence and a comparative analysis of the material culture remains, I
propose a variation on this theory and contend that Cyprus and possibly the
surrounding regions are most likely the original point of departure of the
Philistines. This is not to detract from the obvious fact that the ultimate
inspiration of Aegean-style material culture in the east and Philistia lie in
the Aegean, albiet removed by several generations."
Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity, Killebrew, 2005, p.231.
The important issue is that the material culture is evidently drawn from local
regions, with Aegean influence certainly, but not immediate and not direct.
Ayelet Gilboa commenting on excavations at Dor makes a somewhat supportive
"..The finds at Dor, however, have not lived up to expectations, and the
'western association' of the Sikila has turned out to be elusive. Though a few
artifacts do find corollaries in Philistia, like a lion-headed cup, incised
scapulae and bimetallic knives, the broader picture is different.
At Dor, in the earliest Iron Age phases, there are no 'western' architectural
traits. The two 'domestic' units excavated are ordinary courtyard buildings of
Canaanite type. There are no western figurines, and the pottery is mostly of
Canaanite derivation. The Myc. IIIC and Philistine Bichrome phenomena, or
anything remotely similar, do not exist there".
Fragmenting the Sea Peoples Phenomenon, Gilboa, pp.209-244, in Scripta
Mediterranea Vol XXVII 2006 and XXVIII 2007.
Indications of local origins, in some cases displaying Aegean influences, but
not Aegean origins.
The Ten Tribes were exiled by the Assyrians. One of the places the Bible says
the Israelites were taken to is referred to as "Cities of the Medes".
# In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria took Samaria and carried
Israel away to Assyria, and placed them in Halah and by the Habor, the River of
Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes #
We identify the Ten Tribes in part as belonging to the confederation of
Cimmerians, Scythians, and Goths (Guti). Wew later find the Scythians and Goths
north of the Caucasus. They were neighbored by the Sarmatians with whom they
shared cultural similarities and sometimes were confused with.
The Sarmatians themselves appear to have been derived from the Medes.
It stands to reason that if the Medes had moved northward from Media so too
could the Israelites who were in the Cities of the Medes have done!
This may seem obvious but it is not superfluous.
Below are a few sources identifying the Sarmatians with Medes.
Common Origin of Croats, Serbs and Jats
By: Dr. Samar Abbas, Bhubaneshwar, India
The name Sarmatian is an Anglicization of the original Sauro Matii, the Latin
form of the Prakrit Surya Madra or Surya Mada. The name means "Solar Medes", in
English, another testimony to the worship of Surya, or Cyrus, the Asshur of
Assyria, the Ahura Mazda of the Zoroastrians, the splendid Sun-god of the Iranic
The peoples of Madai first dwelt in northwest Iran, alongside Medan, known as
the Medes. Their capital was Hagmatana (Persian) or Agbatana in Greek. They were
called Ma-da-ai, in Assyrian inscriptions and became associated and linked up
with the Medanites who invaded their territory from the west. Thus the names
Madai and Medes were used interchangeably, but the Medanites formed the ruling
After the defeat of the Scythians in 584 BC, a colony of the Medes was
established along the Don River. They thus moved north of the Black Sea and into
Scythia which is attested to by Jewish tradition which located them to the
West of Magog.
The Greeks called them the Sauro-Mat'and they spoke a Scythian tongue which
was much like that of the peoples of Persia. They were also known as Surmatai
or Syrmatai. It would appear that many Elamites, who dwelt adjacent to the
Madai in Iran, probably migrated with them into south-eastern Europe. (see
Isaiah 21:2 ).
Many ancient writers refer to them. Strabo mentions that the Matiani or
Matueni as does Herodotus and Pliny. Ammianus Marcellinus speaks of the
Sauro-matians dwellinng near the Hister (modern Danube). We also know that
the Sea of Azov was anciently known as M'tis Palus; on it's shores dwelt the
Maioti or Maiotiki.
The Sarmatian dagger and sword used by these people were exactly like that of
the Medes. Researcher, Sulimirski, maintains that
' the Sarmatians were ... closely akin to the ancient Medes, Parthians, and
While Rostovtzeff wrote that
' the Scythian kingdom - a formation almost completely Iranian, a northern
counter-part of the kingdom of Darius and Xerxes ... the Sarmatians, whose
Iranian nationality is not disputed. '
Herodotus wrote that the Medes were beginning to settle in the Ukraine even in
his time. He maintained that there was a people a people who "dress in Median
fashion" and who "claim to be colonists from Media" that "live north of Thrace
... beyond the Danube." Pliny noted that
' Next come the two mouths of the river Don, where the inhabitants are the
Sarmat' said to be descended from the Medes. 'Pliny Bk vi.v.19
Professor Lundman wrote that the peoples of Russia, today, around the Black Sea
and the Don are "perhaps ... vestiges of the descendants of the Irano-Scythian
tribes who inhabited southern Russia in ancient times."
"It was by these kings that many of the conquered peoples were removed to other
homes, and two of these became very great colonies: the one was composed of
Assyrians and was removed to the land between Paphlagonia and Pontus, and the
other was drawn from Media and planted along the Tana' (ancient name for the
River Don in Russia), its people receiving the name Sauromatae. 7 Many years
later this people became powerful and ravaged a large part of Scythia, and
destroying utterly all whom they subdued they turned most of the land into a
Diodorus Siculus Library of History. Book II, 35 60 (end)
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/ Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Diodoru s_Siculus/2B*.html
Pliny, Natural History, VI, ch 7, W. H. Jones, transl., Wm. Heinemann, London,
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